The Matsu Islands (Chinese: 馬祖列島; pinyin: Mǎzǔ Lièdǎo; Fuzhou dialect: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently, Chinese: 馬祖群島; pinyin: Mǎzǔ Qúndǎo; Fuzhou dialect: 馬祖島 Mā-cū dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County (Chinese: 連江縣; pinyin: Liánjiāng Xiàn; Fuzhou dialect: Lièng-gŏng gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China (Taiwan). It is the smallest county in the ROC free area.
Only a small area of what is historically Lienchiang County is under the control of the ROC. The People's Republic of China (PRC) administers the part of the historical county on mainland China as Lianjiang County, which claims the entire archipelago to be its Mazu Township (馬祖鄉; Mǎzǔ Xiāng; Mā-cū hiŏng). The ROC also controls two other archipelagos along the coast of Fujian, namely the Kinmen Islands and the Wuqiu Islands, which together make up Kinmen County.
Top: Magan Tianhou Temple in Nangan, Bottom left: Matsu display monument in Nangan, Bottom upper left: Lin Moniang Tomb in Mazu Temple, Bottom lower right: Dongyong Lighthouse
Coat of arms
|Country||Republic of China (Taiwan)|
|Boroughs||0 cities, 4 (4 rural) townships|
|• County Magistrate||Liu Cheng-ying (KMT)|
|• Total||29.6055 km2 (11.4307 sq mi)|
|Area rank||22 of 22|
|• Rank||22 of 22|
|• Density||440/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (National Standard Time)|
|Bird||Chinese crested tern (Sterna bernsteini)|
|Flower||Hairy bougainvillea (Bougainvillea glabra)|
|Tree||Australian laurel (Pittosporum tobira)|
The Lienchiang name is derived from the original Lianjiang County of Fujian province in Mainland China. In April 2003, the county government started considering changing the name to Matsu County to avoid confusion with the county of the same name on the mainland. Some local people opposed the name change because they felt it reflected the pro-independence viewpoint of the Democratic Progressive Party.
Mainlanders from Fujian and Zhejiang started migrating to the islands during the Yuan Dynasty. Most of the people on Matsu came from Houguan (侯官) (today Changle, Fujian). The popular net fishing industry had established the base for development of Fuao settlement and industrial development of the region over several hundred years.
Some crewmen of Zheng He temporarily stayed on the islands.
During the early Qing Dynasty, pirates gathered here and the residents left temporarily. In contrast with Taiwan and Penghu, the Matsu Islands were not ceded to the Japanese Empire via the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. Neither were they occupied by Japanese troops during World War II because they were not important militarily. Due to its strategic location for the only route for spice road, the British established the Dongyong Lighthouse in Dongyin Island in 1912 to facilitate ships navigation.
In 1911, the Qing Dynasty was toppled after the Xinhai Revolution on 10 October 1911 and the Republic of China (ROC) was established on 1 January 1912. Matsu Islands was subsequently governed under the administration of Fukien Province of the ROC. On 1 August 1927, the Nanchang Uprising broke out between the ruling Nationalist Party of China (KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) which marked the beginning of Chinese Civil War. After years of war, the CPC finally managed to take over mainland China from KMT and established the People's Republic of China (PRC) on 1 October 1949 which also covers the Lianjiang County of Fujian. The KMT subsequently retreated from mainland China to Taiwan in end of 1949.
After their retreat, the KMT retained the offshore part from the original Lianjiang County located on Matsu Islands, and also all of Kinmen County. In July 1958 the PRC began massing forces opposite the two islands and began bombarding them on 23 August, triggering the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. On 4 September 1958, the PRC announced the extension of its territorial waters by 20 kilometres (12 mi) to include the two islands. However, after talks were held between the USA and PRC in Warsaw, Poland later that month, a ceasefire was agreed and the status quo reaffirmed.
The phrase "Quemoy and Matsu" became part of American political language in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. During the debates, both candidates, Vice-President Richard Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy, pledged to use American forces if necessary to protect Taiwan from invasion by the PRC, which the United States did not recognize as a legitimate government. But the two candidates had different opinions about whether to use American forces to protect Taiwan's forward positions, Quemoy and Matsu, also. In fact, Senator Kennedy stated that these islands - as little as 9 kilometres (5.5 mi) off the coast of China and as much as 170 kilometres (106 mi) from Taiwan - were strategically indefensible and were not essential to the defense of Taiwan. On the contrary, Vice-President Nixon maintained that since Quemoy and Matsu were in the "area of freedom," they should not be surrendered to the Communists as a matter of "principle."
