Mass (liturgy)

Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church[1] and Anglican churches,[2] as well as some Lutheran churches,[3] Methodist,[4][5] Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches.

Some Protestants employ terms such as Divine Service or worship service (and often just "service"), rather than the word Mass.[6] For the celebration of the Eucharist in Eastern Christianity, including Eastern Catholic Churches, other terms such as Divine Liturgy, Holy Qurbana, and Badarak are typically used instead.

Pontifical Mass - 15th Century - Project Gutenberg eText 16531
Painting of 15th-century Mass

Etymology

The English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse (via a Vulgar Latin form *messa), and was sometimes glossed as sendnes (i.e. "a sending, dismission").[7] The Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century.[8] It is most likely derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est ("Go; the dismissal is made"); missa here is a Late Latin substantive corresponding to classical missio.

Historically, however, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i.e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Fortescue (1910) cites older, "fanciful" etymological explanations, notably a latinization of Hebrew matzâh (מַצָּה) "unleavened bread; oblation", a derivation favoured in the 16th century by Reuchlin and Luther, or Greek μύησις "initiation", or even Germanic mese "assembly".[9] The French historian Du Cange in 1678 reported "various opinions on the origin" of the noun missa "mass", including the derivation from Hebrew matzah (Missah, id est, oblatio), here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology; medieval authorities did derive the noun missa from the verb mittere, but not in connection with the formula ite, missa est.[10] Thus, De divinis officiis (9th century[11]) explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo ("from 'sending', that which sends us towards God"),[12] while Rupert of Deutz (early 12th century) derives it from a "dismissal" of the "enmities which had been between God and men" (inimicitiarum quæ erant inter Deum et homines).[13]

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as "the source and summit of the Christian life", to which the other sacraments are oriented.[14] The Catholic Church believes that the Mass is exactly the same sacrifice that Jesus Christ offered on the Cross at Calvary.

The ordered celebrant (main priest or bishop) is understood to act in persona Christi, as he imitates the words and gestures of Jesus Christ at the Last Supper. By virtue of the mediation of the Holy Spirit, which is said to be present in the apostolic church, and through the words proffered by the celebrant, which is similar to the Word of God the Son, there takes place a transubstantiation of:

  • the wine into the Precious Blood, and
  • the sacramental bread into the Holy Body of Jesus Christ.

Hence, Roman Catholic and Orthodox believe that the Holy Trinity is really in the host, celebrated during the Holy Mass and in the previous context of the Christian consecrations (celebrant, altar, objects). The Holy Mass renews, makes alive at any time the innocent sacrifice of Jesus Christ, as He is "the Holy One of God"[15], and thus the unique door of salvation for the human sins.

The term "Mass" is generally used only in the Roman Rite, while the Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches use the analogous term "Divine Liturgy" and other Eastern Catholic Churches have terms such as Holy Qurbana. Although similar in outward appearance to the Anglican Mass or Lutheran Mass,[16][17] the Catholic Church distinguishes between its own Mass and theirs on the basis of what it views as the validity of the orders of their clergy, and as a result, does not ordinarily permit intercommunion between members of these Churches.[18][19] Nevertheless, in a 1993 letter to Bishop Johannes Hanselmann of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria, Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) affirmed that "a theology oriented to the concept of succession, such as that which holds in the Catholic and in the Orthodox church, need not in any way deny the salvation-granting presence of the Lord [Heilschaffende Gegenwart des Herrn] in a Lutheran [evangelische] Lord's Supper."[20] The Decree on Ecumenism, produced by Vatican II in 1964, records that the Catholic Church notes its understanding that when other faith groups (such as Lutherans, Anglicans, and Presbyterians) "commemorate His death and resurrection in the Lord's Supper, they profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and look forward to His coming in glory."[19]

Within the fixed structure outlined below, which is specific to the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite, the Scripture readings, the antiphons sung or recited during the entrance procession or communion, and certain other prayers vary each day according to the liturgical calendar.

Introductory rites

Mass, St Mary's Basilica Bangalore
A priest offering the Mass at the St Mary's Basilica, Bangalore

The priest enters, with a deacon, if there is one, and altar servers (who may act as crucifer, torch-bearers and thurifer). After making the sign of the cross and greeting the people liturgically, he begins the Act of Penitence. This concludes with the priest's prayer of absolution, "which, however, lacks the efficacy of the Sacrament of Penance".[21] The Kyrie, eleison (Lord, have mercy), is sung or said,[22] followed by the Gloria in excelsis Deo (Glory to God in the highest), an ancient praise, if appropriate for the liturgical season.[23] The Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer.

Liturgy of the Word

On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given. On other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament (a term wider than "Hebrew Scriptures", since it includes the Deuterocanonical Books), or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide. The first reading is followed by a psalm, either sung responsorially or recited. The second reading is from the New Testament, typically from one of the Pauline epistles. A Gospel Acclamation is then sung as the Book of the Gospels is processed, sometimes with incense and candles, to the ambo. The final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel by the deacon or priest. At least on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, a homily, a sermon that draws upon some aspect of the readings or the liturgy of the day, is then given.[24] Finally, the Creed is professed on Sundays and solemnities,[25] and it is desirable that in Masses celebrated with the people the Universal Prayer or Prayer of the Faithful should usually follow.[26]

Liturgy of the Eucharist

Elevation of the Host
The Elevation of the host. This takes place immediately after the Consecration in both the Tridentine and the Ordinary-Form Mass.

