Martina Navratilova (Czech: Martina Navrátilová pronounced [ˈmarcɪna ˈnavraːcɪlovaː]; born Martina Šubertová pronounced [ˈmarcɪna ˈʃubɛrtovaː]; October 18, 1956) is a former Czechoslovak and later American professional tennis player and coach. In 2005, Tennis magazine selected her as the greatest female tennis player for the years 1975 through 2005 and she is considered one of the best, if not the best, female tennis players of all time.
Navratilova was world No. 1 for a total of 332 weeks in singles, and a record 237 weeks in doubles, making her the only player in history to have held the top spot in both singles and doubles for over 200 weeks. She was year-end singles No. 1 seven times, including a record of five consecutive years, as well as year-end doubles No. 1 five times, including three consecutive years during which she held the ranking for the entire year.
She won 18 Grand Slam singles titles, 31 major women's doubles titles (an all-time record), and 10 major mixed doubles titles, combined marking the open-era record for the most number of Grand Slam titles won by one player, male or female. She reached the Wimbledon singles final 12 times, including for nine consecutive years from 1982 through 1990, and won the women's singles title at Wimbledon a record nine times (surpassing Helen Wills Moody's eight Wimbledon titles), including a run of six consecutive titles, widely regarded as the best performance by any professional player at a major event. She and Billie Jean King each won 20 combined Wimbledon titles, an all-time record. Navratilova is also one of just three women ever to have accomplished a Career Grand Slam in women's singles and doubles, and mixed doubles (called the Grand Slam "boxed set"), a distinction she shares only with Margaret Court and Doris Hart.
Navratilova holds the records for most singles (167) and doubles titles (177) in the Open Era. Her record as No. 1 in singles (1982–86) remains the most dominant in professional tennis to date. Over five consecutive seasons, she won 428 out of 442 singles matches, averaging fewer than three losses per year to 87 wins, for a sustained winning percentage of 96.8%. She holds the best season win-loss record in the open era, 86-1 (98.9%) in 1983, and four out of the top six open era seasons. She recorded the longest winning streak in the open era (74 consecutive matches) as well as three out of the six longest winning streaks in history.
She and Serena Williams are the only Open Era players to have won six major singles crowns without the loss of a set. Navratilova, Margaret Court and Maureen Connolly share the record for the most consecutive major singles titles (six). Navratilova reached 11 consecutive major singles finals, second all-time only to Steffi Graf's 13, and is the only woman ever to reach 19 consecutive major semifinals. Navratilova also won the season-ending WTA Tour Championships for top ranked players a record eight times and made the finals a record 14 times. She is the only player of either sex to have won eight different tournaments at least seven times. She was ranked in the world's top 10 in singles for a record 20 consecutive years (1975–1994), a span which included 19 years in the top 5, 15 years in the top 3, and 7 years as the world No. 1 ranked singles player. Navratilova is regarded by many to be the greatest female tennis player of all time.
In women's doubles, Navratilova and Pam Shriver had one of the most successful partnerships in women's doubles and won 109 consecutive matches including all four major titles, the doubles Grand Slam, in 1984. The pair set an all-time record of 79 titles together and tied the record set by Louise Brough Clapp and Margaret Osborne duPont of 20 major women's doubles titles as a team. Navratilova also won the WTA Tour Championships doubles title a record 11 times. She is one of only five tennis players of all-time to win a multiple slam set in two disciplines, matched only by Margaret Court, Roy Emerson, Frank Sedgman and Serena Williams. Navratilova won her last major title in 2006, adding the mixed doubles crown at the 2006 US Open to her resume just a few weeks before her 50th birthday, 32 years after her first Grand Slam title in 1974.
Originally from Czechoslovakia, she was stripped of her citizenship when, in 1975 at age 18, she asked the United States for political asylum and was granted temporary residency. At the time, Navratilova was told by the Czechoslovak Sports Federation that she was becoming too americanised, and she should go back to school and make tennis secondary. Navratilova became a US citizen in 1981, and on January 9, 2008, she reacquired Czech citizenship. She stated she has not renounced her U.S. citizenship nor does she plan to do so, and that reclaiming Czech nationality was not politically motivated.
Navratilova at the Prague Open, in 2006
|Country (sports)|| Czechoslovakia|
|Residence||Miami, Florida, US|
|Born||October 18, 1956|
|Height||1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)|
|Plays||Left-handed (one-handed backhand), born right-handed|
Renée Richards (1981–1983)
Mike Estep (1983–1986)
Craig Kardon (1988–1994)
|Int. Tennis HoF||2000 (member page)|
|Career record||1,442–219 (86.8%)|
|Career titles||167 WTA, 1 ITF (Open era record)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (July 10, 1978)|
|Grand Slam Singles results|
|Australian Open||W (1981, 1983, 1985)|
|French Open||W (1982, 1984)|
|Wimbledon||W (1978, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1990)|
|US Open||W (1983, 1984, 1986, 1987)|
|Tour Finals||W (1978, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986Mar, 1986Nov)|
|Career record||747–143 (83.9%)|
|Career titles||177 WTA, 9 ITF (Open era record)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (September 10, 1984)|
|Grand Slam Doubles results|
|Australian Open||W (1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989)|
|French Open||W (1975, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988)|
|Wimbledon||W (1976, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986)|
|US Open||W (1977, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990)|
|Other doubles tournaments|
|Tour Finals||W (1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986Nov, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991)|
|Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results|
|Australian Open||W (2003)|
|French Open||W (1974, 1985)|
|Wimbledon||W (1985, 1993, 1995, 2003)|
|US Open||W (1985, 1987, 2006)|
|Fed Cup||W (1975, 1982, 1986, 1989)|
|Coaching career (2014–2015)|
Navratilova was born Martina Šubertová in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Her parents divorced when she was three, and her mother, an accomplished gymnast, tennis player, and ski instructor, moved the family to Řevnice. In 1962, her mother Jana married Miroslav Navrátil, who became her first tennis coach. Martina then took the name of her stepfather (adding the feminine suffix "ová"), thus becoming Martina Navrátilová (Czech pronunciation: [ˈmarcɪna ˈnavraːcɪlovaː] (listen)). Her father, Mirek (officially Miroslav Subert), was a ski instructor and remarried and divorced. When she was eight, he committed suicide.
In 2008, Navratilova's mother died of emphysema, aged 75. Navratilova has a sister, Jana, and an older paternal half-brother. Her grandmother, Agnes Semanska, was a tennis player for the Czechoslovak Federation before the Second World War and had a ranking as high as No. 2 among Czech women during her amateur career.
When Navratilova was four, she was hitting a tennis ball off a concrete wall and started to play tennis regularly at age 7. In 1972, at the age of 15, Navratilova won the Czechoslovakia national tennis championship. In 1973, aged 16, she made her debut on the United States Lawn Tennis Association professional tour but did not turn professional until 1975. Although perhaps most renowned for her mastery of fast low-bouncing grass, her best early showing at majors was on the red clay at the French Open, where she would go on to reach the final six times. In 1973, she made the quarterfinals where she lost 6–7, 4–6 to Evonne Goolagong. She made the quarterfinals the next year and lost to Helga Masthoff (née Niessen), after again losing the first set in a tiebreak.
Navratilova won her first professional singles title in Orlando, Florida in 1974, at the age of 17. Upon arriving in the United States, Navratilova first lived with former Vaudeville actress, Frances Dewey Wormser, and her husband, Morton Wormser, a tennis enthusiast.
Navratilova was the runner-up at two major singles tournaments in 1975. She lost in the final of the Australian Open to Evonne Goolagong and in the final of the French Open to Chris Evert over three sets. After losing to Evert in the semifinals of that year's US Open in September, the 18-year-old Navratilova went to the offices of the Immigration and Naturalization Service in New York City and informed them that she wished to defect from Communist Czechoslovakia. Within a month, she received a green card and in 1981 became a US citizen. Also, in 1975, Navratilova teamed with then world number one, Chris Evert, to win the French Open women's doubles title, Martina's first major title outside of mixed doubles. They teamed again in 1976 to win the women's Wimbledon doubles title over Billie Jean King and Bette Stove.
Navratilova won her first major singles title at Wimbledon in 1978, where she defeated Evert in three sets in the final and captured the world No. 1 ranking for the first time on the WTA computer, a position she held until Evert took it back in January 1979. Navratilova successfully defended her Wimbledon title in 1979, again beating Evert in the final in straight sets, and earned the World No. 1 ranking at the end of the year for the first time. Just before Wimbledon in 1979, Navratilova and Evert played possibly the highest scoring women's professional match ever in the Eastbourne final, in which Evert edged Navratilova 7–5, 5–7, 13-11 after facing match points herself. In April 1981, Evert defeated Navratilova in the finals of the Women's Tennis Association championships, held on clay at Amelia Island, 6–0, 6–0. It was Navratilova's only professional double bagel loss (one she later avenged with a crushing 6–2, 6–0 defeat of Evert in the finals of the same Amelia Island event in 1984). It was at this point that Navratilova began working with Nancy Lieberman to improve her fitness and toughen her mental approach to better compete with Evert and fulfil her true potential. In 1981, Navratilova won her third major singles title by defeating Evert in the final of the Australian Open. Navratilova also defeated Evert to reach the final of the US Open, where she lost a third set tiebreak to Tracy Austin. Navratilova won both Wimbledon and the French Open in 1982.
After adopting basketball player Nancy Lieberman's exercise plan and using Yonex isometric midsize graphite-fiberglass composite racquets, Navratilova became the most dominant player in women's tennis. After losing in the fourth round of the first major event of 1983, the French Open, she captured the year's three remaining major titles (the Australian Open was held in December at that time). Navratilova's loss at the French Open was her only singles defeat during that year, during which she established an 86–1 record. Her winning percentage was the best ever for a post-1968 professional tennis player. During 1982, 1983, and 1984, Navratilova lost a total of only six singles matches. This included a run of 13 consecutive victories over her closest rival and world-ranked No. 2, Chris Evert. Navratilova's reign from 1982 to 1986 is the most dominant unbroken spell in the professional era.
Navratilova won the 1984 French Open, thus holding all four major singles titles simultaneously. Her accomplishment was declared a "Grand Slam" by Philippe Chatrier, president of the International Tennis Federation, although some tennis observers countered that it was not a true slam because the titles had not been won in a single calendar year. Navratilova extended her major singles tournament winning streak to a record-equalling six following wins at Wimbledon and the US Open. Navratilova's victory meant she became the first player to win majors on clay, grass and hard court on the same year. She entered the 1984 Australian Open with a chance of winning all four titles in the same year. In the semifinals, however, Helena Suková ended Navratilova's 74-match winning streak (a record for a professional) 1–6, 6–3, 7–5.
A left-hander, Navratilova completed a calendar grand slam in women's doubles in 1984, partnering right-handed Pam Shriver, a tall and talented player whose most noted stroke was a slice forehand, a shot virtually unheard of in the game today. This was part of a record 109-match winning streak that the pair achieved between 1983 and 1985. (Navratilova was ranked the world No. 1 doubles player for a period of over three years in the 1980s.) From 1985 through 1987, Navratilova reached the women's singles final at all 11 major tournaments held during those three years, winning six of them. From 1982 through 1990, she reached the Wimbledon final nine consecutive times. She reached the US Open final five consecutive times from 1983 through 1987 and appeared in the French Open final five out of six years from 1982 through 1987.
In 1985, Navratilova played in what many consider to be perhaps the best woman's match of all time, the French Open final against Chris Evert. Navratilova battled back from 3–6, 2–4 down to 5-5 all in the third set, before Evert hit a winning backhand passing shot on match point to defeat Navratilova 6–3, 6–7(4), 7–5. This was a major turnaround for Evert, who was so outmatched the year earlier in the final that Bud Collins remarked as a TV commentator that the sport needed to create a higher league for Navratilova to compete in. In outdoor matches against Evert, Navratilova led 10–5 on grass and 9–7 on hardcourts, while Evert was up 11–3 on clay. On indoor courts, however, Navratilova had a decisive 21–14 lead. At the end of what is widely regarded as the greatest rivalry in women's tennis, Navratilova led Evert 43–37 in total matches, 14–8 in Grand Slams and 10–4 in Grand Slam finals.
In the 1986 U.S. Open, Navratilova prevailed over Steffi Graf in a close semi-final winning 6-1, 6-7 (7-3), 7-6 (10-8), before handily winning the final over Helena Sukova 6-3, 6-2. Navratliva, with partner Pam Shriver, also won the women's doubles title.
Seventeen-year-old German player Steffi Graf emerged on the scene in 1987 when she narrowly beat Navratilova in the final of the French Open, 6–4, 4–6, 8–6. Navratilova defeated Graf in straight sets in the 1987 Wimbledon and US Open finals (and at the US Open became only the third player in the Open Era, joining tennis legends Margaret Court and Billie Jean King, to win the women's singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles at the same event—the rare "Triple Crown"). Navratilova reached all four Grand Slam finals in 1987, winning two of them. Graf's consistent play throughout 1987, however, allowed her to obtain the world No. 1 ranking before the end of the year. Graf eventually broke Navratilova's records of 156 consecutive weeks and 331 total weeks as the world No. 1 singles player but fell 60 short of Navratilova's record of 167 singles titles. Including doubles, Navratilova won almost three times as many titles as Graf with a record doubles/mixed/singles combined total of 344 titles to Graf's 118.
In 1988, Graf won all four major singles titles, beating the 31-year-old Navratilova 5–7, 6–2, 6–1 in the Wimbledon final along the way, after recovering from a set and a break down. In 1989, Graf and Navratilova met in the finals of both Wimbledon and the US Open, with Graf winning both encounters in three sets. Despite the 13 year age difference between the two players, and Graf's comparative lack of investment in doubles and mixed doubles, Navratilova won 9 of the 18 career singles matches with Graf and 5 of the 9 major singles matches with her. At age 34, Navratilova defeated Graf the last time they played in a major in the semifinals of the 1991 US Open 7–6(2), 6–7(6), 6–4, to end their Grand Slam rivalry 5-4 up. It is worthy to note that all 4 of Graf's Grand Slam victories over Navratilova came in the finals of a Slam. This is reflected in the Grand Slams Finals chart below.
Navratilova's final major singles triumph was in 1990. In the final, the 33-year-old Navratilova swept Zina Garrison 6–4, 6–1 to claim an all-time record ninth Wimbledon singles crown. Though that was her last major singles title, Navratilova reached two additional major singles finals during the remainder of career. In 1991, she lost in the US Open final to the new world No. 1, Monica Seles. In 1994, at age 37, Navratilova reached the Wimbledon final, where she lost in three sets to Conchita Martínez. In November that year, after losing to Gabriela Sabatini in the first round of the WTA Tour Championships, she retired from full-time competition on the singles tour. She was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2000.
In 2000, Navratilova returned to the tour to mostly play doubles events, while rarely also playing singles. In her first singles performance in eight years, at Eastbourne in 2002, she beat world No. 22, Tatiana Panova, before losing in the next round to Daniela Hantuchová in three sets. In 2003, she won the mixed doubles titles at both the Australian Open and Wimbledon, partnering Leander Paes. This made her the oldest ever major champion (aged 46 years, 8 months). The Australian Open victory made her the third player in history to complete a "boxed set" of major titles by winning the singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles at all four majors. The Wimbledon win allowed her to equal Billie Jean King's record of 20 Wimbledon titles (in singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles combined) and extended her overall number of major titles to 58 (second only to Margaret Court, who won 62). Despite being criticized for receiving a wildcard, Navratilova won a singles match over Catalina Castaño 6–0 6–1 at the first round of Wimbledon in 2004, aged 47 years and eight months, to make her the oldest player to win a professional singles match in the open era. Navratilova then lost her second round match with Gisela Dulko in three sets.
On Thursday, July 6, 2006, Navratilova played her last matches at Wimbledon, with partner Liezel Huber losing a quarterfinal match in women's doubles to fourth seeds and eventual champions Yan Zi and Zheng Jie, and later in the same day with partner Mark Knowles losing in the third round of mixed doubles to eventual champions Andy Ram and Vera Zvonareva. She had said that her last Wimbledon wasn't about breaking her record shared with Billie Jean King of 20 championships. In an interview, Navratilova was quoted as saying, "People keep saying that, but it so wasn't. I just wanted to win one more title here, period."
Navratilova capped off her career by winning the mixed doubles title, her 41st major doubles title (31 in women's doubles and 10 in mixed doubles) and 177th overall, at the 2006 US Open with American doubles specialist Bob Bryan. At the time, she was only about a month shy of her 50th birthday and broke her own record as the oldest ever major champion (aged 49 years, 11 months).
Navratilova won 167 top-level singles titles (more than any other player in the open era) and 177 doubles titles. Her last title in women's doubles came on August 21, 2006, at the Tier I Rogers Cup in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where she partnered Nadia Petrova. Navratilova won 18 major singles titles: nine at Wimbledon, four at the US Open, three at the Australian Open, and two at the French Open. Her overall record in 67 major singles events was 306–49 (120–14 at Wimbledon, 89–17 at the US Open, 51–11 at the French Open, and 46–7 at the Australian Open). Some observers argue that the very few singles matches she played in her forties should be counted separately in her career statistics. She is the only player to have won at least one tour event for 21 consecutive years and won the singles and doubles at the same event a record 84 times. She was ranked in the world top 3 in singles for 15 years between 1977 and 1993. Her career singles match win total of 1,442 is the most during the open era.
In September 1992, the 35-year-old Navratilova played Jimmy Connors in the third Battle of the Sexes tennis match at Caesars Palace in Paradise, Nevada. Connors was allowed only one serve per point and Navratilova was allowed to hit into half the doubles court. Connors won 7–5, 6–2. She played for the Boston Lobsters in the World TeamTennis pro league through the 2009 season.
Evert said that "Martina revolutionized the game by her superb athleticism and aggressiveness ... She brought athleticism to a whole new level with her training techniques — particularly cross-training, the idea that you could go to the gym or play basketball to get in shape for tennis."
In December 2014, it was announced that Navratilova had joined Agnieszka Radwańska's coaching staff. However, in April 2015, after Radwańska struggled in the first half of the season, the pair decided to part ways.
In 1985, Navratilova released an autobiography, co-written with The New York Times sports columnist George Vecsey, titled Martina in the U.S. and Being Myself in the rest of the world. She had earlier co-written a tennis instruction book with Mary Carillo in 1982, entitled Tennis My Way. She later wrote three mystery novels with Liz Nickles: The Total Zone (1994), Breaking Point (1996), and Killer Instinct (1997). Navratilova's most recent literary effort was a health and fitness book entitled Shape Your Self, which came out in 2006.
In 1981, shortly after becoming a United States citizen, Navratilova gave an interview to New York Daily News sports reporter Steve Goldstein, coming out as bisexual and revealing that she had a sexual relationship with Rita Mae Brown, but asked him not to publish the article until she was ready to come out publicly. However, the New York Daily News published the article on July 30, 1981. Navratilova and Nancy Lieberman, her girlfriend at the time, gave an interview to Dallas Morning News columnist Skip Bayless, where Navratilova reiterated that she was bisexual and Lieberman identified herself as straight. Navratilova has since identified herself as a lesbian.
From 1984 to 1991, Navratilova had a long-term relationship with Judy Nelson, whom she met at a tournament in Fort Worth in 1982. Their split in 1991 resulted in a televised palimony lawsuit which was settled out of court.
According to the New York Times' Jane E. Brody, in September 1982, an acute attack of toxoplasmosis "contributed to Martina Navratilova's defeat during the United States Open tennis tournament", in which No. 1 seed Navratilova unexpectedly lost to No. 7 seed Pam Shriver in the quarterfinal round. (Shriver—Navratilova's doubles partner in the same tournament—subsequently lost to No. 5 seed Hana Mandlíková in the semifinal. Mandlíková was then defeated in the final by Navratilova's longtime rival, No. 2 seed Chris Evert.) By late October, Navratilova had "apparently recovered".
On April 7, 2010, Navratilova announced that she was being treated for breast cancer. A routine mammogram in January 2010 revealed that she had a ductal carcinoma in situ in her left breast, which she was informed of on February 24, and in March she had the tumour surgically removed; she received radiation therapy in May.
When not playing tennis, Navratilova is involved with various charities that benefit animal rights, underprivileged children, and gay rights. She participated in a lawsuit against Amendment 2, a successful 1992 ballot proposition in Colorado designed to prevent sexual orientation from being a protected class. In 1993, she spoke before the March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. She also serves as the Health and Fitness Ambassador for AARP in an alliance created to help AARP's millions of members lead active, healthy lives.
Navratilova is a vegetarian. In an April 2006 interview, however, she said she had recently begun eating fish again because she found it hard to get enough protein while on the road; which would make her a pescetarian rather than a vegetarian; nevertheless in 2008 she described herself as vegetarian.
She has spoken out on a number of volatile political issues, including tort/litigation reform, but perhaps her most consistent theme—aside from gay and lesbian rights—has been her unstinting opposition to Communism, and unrelenting opposition to the former Eastern Bloc power structure that compelled her to flee her native Czechoslovakia. She has denounced the Soviet Union's control over Czechoslovakia, maintaining that she refuses to speak Russian to this day because of the Soviet Union's former hegemony over Eastern Europe.
Whenever people go into politics and they try to say that Communism was a good thing, I say, 'Go ahead and live in a Communist country then, if you think it's so great.' "
Navratilova was a guest on CNN's Connie Chung Tonight show on July 17, 2002. During the show, Chung quoted a German newspaper which quoted Navratilova as saying:
The most absurd part of my escape from the unjust system is that I have exchanged one system that suppresses free opinion for another. The Republicans in the U.S. manipulate public opinion and sweep controversial issues under the table. It's depressing. Decisions in America are based solely on the question of how much money will come out of it and not on the questions of how much health, morals or environment suffer as a result.
Navratilova said that the remarks referred to what she perceived as a trend of centralization of government power and a loss of personal freedom. In the discussion that followed, Chung stated:
Can I be honest with you? I can tell you that when I read this, I have to tell you that I thought it was un-American, unpatriotic. I wanted to say, go back to Czechoslovakia. You know, if you don't like it here, this a country that gave you so much, gave you the freedom to do what you want.
And I'm giving it back. This is why I speak out. When I see something that I don't like, I'm going to speak out because you can do that here. And again, I feel there are too many things happening that are taking our rights away.
By winning the 1983 US Open title, Navratilova completed the Career Grand Slam. She became only the seventh female player in history to achieve this.
|Runner-up||1975||Australian Open||Grass||Evonne Goolagong||3–6, 2–6|
|Runner-up||1975||French Open||Clay||Chris Evert||6–2, 2–6, 1–6|
|Winner||1978||Wimbledon (1)||Grass||Chris Evert||2–6, 6–4, 7–5|
|Winner||1979||Wimbledon (2)||Grass||Chris Evert||6–4, 6–4|
|Runner-up||1981||US Open||Hard||Tracy Austin||6–1, 6–7(4–7), 6–7(1–7)|
|Winner||1981||Australian Open (1)||Grass||Chris Evert||6–7(4–7), 6–4, 7–5|
|Winner||1982||French Open (1)||Clay||Andrea Jaeger||7–6(8–6), 6–1|
|Winner||1982||Wimbledon (3)||Grass||Chris Evert||6–1, 3–6, 6–2|
|Runner-up||1982||Australian Open||Grass||Chris Evert||3–6, 6–2, 3–6|
|Winner||1983||Wimbledon (4)||Grass||Andrea Jaeger||6–0, 6–3|
|Winner||1983||US Open (1)||Hard||Chris Evert||6–1, 6–3|
|Winner||1983||Australian Open (2)||Grass||Kathy Jordan||6–2, 7–6(7–5)|
|Winner||1984||French Open (2)||Clay||Chris Evert||6–3, 6–1|
|Winner||1984||Wimbledon (5)||Grass||Chris Evert||7–6(7–5), 6–2|
|Winner||1984||US Open (2)||Hard||Chris Evert||4–6, 6–4, 6–4|
|Runner-up||1985||French Open||Clay||Chris Evert||3–6, 7–6(7–4), 5–7|
|Winner||1985||Wimbledon (6)||Grass||Chris Evert||4–6, 6–3, 6–2|
|Runner-up||1985||US Open||Hard||Hana Mandlíková||6–7(3–7), 6–1, 6–7(2–7)|
|Winner||1985||Australian Open (3)||Grass||Chris Evert||6–2, 4–6, 6–2|
|Runner-up||1986||French Open||Clay||Chris Evert||6–2, 3–6, 3–6|
|Winner||1986||Wimbledon (7)||Grass||Hana Mandlíková||7–6(7–1), 6–3|
|Winner||1986||US Open (3)||Hard||Helena Suková||6–3, 6–2|
|Runner-up||1987||Australian Open||Grass||Hana Mandlíková||5–7, 6–7(1–7)|
|Runner-up||1987||French Open||Clay||Steffi Graf||4–6, 6–4, 6–8|
|Winner||1987||Wimbledon (8)||Grass||Steffi Graf||7–5, 6–3|
|Winner||1987||US Open (4)||Hard||Steffi Graf||7–6(7–4), 6–1|
|Runner-up||1988||Wimbledon||Grass||Steffi Graf||7–5, 2–6, 1–6|
|Runner-up||1989||Wimbledon||Grass||Steffi Graf||2–6, 7–6(7–1), 1–6|
|Runner-up||1989||US Open||Hard||Steffi Graf||6–3, 5–7, 1–6|
|Winner||1990||Wimbledon (9)||Grass||Zina Garrison||6–4, 6–1|
|Runner-up||1991||US Open||Hard||Monica Seles||6–7(1–7), 1–6|
|Runner-up||1994||Wimbledon||Grass||Conchita Martínez||4–6, 6–3, 3–6|
|Time span||Selected Grand Slam tournament records||Players matched|
|1974 French Open —
2003 Australian Open
|Career Boxed Set[a]||Margaret Court[b]|
|1974 French Open —
2006 US Open
|59 combined titles[c]||Stands alone[d]|
|1974 French Open —
2006 US Open
|41 combined doubles titles (same sex & mixed)||Stands alone|
|1975 French Open —
1990 US Open
|31 doubles titles (same sex)||Stands alone|
|1975 French Open —
1990 US Open
|7+ doubles titles at all four Majors||Stands alone|
|1983 Wimbledon —
|6 titles won without losing a set||Serena Williams|
|1983 Wimbledon —
1984 US Open
|6 consecutive Grand Slams won[e]||Margaret Court|
|1983 Wimbledon —
1988 Australian Open
|18 consecutive singles semifinals[f]||Stands alone|
|1978 Wimbledon —
|Winner of Grand Slam singles titles in three decades||Serena Williams|
|1974 French Open —
2006 US Open
|Winner of Grand Slam titles (singles, doubles and mixed) in four decades||Stands alone|
|1983 Wimbledon —
1983 US Open
|2 titles won without losing a set in the same calendar year||Billie Jean King |
|Grand Slam tournaments||Time Span||Records at each Grand Slam tournament||Players matched|
|French Open||1984–1987||4 consecutive singles finals||Chris Evert|
|Wimbledon||1978–1990||9 singles titles overall||Stands alone|
|Wimbledon||1982–1987||6 consecutive singles titles||Stands alone|
|Wimbledon||1976–1990||7+ titles overall in both singles and doubles||Stands alone|
|Wimbledon||1978–1994||12 singles finals overall||Stands alone|
|Wimbledon||1982–1990||9 consecutive singles finals||Stands alone|
|4 titles won without losing a set||Stands alone|
|US Open||1987||Singles, doubles and mixed doubles titles at same Grand Slam event
|Time span||Other selected records||Players matched|
|1978–1992||8 WTA Tour Championships titles overall||Stands alone|
|1984, 1985||2 Tour Championships titles without losing a set||Stands alone|
|1978–1992||14 Tour Championships finals overall||Stands alone|
|1975–1992||16 Tour Championships semifinals||Stands alone|
|1974–1993||60 Tour Championships match wins||Stands alone|
|1974–1994||21 Tour Championships appearances||Stands alone|
|1974–1985||7 Orlando singles titles||Stands alone|
|1975–1996||5 US Indoors singles titles||Stands alone|
|1975–1990||9 Washington singles titles||Stands alone|
|1978–1993||8 Los Angeles singles titles||Stands alone|
|1978–1992||12 Chicago singles titles||Stands alone|
|1978–1993||11 Eastbourne singles titles||Stands alone|
|1979–1990||9 Dallas singles titles||Stands alone|
|1974–1994||167 singles titles||Stands alone|
|1974–2006||177 doubles titles||Stands alone|
|1974–2006||359 combined titles||Stands alone|
|1973–1994||239 singles finals reached||Stands alone|
|1974–2006||1661 matches played||Stands alone|
|1974–2006||1442 matches won||Stands alone|
|1974–1993||93 career indoor titles||Stands alone|
|1984||13 consecutive titles in 1 season||Stands alone|
|1975–1995||21 consecutive years winning 1+ title ||Stands alone|
|1983–1984||23 consecutive finals||Stands alone|
|1974–2006||390 career tournaments played||Stands alone|
|1975–2006||305 grass court match wins||Stands alone|
|1973–1994||512 carpet court match wins||Stands alone|
|1973–1994||605 indoor court match wins||Stands alone|
|1973–1994||755 outdoor court match wins||Stands alone|
|1983||98.9% (86–1) single season match winning percentage||Stands alone|
|1984||74 consecutive matches won||Stands alone|
|1973–1994||89.99% (576–58) carpet court match winning percentage||Stands alone|
|1973–1994||61 singles finals against same player (Chris Evert, 36–25)||Chris Evert|
|1973–1994||80 matches against same player (Chris Evert, 43–37)||Chris Evert|
|1982–1986||5 consecutive years ended at No. 1 (singles)||Stands alone|
|1973–1994||18 match wins against No. 1 ranked player||Stands alone|
|1978–1993||16 years with winning percentage 80%+||Stands alone|
|1978–1993||16 consecutive years with winning percentage 80%+||Stands alone|
|1978–1992||12 titles at a single tournament (Chicago)||Stands alone|
|1978–1993||11+ titles at two different tournaments (Chicago, Eastbourne)||Stands alone|
|1975–1993||8+ titles at seven different tournaments||Stands alone|
|1975–1993||14 finals at two different tournaments (Chicago, WTA Finals)||Stands alone|
|1975–1994||11+ finals at seven different tournaments||Stands alone|
In 2005, Tennis magazine selected her as the greatest female tennis player for the years 1965 through 2005, directly over Steffi Graf. Billie Jean King, a former World No. 1 player, said in 2006 that Navratilova is "the greatest singles, doubles and mixed doubles player who's ever lived." In 2008, tennis historian and journalist Bud Collins called Navratilova "arguably, the greatest player of all time."
In March 2012, The Tennis Channel named Navratilova as the second greatest female tennis player of all times, behind Steffi Graf, in their list of 100 greatest tennis players of all times.
On September 19, 2018 she was the motivation behind Dee Reynolds and her gang's attempt at the boggs challenge in the television show "Its Always Sunny in Philadelphia"
In 1983, Martina Navratilova and Vijay Amritraj appeared in the Hart to Hart episode "Love Game" as themselves, as the guests of honor at a charity tennis event. Her role was the more significant; she partnered with the lead male character Jonathan Hart (Robert Wagner) in a mixed doubles match. In 1996, Navratilova was featured with American football player Art Monk in an endorsement for PowerBook in an ad series "What's on Your PowerBook?" In November 2008, Martina Navratilova appeared on the UK's ITV series Series 8 of I'm a Celebrity ... Get Me Out of Here!; she finished runner-up to Joe Swash. In February 2012 Navratilova was announced as a cast member on the 14th season of ABC's Dancing with the Stars. She was partnered with Tony Dovolani, but they were the first pair eliminated. Navratilova guest-starred as a dissatisfied Yelp reviewer in episode three of the third season of absurdist comedy Portlandia.
The 1980 Avon Championships World Championship Series was the 10th season since the foundation of the Women's Tennis Association. It commenced on January 7, 1980, and concluded on December 24, 1980, after 36 events. The Avon Championships World Championship Series was the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). The year is divided into two sponsored tours, with the first three months sponsored by Avon Series and the latter part by Colgate Series. It included the four Grand Slam tournaments and a series of other events. ITF tournaments were not part of the tour, although they awarded points for the WTA World Ranking.1981 WTA Tour
The 1981 Avon Championships World Championship Series was the 10th season since the foundation of the Women's Tennis Association. It commenced on January 4, 1981, and concluded on December 19, 1981, after 36 events. The Avon Championships World Championship Series was the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). The year is divided into two sponsors with the first three months sponsored by Avon Series and the latter part by Toyota Series. It included the four Grand Slam tournaments and a series of other events. ITF tournaments were not part of the tour, although they awarded points for the WTA World Ranking.1982 WTA Tour
The 1982 Avon Championships World Championship Series was the 10th season since the foundation of the Women's Tennis Association. It commenced on January 4, 1982, and concluded on December 19, 1982, after 36 events. The Avon Championships World Championship Series was the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). It was held in place of the WTA Tour from 1982 until 1987 and featured tournaments that had previously been part of the Toyota Series and the Avon Series. It included the four Grand Slam tournaments and a series of other events. ITF tournaments were not part of the tour, although they awarded points for the WTA World Ranking.1983 Virginia Slims World Championship Series
The 1983 Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the 13th season since the foundation of the Women's Tennis Association. It commenced on January 3, 1983, and concluded on March 4, 1984, after 64 events.The Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). It was held in place of the WTA Tour from 1983 until 1987 and featured tournaments that had previously been part of the Toyota Series and the Avon Series. The circuit consisted of 48 tournaments in nine countries, including the four Grand Slam tournaments, and culminated in the season-ending Virginia Slims Championships played in February 1984. ITF tournaments were not part of the tour, although they awarded points for the WTA World Ranking.
Martina Navratilova was the most successful player in both singles and doubles across the season. She won three of the four Grand Slam tournaments in singles, with Chris Evert-Lloyd winning the French Open. In doubles, Navratilova again won all the Grand Slams apart from the French Open, which was collected by Rosalyn Fairbank and Candy Reynolds; Pam Shriver was her partner in all the Grand Slam events. Navratilova won a total of 29 titles in the course of the year and only suffered one defeat in singles, against Kathy Horvath at the French Open. This led to her beginning and ending the year as the WTA number 1. Shriver was her closest challenger with 16 titles, including 14 in doubles events. Players from the United States won 74 of the 125 titles awarded in singles, doubles and mixed doubles; players from Brazil, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Netherlands and Switzerland each won a solitary title.1984 Virginia Slims World Championship Series
The 1984 Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the 14th season since the foundation of the Women's Tennis Association. It commenced in March 1984, and concluded in March 1985 after events.
The Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). It was held in place of the WTA Tour from 1983 until 1987 and featured tournaments that had previously been part of the Toyota Series and the Avon Series. It included the four Grand Slam tournaments and a series of other events. ITF tournaments were not part of the tour, although they awarded points for the WTA World Ranking.1985 Virginia Slims World Championship Series
The 1985 Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the 15th season since the foundation of the Women's Tennis Association. It commenced in March 1985, and concluded in March 1986 after 52 events.
The Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). It was held in place of the WTA Tour from 1983 until 1987 and featured tournaments that had previously been part of the Toyota Series and the Avon Series. It included the four Grand Slam tournaments and a series of other events. ITF tournaments were not part of the tour, although they awarded points for the WTA World Ranking.
The season was dominated by Martina Navratilova, who won 13 tournaments and reached the finals of the four Grand Slam events. She defeated Chris Evert at Wimbledon and the Australian Open. Navratilova also won the Virginia Slims Championships in March and ended the year at World Number 1. Evert, the winner of ten titles in 1985, emerged victorious at Roland-Garros, while Hana Mandlíková won the U.S. Open. Newcomer of the Year Gabriela Sabatini won the first title of her career in Tokyo. In doubles, the pairing of Navratilova and Pam Shriver won the title at Roland-Garros and the Australian Open, Jordan and Smylie won the Wimbledon title and Kohde-Kilsch–Suková were victorious at the US Open.1986 Virginia Slims World Championship Series
The 1986 Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the 14th season since the foundation of the Women's Tennis Association. It commenced in March 24, 1986, and concluded in December, 1986 after 41 events. The season was abbreviated in order to return the tour to a calendar year basis.
The Virginia Slims World Championship Series was the elite tour for professional women's tennis organised by the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). It was held in place of the WTA Tour from 1983 until 1987 and featured tournaments that had previously been part of the Toyota Series and the Avon Series. It included the four Grand Slam tournaments and a series of other events. ITF tournaments were not part of the tour, although they awarded points for the WTA World Ranking. No Australian Open was held during 1986 due to the tournament start date being moved from November to January.Ameritech Cup
The Ameritech Cup (known also as the Virginia Slims of Chicago and the Avon Championships of Chicago) is a defunct WTA Tour affiliated tennis tournament held every year from 1971 until 1997 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States. Its sponsors were Virginia Slims from 1971 to 1978 and again from 1983 to 1994, Avon from 1979 to 1982 and Ameritech from 1995 to 1997. The tournament was classified as Tier III in 1988-1989, Tier I in 1990 and Tier II until 1997, and was played on indoor carpet courts.
Martina Navratilova was the most successful player at the tournament, winning the singles competition 12 times and the doubles competition 7 times. Past champions also include former No. 1 players Chris Evert (1977), Monica Seles (1993) and Lindsay Davenport (1997).Anne Smith
Anne Smith (born July 1, 1959) is an educational psychologist known for her past as a professional tennis player from the United States.
Smith's highest women's doubles ranking was World No. 1 in 1980 and 1981. Her highest singles ranking was World No. 11 in 1980.Claudia Kohde-Kilsch
Claudia Kohde-Kilsch (née Kohde; born 11 December 1963) is a former German tennis player and member of the Die Linke. During her tennis career, she won two women's doubles Grand Slam titles. She also won eight singles titles and a total of 25 doubles titles.Grand Slam (tennis)
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points, prize money, public and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of "best of" sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open around late May through early June, Wimbledon in June-July, and the US Open in August-September. Each tournament is played over a period of two weeks. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on hard courts, the French on clay, and Wimbledon on grass. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, and the Australian in 1905. However, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924–25, when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. Skipping majors—especially the Australian Open because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates (around Christmas and New Year's Day) and the low prize money—was not unusual before 1982.
Grand Slam tournaments are not operated by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) or the Women's Tennis Association (WTA), but by the International Tennis Federation (ITF). However, the ATP and WTA do award ranking points based on a player's performance at a major.The term Grand Slam, without qualification, and also originally, refers to the achievement of winning all four major championships within a single calendar year within one of the five events: men's and women's singles; men's, women's, and mixed doubles. In doubles, one team may accomplish a Grand Slam playing together or one player may achieve it with different partners.Winning the four majors in consecutive tournaments but not in the same year is known as a Non-Calendar Year Grand Slam, while winning all four majors at any point during the course of a career is known as a Career Grand Slam. Winning the gold medal at the Summer Olympic Games in addition to the four majors in one calendar year is known as a "Golden Grand Slam" or more commonly the "Golden Slam". Also, winning the Year-End Championship (known as ATP Finals for men's singles and doubles disciplines, and WTA Finals for both women's disciplines) in the same period is known as a "Super Slam". Together, all four majors in all three disciplines (singles, doubles, and mixed doubles) are called a "boxed set" of Grand Slam titles. No male or female player has won all twelve events in one calendar year, although a "career boxed set" has been achieved by three female players.Kathy Jordan
Kathryn "Kathy" Jordan (born December 3, 1959) is a former American tennis player. During her career, she won seven Grand Slam titles, five of them in women's doubles and two in mixed doubles. She also was the 1983 Australian Open women's singles runner-up and won three singles titles and 42 doubles titles.List of Grand Slam women's singles champions
List of Women's singles Grand Slam tournaments tennis champions. Note that some major changes have taken place over the years that have affected how many titles have been won by various players. Most notable included the elimination of the challenge round in 1922, the opening of the French national championships to international competition in 1925, and the admission of professional players in 1968 (the start of the "Open" era). Since then, 45 women have won at least one grand slam.List of WTA number 1 ranked tennis players
The list of WTA number 1 ranked players shows the professional women's tennis players who have been or currently are ranked world No. 1 by the Women's Tennis Association, along with the dates of first reaching and losing that spot. Since the WTA began producing computerized rankings on November 3, 1975, 25 women have reached the highest singles ranking and 41 women the highest doubles ranking. The WTA Rankings are a merit-based method for determining the rankings in women's tennis and the WTA releases ranking points weekly based on how players fared during the previous 52 weeks.Open Era tennis records – women's singles
The Open Era is another name for the current era of professional tennis. It began in 1968 when the Grand Slam tournaments allowed professional players to compete with amateurs, ending the division that had persisted since the dawn of the sport in the 19th century. The first "open" event was held in Bournemouth, England, followed by the inaugural open Grand Slam event a month later.All records are based on data from the WTA, the ITF, and the official sites of the four Grand Slam tournaments.
Active streaks and active players are in boldface.Tracy Austin
Tracy Ann Austin Holt (born December 12, 1962) is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. She won three Grand Slam titles, including the women's singles titles at the 1979 and 1981 US Opens, and the mixed doubles title at the Wimbledon Championships in 1980. Additionally, she won the WTA Tour Championships in 1980 and the year-ending Toyota Championships in 1981, both in singles. A series of injuries and a serious automobile accident cut short her career. Since 1979, she has been the youngest US Open female singles champion in history, and she is the youngest inductee of all time at the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Austin won singles titles on all playing surfaces: clay (both red clay and green clay), indoor carpet, grass, and hard courts.WTA Finals
The WTA Finals (formerly known as the WTA Tour Championships short: WTA Championships) is a tournament of the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) played annually at the end of the season for the top-ranked professional players. The location and number of players has changed since the first edition in 1972. Since 2003 there have been eight singles players divided into two round-robin groups, and eight doubles teams.
The WTA Finals is unofficially considered the fifth most prestigious WTA Tour event of a season after the four Grand Slam tournaments. It also has the largest prize money and ranking points after the majors. The most successful finals player is Martina Navratilova, who has won eight singles and 13 doubles titles.
To qualify for the WTA Finals, WTA players compete throughout the year in over 53 WTA tournaments throughout the world, as well as the four Grand Slam events. Players earn ranking points on the Porsche Race To Singapore leaderboard, and the top 7 singles players (and usually top 8) and top 8 doubles teams on this leaderboard at the conclusion of the year (as of the Monday following the final regular season tournament) earn the right to compete in the WTA Championships. For singles, all results from that year count towards a player's ranking; for doubles, only the best 11 results for a team from that year count towards the team's ranking. The eighth spot in singles is not guaranteed a place in the finals as the WTA has some leeway per the WTA rules.Qualified players participate in a round-robin format in two groups of four. The winners and runners-up of each group advance to the semifinals. Doubles teams participate in a single elimination draw.WTA Tour records
This is a list of Women's Tennis Association (WTA) records since its inception in June 1973. Some tournaments from the predecessor tour, the Virginia Slims Circuit, are also included for completeness. The Virginia Slims Circuit started in September 1970 and was replaced in 1973 by the WTA. For a full list of Open Era records (1968 – present) see Open Era tennis records – women's singles.
These tables include only official WTA tour and Virginia Slims Circuit events.Wendy Turnbull
Wendy Turnbull, , (born 26 November 1952) is a retired professional tennis player from Australia. During her career, she won nine Grand Slam titles, four of them in women's doubles and five of them in mixed doubles. She also was a three-time Grand Slam singles runner-up and won 10 singles titles and 55 doubles titles.