Self governance of the county resumed in 1992 after the normalization of the political warfare with the mainland and the abolishment of Battle Field Administration on 7 November 1992. Afterwards, the local constructions progressed tremendously. In 1999, the islands were designated under Matsu National Scenic Area Administration. In January 2001, direct cargo and passenger shipping started between Matsu and Fujian Province of the PRC. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Matsu Islands. This privilege also applies to Penghu and Kinmen as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan.
The Matsu Islands comprise 19 islands and islets, which include five major islands, which are Nangan, Dongju and Xiju (both in Juguang Township), Beigan and Dongyin. Minor islands include Liang (亮島), Gaodeng (高登), Daqiu (大坵) and Xiaoqiu (小坵), which are all belong to the Beigan Township.
Dongyin is the northernmost and Dongjyu is the southernmost.
Average annual temperature is 18.6 °C, with the average low being at 13 °C and average high at 29 °C. The daily temperature varies greatly during day and night. The region experiences subtropical maritime climate, which is influenced by monsoon and ocean currents and its geographic location. Matsu has four seasons, where during winter it is cold and wet, during summer and spring it is foggy and during autumn the weather is generally stable.
Matsu Islands is administered as Lienchiang County under the Fujian Provincial Government. Nangan Township is the county seat which houses the Lienchiang County Government and Lienchiang County Council. The county is headed by a magistrate which is elected every four years in the ROC local elections. The incumbent magistrate is Liu Cheng-ying of Kuomintang.
Lienchiang County is divided into 4 rural townships. It is further divided into 22 villages and 137 neighborhoods (鄰). Lienchiang County is the only county in Taiwan which doesn't have any city or urban township.
|Beigan Township||北竿鄉||Pei³-kan¹ Hsiang¹||Běigān Xiāng||Báe̤k-găng Hiŏng|
|Dongyin Township||東引鄉||Tung¹-yin³ Hsiang¹||Dōngyǐn Xiāng||Dĕ̤ng-īng Hiŏng|
|Juguang Township||莒光鄉||Chü³-kuang¹ Hsiang¹||Jǔguāng Xiāng||Gṳ̄-guŏng Hiŏng|
|Nangan Township||南竿鄉||Nan²-kan¹ Hsiang¹||Nángān Xiāng||Nàng-găng Hiŏng|
All townships, except Juguang, are named after the largest island in its jurisdictional area, but most townships also include other islets.
Since March 2019, the Lienchiang Cross-Strait Matters Forum started as an official forum between Lianchiang County of the Republic of China and Lianjiang County of the People's Republic of China to discuss matters regarding the two sides.
The majority of native Matsu Islands residents originated from Northern Fujian. Several of the islands of Matsu are not inhabited permanently. Some of these are garrisoned by soldiers from the Republic of China Armed Forces stationed in the county since the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949 and during the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in 1954 and 1958 respectively. Due to that high military demand, mass stationed military personnel had created unprecedented population growth in the county where the population reached its peak in 1971 with a total of 17,088 people.
After those intense period, the population decreased year after year due to the sluggish industries which created mass youth outflow due to lack of employment opportunities. In recent years, the population in the county has gradually increased back because of immigration and become stable due to the improved transportation between Taiwan Island and Matsu Islands as well as mass construction projects.
Matsu, though named after the goddess Matsu, is written with a different character that has a different tone. But the Matsu Islands are not the birthplace of the goddess as the human Lin Muoniang - Meizhou Island is — but her death place (on a seaport named after her on Nangan Island).
The Matsu Nangan Tianhou Temple (馬祖南竿天后宮), a temple dedicated to the goddess, contains the sarcophagus of Lin Muoniang. It is, however, not as popular as the Meizhou temple.
Most Taiwanese pilgrims to Meizhou start off their journey in the Matsu Islands because they are the closest ROC-controlled territory to Meizhou, which is controlled by the PRC.
Due to its geographically remote location, the manufacturing business of Matsu has never been fully developed. Among them, the wine making industry of Matsu Distillery is the most distinguished feature. Tourism and service businesses are still not prominent.
However, most of its commercial tradings focus on retail businesses and restaurants for stationed military consumption. Farm products of Matsu include rice, sugar cane, tea plant, orange. Sea animals, such as fish, clams, and jellyfish, are also popular exports due to its nature as the major traditional industry in Matsu. However, the flourish of fishing ground is almost exhausted by arbitrary fish bombing by Mainland China fishing boats, while the population of fishes is decreasing as well.