The Liturgy of the Eucharist begins with the preparation of the altar and gifts,[27] after which the congregation stands, as the priest gives the exhortation to pray, "Pray, brethren, that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God, the almighty Father." The congregation responds: "May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of His name, for our good, and the good of all His holy Church." The priest then pronounces the variable prayer over the gifts.

The Anaphora, also commonly called "the Eucharistic Prayer", "the centre and high point of the entire celebration",[28] then begins with a dialogue between priest and people. The oldest of the anaphoras of the Roman Rite is called the Roman Canon. The priest continues with one of many Eucharistic Prayer thanksgiving prefaces, which lead to the reciting of the Sanctus acclamation. The Eucharistic Prayer includes the epiclesis, a prayer that the gifts offered may by the power of the Holy Spirit become the body and blood of Christ.[29] The central part is the Institution Narrative and Consecration, recalling the words and actions of Jesus at his Last Supper, which he told his disciples to do in remembrance of him.[30] Immediately after the Consecration and the display to the people of the consecrated elements, the priest says: "The mystery of faith", and the people pronounce the acclamation, using one of the three prescribed formulae.[31] It concludes with a doxology, with the priest lifting up the paten with the host and the deacon (if there is one) the chalice, and the singing or recitation of the Amen by the people.

Communion rite

The British Army in North-west Europe 1944-45 B10582
Father Murphy administers Communion during Mass in a Dutch field in the front line, October 1944

All together recite or sing the "Lord's Prayer" ("Pater Noster" or "Our Father"). The priest introduces it with a short phrase and follows it up with a prayer called the embolism and the people respond with the doxology. The sign of peace is exchanged and then the "Lamb of God" ("Agnus Dei" in Latin) litany is sung or recited, while the priest breaks the host and places a piece in the main chalice; this is known as the rite of fraction and commingling.

Joan Ferrer i Miró- Sortida de missa- 169
Out of Mass (1893), oil on canvas by Joan Ferrer Miró

The priest then presents the transubstantiated elements to the congregation, saying: "Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who takes away the sins of the world. Blessed are those called to the supper of the Lamb." Then all repeat: "Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul shall be healed." The priest then receives Communion and, with the help, if necessary, of extraordinary ministers, distributes Communion to the people, who usually approach in procession and receives standing.[32] Singing by all the faithful during the Communion procession is encouraged, to highlight the communitarian nature of the Communion bread.[33] Silence is called for following the Communion procession. A Prayer After Communion is then proclaimed by the priest while all stand.

Concluding rite

The priest imparts a simple blessing or a solemn blessing to those present. The deacon or, in his absence, the priest himself then dismisses the people, choosing one of four formulas, of which the first is "Ite, missa est" in Latin or its equivalent in other languages. The congregation responds: "Thanks be to God." The priest and other ministers then leave, often to the accompaniment of a recessional hymn.

Western Rite Orthodox Churches

As most Orthodox Christians use the Byzantine Rite, most Orthodox Churches call their Eucharistic service "the Divine Liturgy." However, there are a number of parishes within the Orthodox Church which use an edited version of the Latin Rite. Most parishes use the "Divine Liturgy of St. Tikhon" which is a revision of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, or "the Divine Liturgy of St. Gregory" which is derived from the Tridentine form of the Roman Catholic Mass. These rubrics have been revised to reflect the doctrine and dogmas of the Orthodox Church. Therefore, the filioque clause has been removed, an epiclesis has been added, and use of leavened bread has been introduced.[34]

Divine Liturgy of St. Gregory

  • The Preparation for Mass
  • Confiteor
  • Kyrie Eleison
  • Gloria in excelsis deo
  • Collect of the Day
  • Epistle
  • Gradual
  • Alleluia
  • Gospel
  • Sermon
  • Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
  • Offertory
  • Dialogue
  • Preface
  • Sanctus
  • Canon
  • Lord's Prayer
  • Fraction
  • Agnus Dei
  • Prayers before Communion
  • Holy Communion
  • Prayer of Thanksgiving
  • Dismissal
  • Blessing of the Faithful
  • Last Gospel

Anglicanism

WilliamWhiteCommunion
Bishop William White celebrating Holy Communion in choir dress (19th century A.D.)

"Mass" is one of many terms used to describe the Eucharist in the Anglican tradition. More frequently, the term used is either "Holy Communion", "Holy Eucharist", or the "Lord's Supper". Occasionally the term used in Eastern churches, the "Divine Liturgy", is also used.[35] In the English-speaking Anglican world, the term used often identifies the Eucharistic theology of the person using it. "Mass" is frequently used by Anglo-Catholics.

Structure of the rite

The various Eucharistic liturgies used by national churches of the Anglican Communion have continuously evolved from the 1549 and 1552 editions of the Book of Common Prayer which both owed their form and contents chiefly to the work of Thomas Cranmer, who had rejected the medieval theology of the Mass in about 1547.[36] Although the 1549 rite retained the traditional sequence of the Mass, its underlying theology was Cranmer's and the four-day debate in the House of Lords during December 1548 makes it clear that this had already moved far beyond traditional Catholicism.[37] In the 1552 revision, this was made clear by the restructuring of the elements of the rite while retaining nearly all the language so that it became, in the words of an Anglo-Catholic liturgiologist (Arthur Couratin) "a series of communion devotions; disembarrassed of the Mass with which they were temporarily associated in 1548 and 1549".[36] Some rites, such as the 1637 Scottish rite and the 1789 rite in the United States, went back to the 1549 model.[38] From the time of the Elizabethan Settlement in 1559 the services allowed for a certain variety of theological interpretation. Today's rites generally follow the same general five-part shape[39](some or all of the following elements may be altered, transposed or absent depending on the rite, the liturgical season and use of the province or national church):

