Master of novices

In the Roman Catholic Church, the master of novices or novice master is someone who is committed the training of the novices and the government of the novitiate of a religious institute.


His duty is to see that the time devoted to the period of the novitiate be passed in prayer, meditation, and the development of character through a study of the "Life of Christ" and of the saints, church history, and the vows and the constitution of his institute. Within the time of this probation, he must make a report about each novice to the proper authorities regarding these matters. For this purpose, he is to be free from all other duties and offices.

Strictly speaking, he is not a religious superior according to the definition of Canon law although he has the same rights and duties over the novices as a religious superior has over his subjects. Canon law has prescribed that he must be at least 35 years of age, have been ten years a religious from his first profession and be eminent in prudence, charity, piety, and in the observance of the rules and regulations of his religious society.

If this society is one in which a great many of its members may be raised to the priesthood (within a clerical institute), the master of novices must be priest. The female version of the term is called 'Mistress of Novices'.

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Alexis Lépicier

Alexis-Henri-Marie Lépicier OSM (28 February 1863, Vaucouleurs, Meuse – 20 May 1936) was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who was Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for Religious.

Lépicier was born in Vaucouleurs, France. He joined the Order of Servants of Mary on 1 March 1878 in London. He attended the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice Paris and the Pontifical Urban University "De Propaganda Fide" in Rome. He was ordained to the priesthood on 19 September 1885 in London. He served as Master of novices from 1890 until 1892 and was a faculty member of Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," from 1892 until 1913. He served as Rector of the Servite College, Rome from 1895 until 1913 and was General Procurator of his order in 1901. He was appointed Apostolic visitor and delegate to Scotland by Pope Pius X and was in Scotland from 1912-1913.

Alonso Rodriguez

For other people with this name, see Rodriguez (surname)

Alphonsus (Alonso) Rodriguez (not to be confused with St. Alphonsus Rodriguez), born in 1538 at Valladolid, Spain, and died 21 February 1616 at Seville, was a Spanish Jesuit priest and spiritual writer of renown. His writings, a single book, underline much the ascetical dimension of religious life.

Aloysius Masnata

Aloysius Masnata, (S.J.) (May 2, 1823 – November 18, 1886) was the 5th president of Santa Clara University, California, United States. He was a Genoese priest. At the age of seventeen he was admitted into the novitiate of the Society of Jesus. After studying philosophy and rhetoric and teaching for a year, he was sent to Vals, France, for the study of theology. After his study in France, he immigrated to the United States with other Jesuits after ordination and completed his fourth year of theology at Georgetown College along with Rev. Salvator Canio and Rev. Joseph Bixio. After his study he spent four years teaching rhetoric at Frederick, Maryland, where he was minister and socius to the master of novices. In 1854 Masnata S.J. sailed to California through Panama and arrived in San Francisco, United States, along with Fr. Charles Messea S.J. and Fr. Anthony Maraschi S.J. In 1865 he was appointed Santa Clara University's fifth president successor of the presidency of Burchard Villiger. In 1868, shy and lacking in proper English, Masnata was replaced by Aloysius Varsi. In 1873 Fr. Aloysius Masnata, S.J. served as the 6th president of San Francisco's St. Ignatius College. On November 18, 1886, Aloysius Masnata died in Los Gatos, California.

Andreas Benedict Feilmoser

Andreas Benedict Feilmoser (born 8 April 1777, in Hopfgarten, Tyrol; d. Tübingen, 20 July 1831) was a theologian and Biblical scholar.

He studied at Salzburg from 1789 to 1794, took a two years' course in philosophy at the University of Innsbruck (1794–96), and entered the Benedictine Order at Fiecht, Tyrol, in September, 1796. At this abbey he studied the Middle Eastern languages under Dom Georg Maurer, a monk of St. George's Abbey, Villingen. For his theological studies he was sent to Villingen, where he again heard Dom Maurer and Dom Gottfried Lumper, both eminent scholars.

Returning to Fiecht in 1800, he taught Biblical exegesis and was ordained priest in 1801; late in the same year he was appointed master of novices, in 1802 professor of Christian ethics and in 1803 of ecclesiastical history. A number of theses which he published in 1803 aroused the suspicions of the ecclesiastical authorities of the Diocese of Brixen. The Abbot of Fiecht was sharply rebuked for permitting Feilmoser to teach what was considered unsound doctrine. In 1804 appeared Feilmoser's Animadversiones in historiam ecclesiasticam, which did not meet the approval of the diocesan authorities, who threatened, in case Feilmoser did not desist from advancing dangerous opinions, to institute proceedings against the abbot. To Feilmoser's request for a specification of the objectionable passages in his writings no reply was made, but the entire matter was reported to the emperor in Vienna. An investigation instituted by order of the emperor resulted favourably for Feilmoser. He was, nevertheless, removed from the office of master of novices and in 1806 was made assistant in the parish of Achenthal.