In July 2012, Matsu residents voted in favor for the establishment of casinos, which led the path of the prospect gaming industries in the county and the passing on of Gaming Act (Chinese: 觀光賭場管理條例).
The islands are powered up by their fuel-fired (diesel) Zhushan Power Plant located in Cingshuei Village of Nangan Township with a capacity of 15.4 MW commissioned on 22 March 2010. The other power plant is Xiju Power Plant in Xiju Island of Juguang Township.
Generally, the environment of Matsu Islands is still good. The major source of pollution is from family and military households waste. There are however concerns that the continued lack of modern sewage facilities results in household waste seeping into groundwater.
Nangan is the capital of Matsu and it is noted for its granite tunnel and the Iron Fort. It has two interconnected main roads.
The Beihai Tunnels are manmade granite tunnels. Both tunnels were remarkable for their time, and they took great effort to construct. The tunnel in Nangan was built in 1968. The completion of Beihai Tunnel took the effort of thousands of men. The 700 metre tunnel has a width of 10 metres and a height of 16 metres. It was completed in 820 days with shovels, spades and explosives; the tunnel also took the life of a platoon of soldiers. The tunnel was considered a military location and was not opened to the public until 1990.
The Iron Fort is located on the Southwest side of Nangan island. Located by a small cliff, it is a vulnerable spot for outside attacks or illegal smuggling of materials. With that in mind, the fort was built for defence. It is equipped with multiple machinegun rooms and rudimentary living facilities. It is now open to the public, and although most of the equipment has been removed from the site, the site itself brings back a vivid image of what it was like for soldiers at that time.
Since 1990, the county controls the Matsu Islands Bird Sanctuary, which spreads across eight islands and islets in Nangan, Beigan and Tongyin Townships. It contains 30 species in 15 orders, mostly gulls and terns. In 2000, four pairs of the critically endangered Chinese crested tern, previously thought to be extinct, were discovered nesting on the Matsu Islands, giving them global conservation importance.
Cetacean species that have become rare along Chinese coasts are still present here such as false killer whales and finless porpoises, providing opportunistic observations at times. Finless porpoises in this areas are generally smaller than other subspecies, and it is unique that two subspecies inhabit in this region where Matsu region is the northern limit for one of these.
Both Nangan and Beigan have airports which are the Matsu Nangan Airport and Matsu Beigan Airport respectively. Dongyin and Juguang (in Xiju Island) house heliports which only operates during winter time and priority is given to local residents to travel to Nangan.
Due to the fact that the main airport is located in Nangan, boats are the main form of transportation between the islands in the county.
There are two ferry rides to Mainland China. One arrives at Mawei District of Fuzhou and departs from Fuao Harbor at Nangan Township in which the journey normally takes 90 minutes while in Nangan. Another arrives at Huangqi (黄岐镇) of Lianjiang and departs from Beigan Township in which the journey takes only 20 minutes.
Due to their size, travelling by motorized scooter is an ideal way to get around the main islands such as Nangan and Beigan. Both Islands have regular buses and taxis are also economical.
Beigan Township (Chinese: 北竿鄉; pinyin: Běigān Xiāng; Báe̤k-găng-hiŏng), is one of the five major islands of the Matsu Islands, is officially administrated as Lienchiang County by the Taiwan (ROC). Beigan Township refers to the administrative subdivision that also includes the major island, Beigan island, as well as other smaller islands of Matsu such as Gao-dan island (高登島), Lian island (亮島). This township served as one of the Three Links to mainland China before direct links between Taiwan and the PRC were reestablished.Chinese crested tern
The Chinese crested tern (Thalasseus bernsteini) is a tern in the family Laridae, closely related to the Sandwich tern, T. sandvicensis, and the lesser crested tern, T. bengalensis. It is most similar to the former, differing only in the bill pattern, which is the reverse of the Sandwich tern's, being yellow with a black tip. From the lesser crested tern, which it overlaps in wintering distribution, it can be told by the white rump and paler grey mantle, as well as the black tip to the bill, which seen from up close also has a white point. The larger greater crested tern is also similar, differing in its stouter, all-yellow bill and darker grey mantle and rump, as well as in size.
It is a critically endangered species, previously thought extinct, with a mere four pairs rediscovered in 2000, nesting in a greater crested tern colony on an islet in the Matsu Islands (territory governed by Taiwan), just off the coast of Fujian Province, China, and wintering south to the Philippines. In the past, it had a wider distribution off the Chinese east coast north to Shandong Province. The decline is thought to be due to past hunting and egg collection for food. Past protection of this colony may be because of the islands' disputed status, administered by Taiwanese government (as part of Fujian Province of the ROC) but claimed by mainland China, the military sensitivity of the area restricting access. The islet has now been declared a wildlife sanctuary. It is possible that other small colonies may yet be found off the Chinese and Taiwanese coasts; migrant birds have been seen near the mouth of the Pachang River. The total population is speculated to be less than 50 birds.