  • Gathering: Beginning with a Trinitarian-based greeting or seasonal acclamation ("Blessed be God: Father, Son and Holy spirit. And Blessed be his kingdom, now and forever. Amen").[40] Then the Kyrie and a general confession and absolution follow. On Sundays outside Advent and Lent and on major festivals, the Gloria in Excelsis Deo is sung or said. The entrance rite then concludes with the collect of the day.
  • Proclaiming and Hearing the Word: Usually two to three readings of Scripture, one of which is always from the Gospels, plus a psalm (or portion thereof) or canticle between the lessons. This is followed by a sermon or homily; the recitation of one of the Creeds, viz., the Apostles' or Nicene; is done on Sundays and feasts.
  • The Prayers of the People: Very varied in their form.
  • The Peace: The people stand and greet one another and exchange signs of God's peace in the name of the Lord. It functions as a bridge between the prayers, lessons, sermon and creeds to the communion part of the Eucharist.
  • The Celebration of the Eucharist: The gifts of bread and wine are brought up, along with other gifts (such as money or food for a food bank, etc.), and an offertory prayer is recited. Following this, a Eucharistic Prayer (called "The Great Thanksgiving") is offered. This prayer consists of a dialogue (the Sursum Corda), a preface, the sanctus and benedictus, the Words of Institution, the Anamnesis, an Epiclesis a petition for salvation and a Doxology. The Lord's Prayer precedes the fraction (the breaking of the bread), followed by the Prayer of Humble Access or the Agnus Dei, and the distribution of the sacred elements (the bread and wine).
  • Dismissal: There is a post-Communion prayer, which is a general prayer of thanksgiving. The service concludes with a Trinitarian blessing and the dismissal.

The liturgy is divided into two main parts: The Liturgy of the Word (Gathering, Proclaiming and Hearing the Word, Prayers of the People) and the Liturgy of the Eucharist (together with the Dismissal), but the entire liturgy itself is also properly referred to as the Holy Eucharist. The sequence of the liturgy is almost identical to the Roman Rite, except the Confession of Sin ends the Liturgy of the Word in the Anglican rites in North America, while in the Roman Rite and in Anglican rites in many jurisdictions the Confession is near the beginning of the service.

Special Masses

The Anglican tradition includes separate rites for Nuptial Masses, Funeral Masses, and votive Masses. The Eucharist is an integral part of many other sacramental services, including ordination and Confirmation.

Ceremonial

Some Anglo-Catholic parishes use Anglican versions of the Tridentine Missal, such as the English Missal, The Anglican Missal, or the American Missal, for the celebration of Mass, all of which are intended primarily for the celebration of the Eucharist. Many Anglo-Catholic parishes in the Church of England use A Manual of Anglo-Catholic Devotion (successor to the earlier A Manual of Catholic Devotion). In the Episcopal Church USA, a traditional-language, Anglo-Catholic adaptation of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer has been published (An Anglican Service Book).

All of these books contain such features as meditations for the presiding celebrant(s) during the liturgy, and other material such as the rite for the blessing of palms on Palm Sunday, propers for special feast days, and instructions for proper ceremonial order. These books are used as a more expansively Catholic context in which to celebrate the liturgical use found in the Book of Common Prayer and related liturgical books.

These are often supplemented in Anglo-Catholic parishes by books specifying ceremonial actions, such as A Priest's Handbook by Dennis G. Michno, Ceremonies of the Eucharist by Howard E. Galley, Low Mass Ceremonial by C.P.A. Burnett, and Ritual Notes by E.C.R. Lamburn. Other guides to ceremonial include the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, Ceremonies of the Modern Roman Rite (Peter Elliott), Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described (Adrian Fortescue), and The Parson's Handbook (Percy Dearmer). In Evangelical Anglican parishes, the rubrics detailed in the Book of Common Prayer are sometimes considered normative.

Lutheranism

Elca eucharistic elevation
A Lutheran priest elevates the chalice in the celebration of the Holy Mass.

In the Book of Concord, Article XXIV ("Of the Mass") of the Augsburg Confession (1530) begins thus:

"Falsely are our churches accused of abolishing the Mass; for the Mass is retained among us, and celebrated with the highest reverence. We do not abolish the Mass but religiously keep and defend it... we keep the traditional liturgical form... In our churches Mass is celebrated every Sunday and on other holy days, when the sacrament is offered to those who wish for it after they have been examined and absolved (Article XXIV)".

Martin Luther rejected parts of the Roman Rite Catholic Mass, specifically the Canon of the Mass, which, as he argued, did not conform with Hebrews 7:27. That verse contrasts the Old Testament priests, who needed to make a sacrifice for sins on a regular basis, with the single priest Christ, who offers his body only once as a sacrifice. The theme is carried out also in Hebrews 9:26, 9:28, and 10:10. Luther composed as a replacement a revised Latin-language rite, Formula missae in 1523 and the vernacular Deutsche Messe in 1526.

As such, historically, the Lutheran Church has stated that the Lutheran Mass is "the only Mass founded in the Scriptures of God, in accordance with the plain and incontestable institution of the Saviour."[3][41]

Scandinavian, Finnish, and some English speaking Lutherans, use the term "Mass" for their Eucharistic service,[42] but in most German and English-speaking churches, the terms "Divine Service", "Holy Communion, or "the Holy Eucharist" are used.

The celebration of the Mass in Lutheran churches follows a similar pattern to other traditions, starting with public confession (Confiteor) by all and a Declaration of Grace said by the priest or pastor. There follow the Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, collect, the readings with an alleluia (alleluia is not said during Lent), homily (or sermon) and recitation of the Nicene Creed. The Service of the Eucharist includes the General intercessions, Preface, Sanctus and Eucharistic Prayer, elevation of the host and chalice and invitation to the Eucharist. The Agnus Dei is chanted while the clergy and assistants first commune, followed by lay communicants. Postcommunion prayers and the final blessing by the priest ends the Mass. A Catholic or Anglican of the Anglo-Catholic party would find its elements familiar, in particular the use of the sign of the cross, kneeling for prayer and the Eucharistic Prayer, bowing to the processional crucifix, kissing the altar, incense (among some), chanting, and vestments.

Lutheran churches often celebrate the Eucharist each Sunday, if not at every worship service. This aligns with Luther's preference and the Lutheran confessions.[43] Also, eucharistic ministers take the sacramental elements to the sick in hospitals and nursing homes. The practice of weekly communion is increasingly the norm again in most Lutheran parishes throughout the world. The bishops and pastors of the larger Lutheran bodies have strongly encouraged this restoration of the weekly Mass.

The celebration of the Eucharist may form a part of services for weddings, funerals, retreats, the dedication of a church building and annual synod conventions. The Mass is also an important aspect of ordinations and confirmations in Lutheran churches.

Methodism

Methodistcommunion6
A Methodist minister consecrating the Eucharist elements during the Service of the Word and Table

The celebration of the Mass in Methodist Churches, commonly known as the Service of the Table, is based on The Sunday Service of 1784, a revision of the liturgy of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer authorized by John Wesley.[44] The presider of a Methodist Eucharist must be an ordained or licensed minister.[45] In the Free Methodist Church, the liturgy of the Eucharist, as provided in its Book of Discipline is outlined as follows:[46]

Methodist services of worship, post-1992, reflect the ecumenical movement and liturgical Movement, particularly the Methodist Mass, largely the work of theologian Donald C. Lacy.[47]

Calendrical usage

The English suffix -mas (equivalent to modern English "mass") can label certain prominent (originally religious) feasts or seasons based on a traditional liturgical year, for example:

See also

References

  1. ^ John Trigilio, Kenneth Brighenti (2 March 2007). The Catholicism Answer Book. Sourcebooks, Inc. The term "Mass", used for the weekly Sunday service in Catholic churches as well as services on Holy Days of Obligation, derives its meaning from the Latin term Missa.
  2. ^ Seddon, Philip (1996). "Word and Sacrament". In Bunting, Ian. Celebrating the Anglican Way. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 100.
  3. ^ a b Joseph Augustus Seiss (1871). Ecclesia Lutherana: a brief survey of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Lutheran Book Store. Melancthon, the author of the Augsburg Confession, states, that he uses the words Mass and theLord's Supper as convertible terms: "The Mass, as they call it, or, with the Apostle Paul, to speak more accurately, the celebration of the Lord's Supper," &c. The Evangelical Princes, in their protest at the Diet of Spires, April 19th, 1529, say, "Our preachers and teachers have attacked and utterly confuted the popish Mass, with holy, invincible, sure Scripture, and in its place raised up again the precious, priceless SUPPER OF OUR DEAR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST, which is called THE EVANGELICAL MASS. This is the only Mass founded in the Scriptures of God, in accordance with the plain and incontestable institution of the Saviour.
  4. ^ Lacy, Donald Charles (1 January 1983). Methodist Mass. Fairway Press. ISBN 089536977X.
  5. ^ Sterling, Jeff. "Methodist Mass at St. Paul's United Methodist Church". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2015. An Open Mass is a church service that features responsive readings from the liturgy, music, cantoring, a short homily, and the taking of Communion, or the Eucharist as it is sometimes called.
  6. ^ Brad Harper, Paul Louis Metzger (1 March 2009). Exploring Ecclesiology. Brazos Press. Luther also challenged the teaching that Christ is sacrificed at the celebration of the mass. It is important to pause and note that contrary to popular Protestant opinion, official Roman Catholic teaching denies that Christ is, in the mass, sacrificed time and time again. According to The Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Eucharist is thus a sacrifice because it re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of the cross, because it is its memorial and because it applies its fruit."
  7. ^ Bosworth-Toller, s.v. "sendness" (citing Wright, Vocabularies vol. 2, 1873), "mæsse" (citing Ælfric of Eynsham).
  8. ^ It is used by Caesarius of Arles (e.g. Regula ad monachos, PL 67, 1102B Omni dominica sex missas facite). Before this, it occurs singularly in a letter attributed to Saint Ambrose (d. 397), Ego mansi in munere, missam facere coepi (ep. 20.3, PL 16, 0995A ). F. Probst, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte, 1870, 5f.). "the fragment in Pseudo-Ambrose, 'De sacramentis' (about 400. Cf. P.L., XVI, 443), and the letter of Pope Innocent I (401-17) to Decentius of Eugubium (P.L., XX, 553). In these documents we see that the Roman Liturgy is said in Latin and has already become in essence the rite we still use." (Fortescue 1910).
  9. ^ The Germanic word is likely itself an early loan of Latin mensa "table". "The origin and first meaning of the word, once much discussed, is not really doubtful. We may dismiss at once such fanciful explanations as that missa is the Hebrew missah ("oblation" — so Reuchlin and Luther), or the Greek myesis ("initiation"), or the German Mess ("assembly", "market"). Nor is it the participle feminine of mittere, with a noun understood ("oblatio missa ad Deum", "congregatio missa", i.e., dimissa — so Diez, "Etymol. Wörterbuch der roman. Sprachen", 212, and others). Fortescue, A. (1910). Liturgy of the Mass. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  10. ^ De vocabuli origine variæ sunt Scriptorum sententiæ. Hanc enim quidam, ut idem Baronius, ab Hebræo Missah, id est, oblatio, arcessunt : alii a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deum Du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, éd. augm., Niort : L. Favre, 1883‑1887, t. 5, col. 412b, s.v. 4. missa.
  11. ^ De divinis officiis, formerly attributed to Alcuin but now dated to the late 9th or early 10th century, partly based on the works of Amalarius and Remigius of Auxerre. M.-H. Jullien and F. Perelman, Clavis Scriptorum Latinorum Medii Aevii. Auctores Galliae 735-987. II: Alcuin, 1999, 133ff.; R. Sharpe, A Handlist of the Latin Writers of Great Britain and Ireland before 1540 (1997, p. 45) attributes the entire work to Remigius.
  12. ^ In Migne, PL 101: Alcuinus Incertus, De divinis officiis, caput XL, De celebratione missae et eius significatione (1247A)
  13. ^ this explanation is attributed by Du Cange to Gaufridus S Barbarae in Neustria (Godfrey of Saint Victor, fl. 1175), but it is found in the earlier De divinis officiis by Rupert of Deutz (Rupertus Tuitiensis), caput XXIII, De ornatu altaris vel templi: Sacrosanctum altaris ministerium idcirco, ut dictum est, missa dicitur, quia ad placationem inimicitiarum, quae erant inter Deum et homines, sola valens et idonea mittitur legatio. PL 170, 52A.
  14. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1324
  15. ^ compare John 6:69 NABRE, Mark 1:24 NABRE and Mark 6:20 NABRE
  16. ^ Bahr, Ann Marie B. (1 January 2009). Christianity. Infobase Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 9781438106397. Anglicans worship with a service that may be called either Holy Eucharist or the Mass. Like the Lutheran Eucharist, it is very similar to the Catholic Mass.
  17. ^ Herl, Joseph (1 July 2004). Worship Wars in Early Lutheranism. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780195348309. There is evidence that the late sixteenth-century Catholic mass as held in Germany was quite similar in outward appearance to the Lutheran mass
  18. ^ Dimock, Giles (2006). 101 Questions and Answers on the Eucharist. Paulist Press. p. 79. ISBN 9780809143658. Thus Anglican Eucharist is not the same as Catholic Mass or the Divine Liturgy celebrated by Eastern Catholics or Eastern Orthodox. Therefore Catholics may not receive at an Anglican Eucharist.
  19. ^ a b "Unitatis Redintegratio (Decree on Ecumenism), Section 22". Vatican. Retrieved 8 March 2013. Though the ecclesial Communities which are separated from us lack the fullness of unity with us flowing from Baptism, and though we believe they have not retained the proper reality of the eucharistic mystery in its fullness, especially because of the absence of the sacrament of Orders, nevertheless when they commemorate His death and resurrection in the Lord's Supper, they profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and look forward to His coming in glory. Therefore the teaching concerning the Lord's Supper, the other sacraments, worship, the ministry of the Church, must be the subject of the dialogue.
  20. ^ Rausch, Thomas P. (2005). Towards a Truly Catholic Church: An Ecclesiology for the Third Millennium. Liturgical Press. p. 212. ISBN 9780814651872.
  21. ^ GIRM, paragraph 51
  22. ^ GIRM, paragraph 52
  23. ^ GIRM, paragraph 53
  24. ^ GIRM, paragraph 66
  25. ^ GIRM, paragraph 68
  26. ^ GIRM, paragraph 69
  27. ^ GIRM, paragraph 73
  28. ^ GIRM, paragraph 78
  29. ^ GIRM, paragraph 79c
  30. ^ Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25
  31. ^ GIRM, paragraph 151
  32. ^ GIRM, paragraph 160
  33. ^ GIRM, paragraph 86
  34. ^ Ordinary and Canon of the Mass According to the Rite of St. Gregory, Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America
  35. ^ "The Catechism (1979 Book of Common Prayer): The Holy Eucharist". Retrieved November 19, 2011.
  36. ^ a b MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996). Thomas Cranmer. London: Yale UP. p. 412.
  37. ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996). Thomas Cranmer. London: Yale UP. pp. 404–8 & 629.
  38. ^ Neill, Stephen (1960). Anglicanism. London: Penguin. p. 152,3.
  39. ^ Seddon, Philip (1996). "Word and Sacrament". In Bunting, Ian. Celebrating the Anglican Way. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 107,8.
  40. ^ Book of Common Prayer p. 355 Holy Eucharist Rite II
  41. ^ Denominational Differences –Other Denominations. Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Differences remain about both the number and the nature of the sacraments. Roman Catholics speak of seven sacraments, while Lutherans tend to speak of only two (or three). More important than number is how the sacraments are understood. To take a single example, Lutherans believe that in the Sacrament of the Altar (Communion) Christ's body and blood are truly present in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper, but they do not accept the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, which teaches that the elements are permanently changed from the substances of bread and wine to the substances of body and blood. Transubstantiation is rejected for several reasons: It is a philosophical explanation for a work of Christ's almighty Word which we can only believe, not explain. In seeking to explain a mystery it changes the plain and simple meanings of God's Word (Scripture refers to the elements as both bread and wine and body and blood, 1 Cor 11:26-27).
  42. ^ Hope, Nicholas (1995). German and Scandinavian Protestantism 1700 to 1918. Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-19-826994-3. Retrieved November 19, 2011.; see also Deutsche Messe
  43. ^ Preus, Klemet. "Communion Every Sunday: Why?". Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  44. ^ Wainwright, Geoffrey (2006). The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press. p. 602. ISBN 9780195138863.
  45. ^ Beckwith, R.T. Methodism and the Mass. Church Society. p. 116.
  46. ^ a b David W. Kendall; Barbara Fox; Carolyn Martin Vernon Snyder, eds. (2008). 2007 Book of Discipline. Free Methodist Church. pp. 219–223.
  47. ^ Carpenter, Marian (2013). "Donald C. Lacy Collection: 1954 - 2011" (PDF). Indiana Historical Society. Retrieved 15 April 2018. Lacy also published fourteen books and pamphlets. His first pamphlet, Methodist Mass (1971), became a model for current United Methodist liturgical expression. Lacy’s goal was to make ecumenism a reality by blending the United Methodist Order for the Administration of the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion and "The New Order of Mass" in the Roman Catholic Church.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Baldovin,SJ, John F., (2008). Reforming the Liturgy: A Response to the Critics. The Liturgical Press.
  • Bugnini, Annibale (Archbishop), (1990). The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975. The Liturgical Press.
  • Donghi, Antonio, (2009). Words and Gestures in the Liturgy. The Liturgical Press.
  • Foley, Edward. From Age to Age: How Christians Have Celebrated the Eucharist, Revised and Expanded Edition. The Liturgical Press.
  • Fr. Nikolaus Gihr (1902). The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass: Dogmatically, Liturgically, and Ascetically Explained. St. Louis: Freiburg im Breisgau. OCLC 262469879. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  • Johnson, Lawrence J., (2009). Worship in the Early Church: An Anthology of Historical Sources. The Liturgical Press.
  • Jungmann, Josef Andreas, (1948). Missarum Sollemnia. A genetic explanation of the Roman Mass (2 volumes). Herder, Vienna. First edition, 1948; 2nd Edition, 1949, 5th edition, Herder, Vienna-Freiburg-Basel, and Nova & Vetera, Bonn, 1962, ISBN 3-936741-13-1.
  • Marini, Piero (Archbishop), (2007). A Challenging Reform: Realizing the Vision of the Liturgical Renewal. The Liturgical Press.
  • Martimort, A.G. (editor). The Church At Prayer. The Liturgical Press.
  • Balzaretti, C., (2000). Missa: storia di una secolare ricerca etimologica ancora aperta. Edizioni Liturgiche.

External links

Roman Catholic doctrine

Present form of the Roman rite of the Mass

Tridentine form of the Roman rite of the Mass

(For links on Post-Tridentine vs. "Tridentine" controversy, see Mass of Paul VI)

Anglican Doctrine and practice

Lutheran doctrine

Acolyte

An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations, an acolyte is anyone who performs ceremonial duties such as lighting altar candles.

In others, the term is used for one who has been inducted into a particular liturgical ministry, even when not performing those duties.

Altar server

An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy. An altar server attends to supporting tasks at the altar such as fetching and carrying, ringing the altar bell, among other things. A young male altar server is commonly called an altar boy, whereas a young female altar server is commonly called an altar girl.

Anglican Use

The Anglican Use is an officially approved form of liturgy used by former members of the Anglican Communion who joined the Catholic Church while wishing to maintain the treasures of the Anglican tradition.

Asperges

Asperges is a name given to the rite of sprinkling a congregation with holy water. The name comes from the first word in the 9th verse of Psalm 51 (Psalm 50 in the Vulgate) in the Latin translation which is sung during the traditional form of the rite (or optionally in the ordinary rite) except during Eastertide. The 51st Psalm is also one of the antiphons that may be sung in the rite under the Mass of Paul VI.

Cæremoniale Episcoporum

The Cæremoniale Episcoporum (Ceremonial of Bishops) is a book that describes the Church services to be performed by Bishops of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church.

Pope Clement VIII published on 14 July 1600 the first book to bear this name, a revision, in line with the renewal ordered by the Council of Trent, of the contents of books, called Ordines Romani, written from the end of the seventh century on to describe the ceremonies for the election and ordination of a Pope and to give indications for Mass and other celebrations by the Pope in the course of the year. The contents of these books were enriched over time. A work in two sections that became known as De Cæremoniis Cardinalium et Episcoporum in eorum diœcesibus (Ceremonies of Cardinals and Bishops in Their Own Dioceses) was added in the sixteenth century. Pope Clement VIII's Cæremoniale Episcoporum was based on these texts and on others that have now been lost. The work of preparation, begun in December 1582 under Pope Gregory XIII took 17 years. A facsimile of the original 1600 edition in two books was published by Libreria Editrice Vaticana in 2000.

Pope Innocent X issued a revised edition in 1650. In 1727 or 1729 the chapters, originally printed as single blocks, were divided into numbered paragraphs and summaries were added at the head of each chapter, in place of the previous titles. In 1752, Pope Benedict XIV revised slightly the two preexisting books and added a third on ceremonies to be observed by those holding civil office in the Papal States.

In 1886, Pope Leo XIII made yet another revision, in which, though the Papal States had been incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, he kept the third book. The Catholic Encyclopedia gives an account of the Cæremoniale Episcoporum as it stood after this 1886 revision.In line with the renewal ordered by the Second Vatican Council, a fully revised edition in a single volume was issued by Pope John Paul II in 1984, replacing the earlier editions. The revision aimed at securing an episcopal liturgy that was "simple, and at the same time noble, fully effective pastorally, and capable of serving as an example for all other liturgical celebrations."The book is in eight parts:

Episcopal liturgy in general

Mass

Liturgy of the Hours and Celebrations of the Word of God

Celebrations of the Mysteries of the Lord in the course of the year

Sacraments

Sacramentals

Noteworthy dates in the life of a bishop

Liturgical celebrations connected with solemn acts of episcopal governanceThere are also appendices on:

The vesture of prelates

A table of liturgical days arranged in order of precedence

A table on Ritual Masses, Masses for Various Needs, Votive Masses and Requiem Masses

Lists of abbreviations and sigla used in the book

Drinkers Mass

Drinkers Masses, to include Gamblers Masses (Latin: Missa Potatorum, Officium Lusorum), was a genre of medieval Latin poetry which parodied the Roman Catholic Latin Mass in order to make fun of drinking and gambling monks and clerics. These masses were written between about 1100 to 1700 by clerici vagantes (wandering clerics), with the first example being the gamblers mass (officium lusorum), found in the Carmina Burana. The genre is somewhat related to other medieval ecclesiastic parody, such as the Feast of Fools and the Feast of the Ass.

Epistle side

In the liturgical traditions of Western Christianity, the Epistle side is the term used to designate the side of a church on which the Epistle is read during the Mass or Eucharist. It is the right-hand side of the altar as viewed by the congregation from the nave.The Gospel side is the other side of the church, where the Gospel is read. Facing the altar from the nave, it is the left-hand side. In some places, especially if a comment is based on a romance language source, the Gospel side will be cited as the Evangelist side.

In the Tridentine Mass, which is still in use among some communities, the lectern holding the Missal was moved from the Epistle side of the altar to the Gospel side after the reading of the Epistle.

Indult

This article refers to an Indult according to church law. For other uses of the word, see Pardon.An indult in Catholic canon law is a permission, or privilege, granted by the competent church authority – the Holy See or the diocesan bishop, as the case may be – for an exception from a particular norm of church law in an individual case, for example, members of the consecrated life seeking to be dispensed from their religious vows, or of priests and deacons who voluntarily seek to return to the lay state (usually to marry). An apostolic indult is needed from the local ordinary for presbyteral or diaconal ordinations done within a year before the normal date; if the ordination is done more than one year in advance of the normal date then a papal apostolic indult from the Holy See (through the Congregation for Catholic Education, the Congregation for the Clergy, or the Congregation for Religious in the Roman Curia) is also needed.The best-known indult among lay Catholics in recent times was the one granted by Pope John Paul II in 1984 authorising the world's bishops to permit celebrations of the Tridentine Mass liturgy in their dioceses. This indult gave rise to the term "indult Catholics", referring to Catholics who attended such celebrations. This indult was superseded in 2007 by new legislation introduced by Pope Benedict XVI in the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum.

Julotta

A Julotta ("Jul": Yule; Christmas, "otta": dawn) is a Swedish term for the matin on Christmas Day, 25 December, that celebrates the nativity of Jesus Christ. The service is held every 25 December early on Christmas morning; at 7 a.m. in most church buildings, but in some churches it is celebrated at 10 a.m., or as early as 4 a.m. During previous centuries, most Julottas were held at 4 a.m. Traditionally, the service should end before, or at the time of, dawn: hence the word "otta" is the time just before dawn. Historically in the Church of Sweden the clergy was obliged not only to say the high mass but also matins (Swedish: ottesång) and evensong (Swedish: aftonsång); today only the evensong of Christmas remain but has been liturgically changed since and can now be the main service of Christmas Day, wherefore many parishes have no mid-morning high mass on Christmas Day.

Kiss of peace

The kiss of peace is an ancient traditional Christian greeting, sometimes also called the "holy kiss", "brother kiss" (among men), or "sister kiss" (among women). Such greetings signify a wish and blessing that peace be with the recipient, and besides their spontaneous uses they have certain ritualized or formalized uses long established in liturgy. Many denominations use other forms of greeting (besides literal kisses) to serve equivalent purposes; they include handshakes, gestures, and hugs, any of which may be called a sign of peace.

Liturgical colours

Liturgical colours are those specific colours used for vestments and hangings within the context of Christian liturgy. The symbolism of violet, white, green, red, gold, black, rose and other colours may serve to underline moods appropriate to a season of the liturgical year or may highlight a special occasion.

There is a distinction between the colour of the vestments worn by the clergy and their choir dress, which with a few exceptions does not change with the liturgical seasons.

Messa

Messa (Italian for mass (liturgy)) may refer to:

Al Messa, a daily newspaper

Messa (Puccini), an 1880 mass

Messa (Greece), a town in ancient Greece

Midnight Mass

In many Western Christian traditions Midnight Mass is the first liturgy of Christmastide that is celebrated on the night of Christmas Eve, traditionally beginning at midnight when Christmas Eve gives way to Christmas Day. This popular Christmas custom is a jubilant celebration of the Mass or Service of Worship in honour of the Nativity of Jesus; even many of those Christian denominations that do not regularly employ the word "Mass" uniquely use the term "Midnight Mass" for their Christmas Eve liturgy.

Pittance

Pittance (through Old French pitance and from Latin pietas, loving-kindness) is a gift to the members of a religious house for masses, consisting usually of an extra allowance of food or wine on occasions such as the anniversary of the donor's death festivals and other similar occasions. The word was early transferred to a charitable donation and to any small gift of food or money.

Quo primum

Quo primum (from the first) is the incipit of an Apostolic constitution in the form of a papal bull issued by Pope Pius V on 14 July 1570. It promulgated the 1570 edition of the Roman Missal, and made its use obligatory throughout the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, except where there existed a different Mass liturgy of at least two hundred years' standing.

The declared reason for this measure was this: "It is most becoming that there be in the Church... only one rite for the celebration of Mass." However, he made the exception mentioned, which permitted the survival, within limited areas or in celebrations by members of certain religious orders, of Latin liturgical rites other than the Roman Rite, rites such as the Ambrosian and Mozarabic Rites, that of the Diocese of Lyon and certain Catholic Order Rites. Some of these dioceses and religious orders have since decided to adopt the Roman Rite. Others preferred not to avail themselves of the exemption to which they were entitled and instead to adopt the Roman Missal immediately.

Thus, although the bull Quo primum contained expressions such as "Let all everywhere adopt and observe what has been handed down by the Holy Roman Church, the Mother and Teacher of the other Churches, and let Masses not be sung or read according to any other formula than that of this Missal published by Us. This ordinance applies henceforth, now, and forever, throughout all the provinces of the Christian world", exceptions were allowed from the start, and not all priests, even of the Latin Rite were obliged to adopt the Missal of Pius V.In the bull Pope Pius V declared: "By this present Constitution, which will be valid henceforth, now, and forever, We order and enjoin that nothing must be added to Our recently published Missal, nothing omitted from it, nor anything whatsoever be changed within it." And he concluded: "No one whosoever is permitted to alter this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, precept, grant, indult, declaration, will, decree, and prohibition. Should anyone dare to contravene it, let him know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul."

By this, he forbade alterations by other authorities, ecclesiastical or civil, or by private individuals. He gives a list of ecclesiastical dignitaries who, he says, may not alter his Missal, even of the level of cardinal ("each and every patriarch, administrator, and all other persons or whatever ecclesiastical dignity they may be, be they even cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, or possessed of any other rank or pre-eminence"), but does not include those of a higher level, that is popes. He himself altered his Missal when, after the victory of Lepanto in the following year, he added to it the feast of Our Lady of Victory. In 1585, Pope Sixtus V restored the feast of the Presentation of the Virgin Mary, which Pope Pius V had removed from the Missal. Only 34 years after the publication of Quo primum, Pope Clement VIII made a general revision of the Roman Missal, as did Pope Urban VIII 30 years later. The custom of placing tabernacles on altars, introduced later, made it necessary to introduce new rituals not in the missal of Pius V.

Raza

Raza may refer to:

Raza (film), a 1942 Spanish film

S. H. Raza (1922–2016), Indian artist

Raheel Raza (born 1949), Canadian author and feminist

Raza Longknife, a Marvel comic book character

Raza Microelectronics Inc, a private semiconductor company in California

Raza Odiada, a 1995 album by Brujeria

Raza Unida Party, an American political party

Mass (liturgy) in the Assyrian Church of the East, from the Aramaic

Requiem

A Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known as Mass for the dead (Latin: Missa pro defunctis) or Mass of the dead (Latin: Missa defunctorum), is a Mass in the Catholic Church offered for the repose of the soul or souls of one or more deceased persons, using a particular form of the Roman Missal. It is usually, but not necessarily, celebrated in the context of a funeral.

Musical settings of the propers of the Requiem Mass are also called Requiems, and the term has subsequently been applied to other musical compositions associated with death, dying, and mourning, even when they lack religious or liturgical relevance.

The term is also used for similar ceremonies outside the Roman Catholic Church, especially in the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism and in certain Lutheran churches. A comparable service, with a wholly different ritual form and texts, exists in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as in the Methodist Church.The Mass and its settings draw their name from the introit of the liturgy, which begins with the words "Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine" – "Grant them eternal rest, O Lord". ("Requiem" is the accusative singular form of the Latin noun requies, "rest, repose".) The Roman Missal as revised in 1970 employs this phrase as the first entrance antiphon among the formulas for Masses for the dead, and it remains in use to this day.

Vigil

A vigil, from the Latin vigilia meaning wakefulness (Greek: pannychis, παννυχίς or agrypnia ἀγρυπνία), is a period of purposeful sleeplessness, an occasion for devotional watching, or an observance. The Italian word vigilia has become generalized in this sense and means "eve" (as in on the eve of the war).

Vigil (liturgy)

In Christian liturgy, a vigil is, in origin, a religious service held during the night leading to a Sunday or other feastday. The Latin term vigilia, from which the word is derived meant a night watch, not necessarily in a military context, and generally reckoned as a fourth part of the night from sunset to sunrise. The four watches or vigils were of varying length in line with the seasonal variation of the length of the night.

The English term "wake", which later became linked to a gathering before a funeral, also denoted originally such a prayer service, and the term "vigil" is even now also used for a funeral service of that kind.

Ordinary
Proper
Accentus
Mass of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church
Forms
Types
Order of Mass
Participants
Parts of the
Sanctuary / Altar
Altar cloths
Candles and lamps
Liturgical objects
Liturgical books
of the Roman Rite
Vestments
Liturgical year
(Roman Calendar)
Eucharistic
discipline
Eucharistic
theology
Regulations
and concepts
Related
Advent
Christmastide
Ordinary Time I
Lent
Paschal Triduum
Eastertide
Ordinary Time II
Sacraments
Mass
Canonical
liturgical hours
Other liturgical services
Liturgical literature
Liturgical language
Liturgical
rites

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.