By the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805) Tyrol was cut off from Austria and became a part of Bavaria. The new Government, in November, 1806, appointed him professor of Oriental languages and of introduction to the Old Testament at the University of Innsbruck. The monastery of Fiecht having been suppressed in 1807, he left the order. At Innsbruck he received the degree of Doctor of Theology in 1808 and was appointed to the chair of New Testament exegesis. During the Tyrolese insurrection, August, 1809, he, with a number of other professors, was taken prisoner and carried to Pusterthal by order of Andreas Hofer.

In 1810 he returned to Innsbruck, in 1811 he was made professor of catechetics, in 1812 of Latin and Greek philology, and in 1817 was reappointed professor of New-Testament exegesis in the face of much opposition. About this time the old charges against him were revived, and in 1818 he was bitterly attacked in an anonymous work published at Augsburg. He was denied the opportunity of publicly defending himself, inasmuch as the imperial censor in Vienna, on 17 July 1819, decided that since the anonymous work was published in a foreign country, it was under Austrian censure and must be regarded as non-existent. On 25 April 1820, he was formally appointed a professor at the University of Tübingen, where he continued to teach New Testament exegesis until his death. His exegetical writings are influenced by the rationalistic spirit of his day. He denied the genuineness of the Comma Johanneum and maintained that the Books of Job, Jonas, Tobias, and Judith are merely didactic poems.

Chaplain of His Holiness

A Chaplain of His Holiness is a priest to whom the Pope has granted this title. They are addressed as Monsignor and have certain privileges with respect to ecclesiastical dress and vestments.


In the Roman Catholic Church, a consecrator is a bishop who ordains a priest to the episcopal state. The term is also used in Eastern Rite Churches and in Anglican communities.

David of Augsburg

David of Augsburg (early 13th century – 19 November 1272) was a medieval German mystic, and a Franciscan friar. It is believed that he probably joined the Franciscan Order at Regensburg. He was the master of novices in the Franciscan houses at Regensburg and Augsburg. He wrote the acclaimed "Formula Novitiorum".

His major work, written in the 1240s, is entitled The Composition of the Interior and Exterior Man according to the Triple states of Beginners, Proficient, and Perfect. It is composed of three different treatises whose dates and relationships are difficult to determine. It was clearly popular, since close to 400 manuscripts of the whole or parts survive, along with numerous translations.

He also composed various vernacular texts in Middle High German (24 are known, though at times doubt has been cast on the veracity of the attribution). The most notable of these are The Seven Stages of Prayer, and Concerning the Manifestation and Salvation of the Human Race.

Diocesan bishop

A diocesan bishop, within various Christian traditions, is a bishop or archbishop in pastoral charge of a diocese or archdiocese.

In relation to other bishops, a diocesan bishop may be a suffragan, a metropolitan (if an archbishop) or a primate. They may also hold various other positions such as being a cardinal or patriarch.

Titular bishops in the Roman Catholic Church may be assistant bishops, coadjutor bishops, auxiliary bishops, nuncios or similar papal diplomats, officials of the Roman Curia etc. They may also hold other positions such as cardinal. The see of titular bishops only nominal, not pastoral.

Gregor Zallwein

Gregor Zallwein (20 October 1712, Oberviechtach, Oberpfalz - 6 or 9 August 1766, Salzburg) was an expert on canon law.

After studying the Humanities at Ratisbon and Freising he took vows at the Benedictine Abbey of Wessobrunn, on 15 November 1733, and was ordained priest on 27 October 1731. He studied canon law at Salzburg from 1737 to 1739, became master of novices at his monastery in 1739, and prior in 1744. Upon the request of the Prince-bishop of Gurk, Joseph Maria Count of Thun, he was sent as professor of canon law to the newly erected seminary at Strasbug in Carinthia. From 1749 till his death he was professor of canon law at the Benedictine University of Salzburg, where he held at the same time the office of "Rector magnificus" from 1759.

Unlike most German canonists of his time, he laid great stress on the sources and historical development of canon law. Though his juristic writings are at times not clear, his lectures were valued very highly and attended even by students from foreign countries. His chief work is Principia juris eccles. universalis et particularis Germaniae (4 vols., Augsburg, 1763; 2nd ed. by Kleimayern, Augsburg, 1781; 3rd ed., Augsburg, 1831). His other canonical works are: Disputatio prima de jure canonico... (Salzburg, 1753); Fontes originarii juris canonici, adjuncta historia ulare Germaniae (Salzburg, 1757); Dissertatio de statu ecclesiae, de hierarchia... (Salzburg, 1757).

John H. O'Rourke

Rev. John H. O'Rourke S.J. (1856-1929) was a noted Jesuit priest, Master of novices, Retreat master, author and speaker.

John Joseph of the Cross

Saint John Joseph of the Cross (15 August 1654 – 5 March 1739) (not to be confused with St John of the Cross) - born Carlo Gaetano Calosinto - was an Italian priest and a professed member from the Order of Friars Minor who hailed from the island of Ischia. He had a reputation for austerity and for the gift of miracles and was appointed Master of Novices.He was beatified in 1789 and later canonized in 1839.

John W. Beschter

John William Beschter (born Johann Wilhelm Beschter; May 20, 1763 – January 4, 1842) was a Catholic priest and Jesuit from the Duchy of Luxembourg in the Austrian Netherlands, who immigrated to the United States as a missionary, where he ministered in rural Pennsylvania and Maryland. He was the last Jesuit pastor of St. Mary's Church in Lancaster, as well as the pastor of St. John the Evangelist Church in Baltimore, in addition to being a priest at several other German-speaking churches in Pennsylvania. His ministerial work was punctuated by a time as master of novices at the new Jesuit novitiate in White Marsh, Maryland, as well as a brief term as President of Georgetown University in 1829. While in Maryland, he aligned himself with the Continental European Jesuits in the United States, who endorsed a monarchist view of ecclesiastical leadership. Following the end of his presidency, he remained at Georgetown for a year as a professor of German, before returning to Paradise, Pennsylvania, where he lived out the last twelve years of his life as a priest.

Juan Cardenas

Juan Cardenas (b. at Seville, 1613; d. 6 June 1684) was a Spanish Jesuit moral theologian and author. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of fourteen, and during many years held in it the office of rector, master of novices, and provincial.

Marco Molin

Marco Molin (1709- 1777) was the Bishop of Bergamo from 1773 to 1777.Molin was born in Venice on 30 July 1709. He was ordained a priest on 19 September 1733. He served at the Monastery of San Giorgio in Venice as Master of Novices, then as Prior, then as Abbot. He was Visitor for his Order's Province of Lombardy. At the time of his appointment as bishop, he was Abbot of the Monastery of San Giustino in Padua.

He was named Bishop of Bergamo on 13 September 1773 by Pope Clement XIV, and was consecrated in Rome on 19 September 1773 by Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico.

He died in Bergamo on 2 March 1777.

Placido Puccinelli

Padre Placido Puccinelli (1609–1685) was a Cassinese monk, historian and scholar. He was born at Pescia and educated at the abbey of S. Maria in Florence. He began his monastic career on 15 January 1626. For a long time, he was itinerant, travelling between the cities of northern Italy. At one time he was a master of novices at Gessate. He frequented the then-young Ambrosian Library in Milan, founded by Cardinal Federico Borromeo. He died in the Badia Fiorentina in Florence.

Puccinelli was interested in historical studies, but above all genealogy and prosopography, in which the abbey had a tradition. He modelled his style after that of the historian of Lucca, Francesco Maria Fiorentini, whom he befriended. Another scholarly friendship was with Pietro Puricelli. Like Puricelli he wrote on the history of the Humiliati.


A preacher is a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to an assembly of people. Less common are preachers who preach on the street, or those whose message is not necessarily religious, but who preach components such as a moral or social worldview or philosophy.

The Innocents (2016 film)

The Innocents (French: Les Innocentes), also known as Agnus Dei, is a 2016 French film directed by Anne Fontaine, which features Lou de Laâge, Agata Kulesza, Agata Buzek and Vincent Macaigne in its cast. The script is by Sabrina B. Karine, Pascal Bonitzer, Anne Fontaine and Alice Vial, after an original idea by Philippe Maynial. Maynial took inspiration from the experiences of his aunt, Madeleine Pauliac, a French Red Cross doctor who worked in Poland after World War II, dealing with the aftermath of mass rapes by Soviet soldiers.

The Venerable

The Venerable is used as a style or epithet in several Christian churches. It is also the common English-language translation of a number of Buddhist titles, and is used as a word of praise in some cases.

Wolfgang Leinberer

Wolfgang Leinberer

(Stuttgart, (1635-10-19)October 19, 1635 –

Altötting, (1693-06-22)June 22, 1693)

was a priest in the Society of Jesus.

He was German astronomer, philosopher, mathematician and professor, considered as "the most enthusiastic, even ingenius disciple in Rome of the famous mathematician Father Athanasius Kircher".He taught grammar, humanities, rhetoric, mathematics and philosophy at the University of Ingolstadt.

At the same institution, he was also a master of novices and rector.

He worked as a socius of the Provincial for five years and an Instructor of third-year priests in Altötting, a position which he kept until his death.


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