In 2016, for the first time, Chinese crested terns were found breeding in South Korea. Setting up a new colony in such a faraway area would prove a boon for the species.The species is therefore the county bird of Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands).Fujian Province, Republic of China
Fujian ([fǔ.tɕjɛ̂n] (listen); Hokkien POJ: Hok-kiàn; Fuzhou BUC: Hók-gióng; Pu-Xian Min BUC: Ho̤h-ge̤̍ng; formerly romanized as Fukien or Fuchien) is a streamlined province of the Republic of China. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County.,The current Fujian Province under ROC control was once part of a larger Fujian Province, which consisted of a mainland portion and some islands. After the Chinese Civil War of 1949, the majority of the historical province became Fujian, People's Republic of China, while the remaining islands remained under ROC control, which compose 0.5% of the ROC's territories.Gambling in Taiwan
Gambling in Taiwan is prohibited by the Criminal Code of the Republic of China. State-run lotteries, like the Uniform Invoice lottery, are the only legal form of gambling on mainland Taiwan. The construction of casinos on some off-shore islands was legalised in 2009, though to date none have been built. Some gambling-style games (like cards and mahjong) are allowed on special days or under special restricted circumstances.Juguang, Lienchiang
Juguang Township (Chinese: 莒光鄉; pinyin: Jǔguāng Xiāng; Wade–Giles: Chü³-kuang²; Foochow Romanized: Gṳ̄-guŏng-hiŏng), also spelled Chukuang, is a rural township of Lienchiang County, Republic of China. Juguang Township includes two major Matsu islands -- Dongju Island (東莒 "East Ju"; Dĕ̤ng-gṳ̄) and Xiju Island (西莒 "West Ju"; Să̤-gṳ̄) -- and some islets. Neither Dongju nor Xiju has an island-wide administrative level.Lianjiang County
Lianjiang (simplified Chinese: 连江; traditional Chinese: 連江; pinyin: Liánjiāng; Wade–Giles: Lien²-chiang¹; BUC: Lièng-gŏng) is a suburban county of Fuzhou on the eastern coast of Fujian province, People's Republic of China. Most of the county is controlled by the People's Republic of China (PRC), while a number of outlying islands, collectively referred to as the Matsu Islands, are administered as a separate Lienchiang County (same Chinese name but in Wade–Giles romanization) by the Republic of China (ROC), based in Taiwan since 1949. As a result, the county has two governments governing separate jurisdictions.
See Matsu Islands for a description of ROC-governed Lienchiang County.Lienchiang County Constituency
Lienchiang County is represented in the Legislative Yuan since 2008 by one at-large single-member constituency (Lienchiang County Constituency, Chinese: 連江縣選舉區; pinyin: Liánjiāng Xiàn Xuǎnjǔ Qū).Lienchiang County Council
The Lienchiang County Council (MTCC; Chinese: 連江縣議會; pinyin: Liánjiāng Xiàn Yìhuì) is the elected county council of Lienchiang County, Republic of China. The council composes of nine councilors lastly elected through the 2018 Republic of China local election on 24 November 2018. It has the fewest seats among all councils in Taiwan.Lienchiang County Government
The Lienchiang County Government (Chinese: 連江縣政府; pinyin: Liánjiāng Xiàn Zhèngfǔ) is the local government of the Republic of China that governs Lienchiang County.Lienchiang Cross-Strait Matters Forum
The Lienchiang Cross-Strait Matters Forum (simplified Chinese: 连江县两岸事务座谈会; traditional Chinese: 連江縣兩岸事務座談會; pinyin: Liánjiāng Xiàn Liǎng'àn Shìwù Zuòtán Huì) is a forum between Lienchiang County of the Republic of China (ROC) and Lianjiang County of the People's Republic of China (PRC) which started in 2019.List of islands of Taiwan
This is a list of islands of Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), classified into various island groups. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is the largest island and the main component of whole ROC governing territories. Islands that are claimed by the ROC but not administered, such as the Senkaku Islands and most of South China Sea Islands, are excluded from the list.
After the amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1990s, the islands on this list collectively form the term of "Taiwan Area" (or ROC "free area"), which legally define the area effectively under the ROC government's control.Matsu
Matsu may refer to:
Mazu, or Matsu, a sea goddess in Chinese folk religion
Matsu Islands, off Fujian coast, administered by Taiwan
Matsu Beigan Airport
Matsushima (Matsu Islands), in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan
Japanese ship Matsu, several ships
Matsu (Sekirei), a character in the Sekirei manga and anime
Japanese pine (まつ, 松), matsu in JapaneseMatsu Beigan Airport
Matsu Beigan Airport (Chinese: 馬祖北竿機場; pinyin: Mǎzǔ Běigān Jīchǎng) (IATA: MFK, ICAO: RCMT) is one of the airports in Matsu Islands, Lienchiang County, Fukien Province, Taiwan (ROC). It also serves as a heliport and located on Beigan Island. It is served by Uni Air ATR 72-600 (立榮航空) with scheduled flights to Taipei Songshan Airport.Matsu Daily
Matsu Daily (Chinese: 馬祖日報; pinyin: Mǎzǔ Rìbào; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Má-chó͘-ji̍t-pò) is a newspaper owned by the government of the Lienchiang County, Fujian Province, Republic of China, an East Asian country which is commonly known by its largest island Taiwan.
It was founded as Tengpu Daily (登步報 Pinyin: Dēngbù Bào), a newspaper published to the military on Tengpu Island, to commemorate the victory of Tengpu Battle. Following the later retreat to Matsu, the newspaper continued to be published. Matsu Daily started to be published on 3 September 1957.
The ownership of the newspaper was transferred from the military to the county government in 1992. The online version was launched in 1999.Matsu Nangan Airport
Matsu Nangan Airport (Chinese: 馬祖南竿機場; pinyin: Mǎzǔ Nángān Jīchǎng) (IATA: LZN, ICAO: RCFG) is one of the airports in Matsu Islands, Lienchiang County, Fukien Province, Taiwan (ROC). It is located on the Nangan Island, near the Jieshou Village. It also serves as a heliport. As Uni Air is the only carrier serving the airport, the facility can only handle turboprop planes like the ATR 72-600.Matsu dialect
Matsu dialect (Eastern Min: Mā-cū-huâ / 馬祖話) is the local dialect of Matsu Islands, Taiwan. Native speakers also call it Bàng-huâ (平話), meaning the language spoken in everyday life. It is recognised one of the statutory languages for public transport announcements in Lienchiang County, ROC.It is a subdialect of Fuzhou dialect, Eastern Min. Matsu dialect is quite similar to Changle dialect, another subdialect of Fuzhou dialect.Nangan, Lienchiang
Nangan Township (Chinese: 南竿鄉) is a rural township in the Matsu Islands and the county seat of Lienchiang County, Taiwan.Nangan was also known Nangantang (南竿塘; Nàng-găng-dòng) and Shanggantang (上竿塘). And because Lin Moniang's (who later became the goddess Matsu) corpse was washed ashore here, Nangan was also known as Matsu Island (馬祖島; Mā-cū-dō̤).
There is an airport in Nangan. The highest point is Yuntai Mountain (雲台山), at 248 m (814 ft) above sea level.Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). In this conflict, the PRC shelled the islands of Kinmen and the Matsu Islands along the east coast of mainland China (in the Taiwan Strait) to "liberate" Taiwan from the Chinese Nationalist Party, also known as the Kuomintang (KMT); and to probe the extent of the United States defense of Taiwan's territory.Zhushan Power Plant
The Zhushan Power Plant (Chinese: 珠山發電廠; pinyin: Zhūshān Fādiànchǎng) is a (diesel) fuel-fired power plant in Cingshuei Village, Nangan Township, Matsu Islands, Taiwan. It is the only power plant in the Matsu islands.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Mǎzǔ Lièdǎo|
|Gwoyeu Romatzyh||Maatzuu Liehdao|
|Tongyong Pinyin||Mǎzǔ Lièdǎo|
|Yale Romanization||Mǎdzǔ Lyèdǎu|
|Hokkien POJ||Má-chó͘ Lia̍t-tó|
|Fuzhou BUC||Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Liánjiāng Xiàn|
|Bopomofo||ㄌㄧㄢˊ ㄐㄧㄤ ㄒㄧㄢˋ|
|Gwoyeu Romatzyh||Lianjiang Shiann|
|Tongyong Pinyin||Liánjiang Siàn|
|Yale Romanization||Lyánjyāng Syàn|
|Fuzhou BUC||Lièng-gŏng gâing|
|Special municipalities (6)|
Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia