Martin Bormann

Martin Ludwig Bormann[1] (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a German Nazi Party official and head of the Nazi Party Chancellery. He gained immense power by using his position as Adolf Hitler's private secretary to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. After Hitler's suicide on 30 April 1945, he was Party Minister of the National Socialist German Workers' Party.

Bormann joined a paramilitary Freikorps organisation in 1922 while working as manager of a large estate. He served nearly a year in prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss (later commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp) in the murder of Walther Kadow. Bormann joined the Nazi Party in 1927 and the Schutzstaffel (SS) in 1937. He initially worked in the party's insurance service, and transferred in July 1933 to the office of Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess, where he served as chief of staff.

Bormann used his position to create an extensive bureaucracy and involve himself as much as possible in the decision making. He gained acceptance into Hitler's inner circle, and accompanied him everywhere, providing briefings and summaries of events and requests. He began acting as Hitler's personal secretary on 12 August 1935. Bormann assumed Hess' former duties, with the title of Head of the Parteikanzlei (Party Chancellery), after Hess' solo flight to Britain on 10 May 1941 to seek peace negotiations with the British government. He had final approval over civil service appointments, reviewed and approved legislation, and by 1943 had de facto control over all domestic matters. Bormann was one of the leading proponents of the ongoing persecution of the Christian churches and favoured harsh treatment of Jews and Slavs in the areas conquered by Germany during World War II.

Bormann returned with Hitler to the Führerbunker in Berlin on 16 January 1945 as the Red Army approached the city. After Hitler committed suicide, Bormann and others attempted to flee Berlin on 2 May to avoid capture by the Soviets. Bormann probably committed suicide on a bridge near Lehrter station. His body was buried nearby on 8 May 1945, but was not found and confirmed as Bormann's until 1973; the identification was reaffirmed in 1998 by DNA tests. Bormann was tried in absentia by the International Military Tribunal in the Nuremberg trials of 1945 and 1946. He was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentenced to death by hanging.

Martin Bormann
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R14128A, Martin Bormann
Bormann as Reichsleiter, 1934
Chief of the Nazi Party Chancellery
In office
12 May 1941 – 2 May 1945
Preceded byRudolf Hess (as Deputy Führer)
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Private Secretary of the
Führer of the German Reich
In office
12 April 1943 – 30 April 1945
LeaderAdolf Hitler
Secretary of the
Deputy Führer of the Nazi Party
In office
July 1933 – 12 May 1941
Deputy FührerRudolf Hess
Reichsleiter
In office
October 1933 – 2 May 1945
FührerAdolf Hitler
Party Minister
In office
30 April 1945 – 2 May 1945
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Personal details
Born17 June 1900
Wegeleben, Prussia
Died2 May 1945 (aged 44)
Berlin
NationalityGerman
Political partyNational Socialist German Workers' Party
Spouse(s)
Gerda Buch (m. 1929)
Children10 including Adolf Martin Bormann
ParentsTheodor Bormann (father)
Antonie Bernhardine Mennong (mother)
RelativesWalter Buch (father-in-law)
CabinetHitler Cabinet
Signature
Martin Bormann's signature
Military service
Nickname(s)Brown Eminence
Branch/service Imperial German Army
Schutzstaffel
Years of service1918–1919
1927–1945
RankSS-Obergruppenführer
Unit55th Field Artillery Regiment
Service number278,267 (SS)

Early life and education

Born in Wegeleben (now in Saxony-Anhalt) in the Kingdom of Prussia in the German Empire, Bormann was the son of Theodor Bormann (1862–1903), a post office employee, and his second wife, Antonie Bernhardine Mennong. The family was Lutheran. He had two half-siblings (Else and Walter Bormann) from his father's earlier marriage to Louise Grobler, who died in 1898. Antonie Bormann gave birth to three sons, one of whom died in infancy. Martin and Albert (1902–89) survived to adulthood. Theodor died when Bormann was three, and his mother soon remarried.[2]

Bormann's studies at an agricultural trade high school were interrupted when he joined the 55th Field Artillery Regiment as a gunner in June 1918, in the last days of World War I. He never saw action, but served garrison duty until February 1919. After working a short time in a cattle feed mill, Bormann became estate manager of a large farm in Mecklenburg.[3][4] Shortly after starting work at the estate, Bormann joined an antisemitic landowners association.[5] While hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic meant that money was worthless, foodstuffs stored on farms and estates became ever more valuable. Many estates, including Bormann's, had Freikorps units stationed on site to guard the crops from pillaging.[6] Bormann joined the Freikorps organisation headed by Gerhard Roßbach in 1922, acting as section leader and treasurer.[7]

On 17 March 1924 Bormann was sentenced to a year in Elisabethstrasse Prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow.[8][9] The perpetrators believed Kadow had tipped off the French occupation authorities in the Ruhr District that fellow Freikorps member Albert Leo Schlageter was carrying out sabotage operations against French industries. Schlageter was arrested and was executed on 23 May 1923. On the night of 31 May, Höss, Bormann and several others took Kadow into a meadow out of town, where he was beaten and his throat cut.[10] After one of the perpetrators confessed, police dug up the body and laid charges in July.[11] Bormann was released from prison in February 1925.[8][a] He joined the Frontbann, a short-lived Nazi Party paramilitary organisation created to replace the Sturmabteilung (SA; storm detachment or assault division), which had been banned in the aftermath of the failed Munich Putsch. Bormann returned to his job at Mecklenburg and remained there until May 1926, when he moved in with his mother in Oberweimar.[13]

Career in the Nazi Party

In 1927, Bormann joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party; NSDAP). His membership number was 60,508.[14] He joined the Schutzstaffel (SS) on 1 January 1937 with number 278,267.[15] By special order of Heinrich Himmler in 1938, Bormann was granted SS number 555 to reflect his Alter Kämpfer (Old Fighter) status.[16]

Early career

Bormann took a job with Der Nationalsozialist, a weekly paper edited by NSDAP member Hans Severus Ziegler, who was deputy Gauleiter (party leader) for Thuringia. After joining the NSDAP in 1927, Bormann began duties as regional press officer, but his lack of public-speaking skills made him ill-suited to this position. He soon put his organisational skills to use as business manager for the Gau (region).[17] He moved to Munich in October 1928, where he worked in the SA insurance office. Initially the NSDAP provided coverage through insurance companies for members who were hurt or killed in the frequent violent skirmishes with members of other political parties. As insurance companies were unwilling to pay out claims for such activities, in 1930 Bormann set up the Hilfskasse der NSDAP (NSDAP Auxiliary Fund), a benefits and relief fund directly administered by the party. Each party member was required to pay premiums and might receive compensation for injuries sustained while conducting party business. Payments out of the fund were made solely at Bormann's discretion. He began to gain a reputation as a financial expert, and many party members felt personally indebted to him after receiving benefits from the fund.[18] In addition to its stated purpose, the fund was used as a last-resort source of funding for the NSDAP, which was chronically short of money at the time.[19][20] After the NSDAP's success in the 1930 general election, where they won 107 seats, party membership grew dramatically.[21] By 1932 the fund was collecting 3 million Reichsmarks per year.[22]

Bormann also worked on the staff of the SA from 1928 to 1930, and while there he founded the National Socialist Automobile Corps, precursor to the National Socialist Motor Corps. The organisation was responsible for co-ordinating the donated use of motor vehicles belonging to party members, and later expanded to training members in automotive skills.[23]

Reichsleiter and head of the party chancellery

After the Machtergreifung (NSDAP seizure of power) in January 1933, the relief fund was repurposed to provide general accident and property insurance, so Bormann resigned from its administration. He applied for a transfer and was accepted as chief of staff in the office of Rudolf Hess, the Deputy Führer, on 1 July 1933.[24][25] Bormann also served as personal secretary to Hess from 4 July 1933 until May 1941.[26] Hess' department was responsible for settling disputes within the party and acted as an intermediary between the party and the state regarding policy decisions and legislation.[27][b] Bormann used his position to create an extensive bureaucracy and involve himself in as much of the decision-making as possible.[24][27] On 10 October 1933 Hitler named Bormann Reichsleiter (national leader – the highest party rank) of the NSDAP, and in November he was named Reichstag deputy.[29] By June 1934, Bormann was gaining acceptance into Hitler's inner circle and accompanied him everywhere, providing briefings and summaries of events and requests.[30]

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1968-100-21A, Martin Bormann
Bormann in 1939

In 1935, Bormann was appointed as overseer of renovations at the Berghof, Hitler's property at Obersalzberg. In the early 1930s, Hitler bought the property, which he had been renting since 1925 as a vacation retreat. After he became chancellor, Hitler drew up plans for expansion and remodelling of the main house and put Bormann in charge of construction. Bormann commissioned the construction of barracks for the SS guards, roads and footpaths, garages for motor vehicles, a guesthouse, accommodation for staff, and other amenities. Retaining title in his own name, Bormann bought up adjacent farms until the entire complex covered 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi). Members of the inner circle built houses within the perimeter, beginning with Hermann Göring, Albert Speer, and Bormann himself.[31][32][c] Bormann commissioned the building of the Kehlsteinhaus (Eagle's Nest), a tea house high above the Berghof, as a gift to Hitler on his fiftieth birthday (20 April 1939). Hitler seldom used the building, but Bormann liked to impress guests by taking them there.[34]

While Hitler was in residence at the Berghof, Bormann was constantly in attendance and acted as Hitler's personal secretary. In this capacity, he began to control the flow of information and access to Hitler.[24][35] During this period, Hitler gave Bormann control of his personal finances. In addition to salaries as chancellor and president, Hitler's income included money raised through royalties collected on his book Mein Kampf and the use of his image on postage stamps. Bormann set up the Adolf Hitler Fund of German Trade and Industry, which collected money from German industrialists on Hitler's behalf. Some of the funds received through this programme were disbursed to various party leaders, but Bormann retained most of it for Hitler's personal use.[36] Bormann and others took notes of Hitler's thoughts expressed over dinner and in monologues late into the night and preserved them. The material was published after the war as Hitler's Table Talk.[37][38]

The office of the Deputy Führer had final approval over civil service appointments, and Bormann reviewed the personnel files and made the decisions regarding appointments. This power impinged on the purview of Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick, and was an example of the overlapping responsibilities typical of the Nazi regime.[39] Bormann travelled everywhere with Hitler, including trips to Austria in 1938 after the Anschluss (the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany), and to the Sudetenland after the signing of the Munich Agreement later that year.[40] Bormann was placed in charge of organising the 1938 Nuremberg Rally, a major annual party event.[41]

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0017, Paris, Besuch Adolf Hitler, Speer, Giesler, Breker
Bormann (directly to Hitler's left) in Paris. June 1940

Hitler intentionally played top party members against one another and the NSDAP against the civil service. In this way, he fostered distrust, competition, and infighting among his subordinates to consolidate and maximise his own power.[42] He typically did not give written orders; instead he communicated them verbally or had them conveyed through Bormann.[43] Falling out of favour with Bormann meant that access to Hitler was cut off.[44] Bormann proved to be a master of intricate political infighting. Along with his ability to control access to Hitler, this enabled him to curtail the power of Joseph Goebbels, Göring, Himmler, Alfred Rosenberg, Robert Ley, Hans Frank, Speer, and other high-ranking officials, many of whom became his enemies. This ruthless and continuous intriguing for power, influence, and Hitler's favour came to characterise the inner workings of the Third Reich.[24][45]

As World War II progressed, Hitler's attention became focused on foreign affairs and the conduct of the war to the exclusion of all else. Hess, not directly engaged in either of these endeavours, became increasingly sidelined from the affairs of the nation and from Hitler's attention; Bormann had successfully supplanted Hess in many of his duties and usurped his position at Hitler's side. Hess was concerned that Germany would face a war on two fronts as plans progressed for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union scheduled to take place later that year. He flew solo to Britain on 10 May 1941 to seek peace negotiations with the British government.[46][47][48] He was arrested on arrival and spent the rest of the war as a British prisoner, eventually receiving a life sentence for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials in 1946.[49] Speer later said Hitler described Hess' departure as one of the worst blows of his life, as he considered it a personal betrayal.[50] Hitler ordered Hess to be shot should he return to Germany and abolished the post of Deputy Führer on 12 May 1941, assigning Hess' former duties to Bormann, with the title of Head of the Parteikanzlei (Party Chancellery).[26][51] In this position he was responsible for all NSDAP appointments, and was answerable only to Hitler.[52] Associates began to refer to him as the "Brown Eminence", although never to his face.[53][d]

Bormann's power and effective reach broadened considerably during the war.[54] By early 1943, the war produced a labour crisis for the regime. Hitler created a three-man committee with representatives of the State, the army, and the Party in an attempt to centralise control of the war economy. The committee members were Hans Lammers (head of the Reich Chancellery), Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Armed Forces High Command; OKW), and Bormann, who controlled the Party. The committee was intended to independently propose measures regardless of the wishes of various ministries, with Hitler reserving most final decisions to himself. The committee, soon known as the Dreierausschuß (Committee of Three), met eleven times between January and August 1943. However, they ran up against resistance from Hitler's cabinet ministers, who headed deeply entrenched spheres of influence and were excluded from the committee. Seeing it as a threat to their power, Goebbels, Göring, and Speer worked together to bring it down. The result was that nothing changed, and the Committee of Three declined into irrelevance.[55]

Anti-church campaign

While Article 24 of the National Socialist Program called for conditional toleration of Christian denominations and a Reichskonkordat (Reich Concordat) treaty with the Vatican was signed in 1933, purporting to guarantee religious freedom for Catholics, Hitler believed that religion was fundamentally incompatible with National Socialism. Bormann, who was strongly anti-Christian, agreed; he stated publicly in 1941 that "National Socialism and Christianity are irreconcilable."[56][57] Out of political expediency, Hitler intended to postpone the elimination of the Christian churches until after the war.[58] However, his repeated hostile statements against the church indicated to his subordinates that a continuation of the Kirchenkampf (church struggle) would be tolerated and even encouraged.[59]

Bormann was one of the leading proponents of the ongoing persecution of the Christian churches.[60] In February 1937, he decreed that members of the clergy should not be admitted to the NSDAP. The following year he ruled that any members of the clergy who were holding party offices should be dismissed, and that any party member who was considering entering the clergy had to give up his party membership.[61] While Bormann's push to force the closure of theological departments at Reich universities was unsuccessful, he was able to reduce the amount of religious instruction provided in public schools to two hours per week and mandated the removal of crucifixes from classrooms.[62][e] Speer notes in his memoirs that while drafting plans for Welthauptstadt Germania, the planned rebuilding of Berlin, he was told by Bormann that churches were not to be allocated any building sites.[64]

As part of the campaign against the Catholic Church, hundreds of monasteries in Germany and Austria were confiscated by the Gestapo and their occupants were expelled.[65] In 1941 the Catholic Bishop of Münster, Clemens August Graf von Galen, publicly protested against this persecution and against Action T4, the Nazi involuntary euthanasia programme under which the mentally ill, physically deformed, and incurably sick were to be killed. In a series of sermons that received international attention, he criticised the programme as illegal and immoral. His sermons led to a widespread protest movement among church leaders, the strongest protest against a Nazi policy up until that point. Bormann and others called for Galen to be hanged, but Hitler and Goebbels concluded that Galen's death would only be viewed as a martyrdom and lead to further unrest. Hitler decided to deal with the issue when the war was over.[66]

George Mosse wrote of Bormann's beliefs:

[He believed that] God is present, but as a world-force which presides over the laws of life which the Nazis alone have understood. This non-Christian theism, tied to Nordic blood, was current in Germany long before Bormann wrote down his own thoughts on the matter. It must now be restored, and the catastrophic mistakes of the past centuries, which had put the power of the state into the hands of the Church, must be avoided. The Gauleiters are advised to conquer the influence of the Christian Churches by keeping them divided, encouraging particularism among them...[67]

However, Richard Overy describes Bormann as an atheist.[68]

Personal Secretary to the Führer

Preoccupied with military matters and spending most of his time at his military headquarters on the eastern front, Hitler came to rely more and more on Bormann to handle the domestic policies of the country. On 12 April 1943, Hitler officially appointed Bormann as Personal Secretary to the Führer.[69] By this time Bormann had de facto control over all domestic matters, and this new appointment gave him the power to act in an official capacity in any matter.[70]

Bundesarchiv Bild 121-0723, Marburg-Drau, Adolf Hitler
Bormann (behind and to Hitler's right) on the Old Bridge, Maribor, Slovenia. April 1941

Bormann was invariably the advocate of extremely harsh, radical measures when it came to the treatment of Jews, the conquered eastern peoples, and prisoners of war.[71] He signed the decree of 31 May 1941 extending the 1935 Nuremberg Laws to the annexed territories of the East.[71] Thereafter, he signed the decree of 9 October 1942 prescribing that the permanent Final Solution in Greater Germany could no longer be solved by emigration, but only by the use of "ruthless force in the special camps of the East", that is, extermination in Nazi death camps.[71] A further decree, signed by Bormann on 1 July 1943, gave Adolf Eichmann absolute powers over Jews, who now came under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Gestapo.[71] Historian Richard J. Evans estimates that 5.5 to 6 million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, were exterminated by the Nazi regime in the course of The Holocaust.[72]

Knowing Hitler viewed Slavic people as inferior, Bormann opposed the introduction of German criminal law into the conquered eastern territories. He lobbied for and eventually achieved a strict separate penal code that implemented martial law for the Polish and Jewish inhabitants of these areas. The "Edict on Criminal Law Practices against Poles and Jews in the Incorporated Eastern Territories", promulgated 4 December 1941, permitted corporal punishment and death sentences for even the most trivial of offences.[73][74]

Bormann supported the hard-line approach of Erich Koch, Reichskommissar in Reichskommissariat Ukraine, in his brutal treatment of Slavic people. Alfred Rosenberg, serving as head of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, favoured a more moderate policy. After touring collective farms around Vinnytsia, Ukraine, Bormann was concerned about the health and good physical constitution of the population, as he was concerned that they could constitute a danger to the regime. After discussion with Hitler, he issued a policy directive to Rosenberg that read in part:

The Slavs are to work for us. In so far as we don't need them, they may die. The fertility of the Slavs is undesirable. As to food, they are to not get more than necessary. We are the masters; we come first.[75]

Bormann and Himmler shared responsibility[f] for the Volkssturm (people's militia), which drafted all remaining able-bodied men aged 16 to 60 into a last-ditch militia founded on 18 October 1944. Poorly equipped and trained, the men were sent to fight on the eastern front, where nearly 175,000 of them were killed without having any discernible impact on the Soviet advance.[76]

Last days in Berlin

Hitler transferred his headquarters to the Führerbunker ("Leader's bunker") in Berlin on 16 January 1945, where he (along with Bormann, his secretary Else Krüger, and others) remained until the end of April.[77][78] The Führerbunker was located under the Reich Chancellery garden in the government district in the centre of the city. The Battle of Berlin, the final major Soviet offensive of the war, began on 16 April 1945.[79] By 19 April the Red Army started to encircle the city.[80] On 20 April, his 56th birthday, Hitler made his last trip to the surface. In the ruined garden of the Reich Chancellery, he awarded Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.[81] That afternoon, Berlin was bombarded by Soviet artillery for the first time.[82] On 23 April, Albert Bormann left the bunker complex and flew to the Obersalzberg. He and several others had been ordered by Hitler to leave Berlin.[79]

In the early morning hours of 29 April 1945, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Goebbels, Hans Krebs, and Bormann witnessed and signed Hitler's last will and testament. Bormann was named executor of the estate. That same night, Hitler married Eva Braun in a civil ceremony.[83][84]

As Soviet forces continued to fight their way into the centre of Berlin, Hitler and Braun committed suicide on the afternoon of 30 April. Braun took cyanide and Hitler shot himself.[85][86] Pursuant to Hitler's instructions, their bodies were carried up to the Reich Chancellery garden and burned. In accordance with Hitler's last wishes, Bormann was named as Party Minister, thus officially confirming his top position in the Party. Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz was appointed as the new Reichspräsident (President of Germany) and Goebbels became head of government and Chancellor of Germany.[87] Goebbels and his wife Magda committed suicide later that day.[88]

On 2 May, the Battle in Berlin ended when General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin Defence Area, unconditionally surrendered the city to General Vasily Chuikov, the commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army.[89]

Death, rumours of survival and discovery of remains

17 October 1946 newsreel of Nuremberg Trials sentencing

Axmann's account of Bormann's death

At around 11:00 pm on 1 May, Bormann left the Führerbunker with SS doctor Ludwig Stumpfegger, Hitler Youth leader Artur Axmann, and Hitler's pilot Hans Baur as members of one of the groups attempting to break out of the Soviet encirclement.[90][91] Bormann carried with him a copy of Hitler's last will and testament.[92] The group left the Führerbunker and travelled on foot via a U-Bahn tunnel to the Friedrichstraße station, where they surfaced.[93] Several members of the party attempted to cross the Spree River at the Weidendammer Bridge while crouching behind a Tiger tank. The tank was hit by Soviet artillery and destroyed, and Bormann and Stumpfegger were knocked to the ground.[90] Bormann, Stumpfegger, and several others eventually crossed the river on their third attempt.[90] Bormann, Stumpfegger, and Axmann walked along the railway tracks to Lehrter station, where Axmann decided to leave the others and go in the opposite direction.[94] When he encountered a Red Army patrol, Axmann doubled back. He saw two bodies, which he later identified as Bormann and Stumpfegger, on a bridge near the railway switching yard.[94][95] He did not have time to check thoroughly, so he did not know how they died.[96] Since the Soviets never admitted to finding Bormann's body, his fate remained in doubt for many years.[97]

Tried at Nuremberg in absentia

During the chaotic days after the war, contradictory reports arose as to Bormann's whereabouts. Sightings were reported in Argentina, Spain, and elsewhere.[98] Bormann's wife was placed under surveillance in case he tried to contact her.[99] Jakob Glas, Bormann's long-time chauffeur, insisted that he saw Bormann in Munich in July 1946.[100] In case Bormann was still alive, multiple public notices about the upcoming Nuremberg trials were placed in newspapers and on the radio in October and November 1945 to notify him of the proceedings against him.[101]

The trial got underway on 20 November 1945. Lacking evidence confirming Bormann's death, the International Military Tribunal tried him in absentia, as permitted under article 12 of their charter.[102] He was charged with three counts: conspiracy to wage a war of aggression, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.[103] His prosecution was assigned to Lieutenant Thomas F. Lambert Jr. and his defence to Dr. Friedrich Bergold.[104] The prosecution stated that Bormann participated in planning and co-signed virtually all of the antisemitic legislation put forward by the regime.[105] Bergold unsuccessfully proposed that the court could not convict Bormann because he was already dead. Due to the shadowy nature of Bormann's activities, Bergold was unable to refute the prosecution's assertions as to the extent of his involvement in decision making.[100] Bormann was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity and acquitted of conspiracy to wage a war of aggression. On 15 October 1946 he was sentenced to death by hanging, with the provision that if he were later found alive, any new facts brought to light at that time could be taken into consideration to reduce the sentence or overturn it.[103]

Discovery of remains

Over the coming years, several organisations, including the CIA and the West German Government, attempted to locate Bormann without success.[106] In 1964, the West German government offered a reward of 100,000 Deutsche Marks for information leading to Bormann's capture.[107] Sightings were reported at points all over the world, including Australia, Denmark, Italy, and South America.[54][108] In his autobiography, Nazi intelligence officer Reinhard Gehlen claimed that Bormann had been a Soviet spy, and that he had escaped to Moscow.[109] Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal believed that Bormann was living in South America.[110] The West German government declared that its hunt for Bormann was over in 1971.[111]

In 1963, a retired postal worker named Albert Krumnow told police that around 8 May 1945 the Soviets had ordered him and his colleagues to bury two bodies found near the railway bridge near Lehrter station. One was dressed in a Wehrmacht uniform and the other was clad only in his underwear.[112] Krumnow's colleague Wagenpfohl found an SS doctor's paybook on the second body identifying him as Ludwig Stumpfegger.[113] He gave the paybook to his boss, postal chief Berndt, who turned it over to the Soviets. They in turn destroyed it. He wrote to Stumpfegger's wife on 14 August 1945 and told her that her husband's body was "interred with the bodies of several other dead soldiers in the grounds of the Alpendorf in Berlin NW 40, Invalidenstrasse 63."[114]

Excavations on 20–21 July 1965 at the site specified by Axmann and Krumnow failed to locate the bodies.[115] However, on 7 December 1972, construction workers uncovered human remains near Lehrter station in West Berlin just 12 m (39 ft) from the spot where Krumnow claimed he had buried them.[116] Upon autopsy, fragments of glass were found in the jaws of both skeletons, suggesting that the men had committed suicide by biting cyanide capsules to avoid capture.[117] Dental records reconstructed from memory in 1945 by Hugo Blaschke identified one skeleton as Bormann's, and damage to the collarbone was consistent with injuries that Bormann's sons reported he had sustained in a riding accident in 1939.[116] Forensic examiners determined that the size of the skeleton and the shape of the skull were identical to Bormann's.[117] Likewise, the second skeleton was deemed to be Stumpfegger's, since it was of similar height to his last known proportions.[116] Composite photographs, where images of the skulls were overlaid on photographs of the men's faces, were completely congruent.[117] Facial reconstruction was undertaken in early 1973 on both skulls to confirm the identities of the bodies.[118] Soon afterward, the West German government declared Bormann dead. The family was not permitted to cremate the body, in case further forensic examination later proved necessary.[119]

The remains were conclusively identified as Bormann's in 1998 when German authorities ordered genetic testing on fragments of the skull. The testing was led by Wolfgang Eisenmenger, Professor of Forensic Science at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.[120] Tests using DNA from one of his relatives identified the skull as that of Bormann.[120][121] Bormann's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered in the Baltic Sea on 16 August 1999.[120]

Personal life

On 2 September 1929, Bormann married 19-year-old Gerda Buch, whose father, Major Walter Buch, served as a chairman of the Untersuchung und Schlichtungs-Ausschuss (USCHLA; Investigation and Settlement Committee), which was responsible for settling disputes within the party. Hitler was a frequent visitor to the Buch house, and it was here that Bormann met him. Hess and Hitler served as witnesses at the wedding.[122][123] Bormann also had a series of mistresses, including Manja Behrens, an actress.[124]

Martin and Gerda Bormann had ten children:

  • Martin Adolf Bormann (14 April 1930 – 11 March 2013);[125] called Krönzi ("crown prince");[126] named after Hitler, his godfather.[127]
  • Ilse Bormann (9 July 1931 – 1958); named after her godmother, Ilse Hess.[128] Later called Eike after Rudolf Hess' flight to Scotland.[129]
  • Ehrengard Bormann (9 July 1931 – 1932); twin sister of the former.[120]
  • Irmgard Bormann (born 25 July 1933).[120]
  • Rudolf Gerhard Bormann (born 31 August 1934; named after his godfather Rudolf Hess). His name was changed to Helmut after Hess' flight to Scotland.[120][129]
  • Heinrich Hugo Bormann (born 13 June 1936; named after his godfather Heinrich Himmler).[120]
  • Eva Ute Bormann (born 4 May 1938).[120]
  • Gerda Bormann (born 4 August 1940).[120]
  • Fritz Hartmut Bormann (born 3 April 1942).[120]
  • Volker Bormann (18 September 1943 – 1946).[120]

Gerda Bormann and the children fled Obersalzberg for Italy on 25 April 1945 after an Allied air attack. She died of cancer on 26 April 1946, in Merano, Italy.[130] Bormann's children survived the war, and were cared for in foster homes.[127] His eldest son, Martin, was ordained a Roman Catholic priest and worked in Africa as a missionary. He later left the priesthood and married.[131]

Nazi awards and decorations

See also

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ Höss, who later served as commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, was sentenced to ten years. He was released in 1928 as part of a general amnesty.[12]
  2. ^ In practice, this requirement was usually circumvented.[28]
  3. ^ The Bormann family also had a house in the Munich suburb of Pullach.[33]
  4. ^ German: ‘’der brauner Schatten’’. The term is a reference to Cardinal Richelieu (termed the "Red Eminence"), the power behind the throne in the court of Louis XIII of France.[53]
  5. ^ Hitler later removed the restriction on crucifixes, because it was damaging people's morale.[63]
  6. ^ Bormann was in charge of organisation and Himmler looked after providing training and equipment.[76]

Citations

  1. ^ Moll 2016, p. 285.
  2. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 16–18.
  3. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 22–23.
  4. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 11–12.
  5. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 12.
  6. ^ Lang 1979, p. 28.
  7. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 13.
  8. ^ a b Lang 1979, p. 40.
  9. ^ Miller 2006, p. 147.
  10. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 13–14.
  11. ^ Lang 1979, p. 33.
  12. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 37, 99.
  13. ^ Lang 1979, p. 43.
  14. ^ Lang 1979, p. 46.
  15. ^ Miller 2006, pp. 146, 148.
  16. ^ Miller 2006, p. 146.
  17. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 45–46.
  18. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 49–51.
  19. ^ Lang 1979, p. 60.
  20. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 20.
  21. ^ Lang 1979, p. 57.
  22. ^ Lang 1979, p. 63.
  23. ^ Lang 1979, p. 55.
  24. ^ a b c d Evans 2005, p. 47.
  25. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 74–77.
  26. ^ a b Miller 2006, p. 148.
  27. ^ a b Lang 1979, p. 78.
  28. ^ Lang 1979, p. 87.
  29. ^ Lang 1979, p. 79.
  30. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 84, 86.
  31. ^ Speer 1971, pp. 128–129.
  32. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 108–109.
  33. ^ Lang 1979, p. 135.
  34. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 121–122.
  35. ^ Fest 1970, p. 131.
  36. ^ Speer 1971, pp. 131–132.
  37. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 96.
  38. ^ Speer 1971, p. 142.
  39. ^ Lang 1979, p. 126.
  40. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 118, 121.
  41. ^ Lang 1979, p. 123.
  42. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 323.
  43. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 377.
  44. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 64.
  45. ^ Speer 1971, p. 132.
  46. ^ Evans 2008, p. 167.
  47. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 837.
  48. ^ Sereny 1996, p. 321.
  49. ^ Evans 2008, pp. 168, 742.
  50. ^ Sereny 1996, p. 240.
  51. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 838.
  52. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 63.
  53. ^ a b McGovern 1968, p. 77.
  54. ^ a b Hamilton 1984, p. 94.
  55. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 749–753.
  56. ^ Evans 2005, p. 253.
  57. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 234, 240.
  58. ^ Bullock 1999, p. 389.
  59. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 382.
  60. ^ Speer 1971, p. 175.
  61. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 149–150.
  62. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 152–154.
  63. ^ Rees 2012.
  64. ^ Speer 1971, p. 242.
  65. ^ Lang 1979, p. 221.
  66. ^ Evans 2008, pp. 97–99.
  67. ^ Mosse 2003, p. 240.
  68. ^ Overy 2005, p. 465.
  69. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 752.
  70. ^ Speer 1971, pp. 333–334.
  71. ^ a b c d Miller 2006, p. 152.
  72. ^ Evans 2008, p. 318.
  73. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 179–181.
  74. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 439.
  75. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 78–79.
  76. ^ a b Kershaw 2008, pp. 858–859.
  77. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 154.
  78. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 894.
  79. ^ a b Joachimsthaler 1999, p. 98.
  80. ^ Beevor 2002, pp. 217–233.
  81. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 251.
  82. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 255.
  83. ^ Lang 1979, p. 391.
  84. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 343.
  85. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 955.
  86. ^ MI5, Hitler's Last Days.
  87. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, p. 187.
  88. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 286–287.
  89. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 386.
  90. ^ a b c Beevor 2002, pp. 382–383.
  91. ^ Miller 2006, p. 151.
  92. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 382.
  93. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 397.
  94. ^ a b Le Tissier 2010, p. 188.
  95. ^ Trevor-Roper 2002, p. 193.
  96. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 383.
  97. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 158–159.
  98. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 172, 174.
  99. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 173.
  100. ^ a b McGovern 1968, p. 177.
  101. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 167–168.
  102. ^ McGovern 1968, p. 169.
  103. ^ a b McGovern 1968, p. 178.
  104. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 169, 171.
  105. ^ Lang 1979, p. 229.
  106. ^ Whiting 1996, pp. 127, 144.
  107. ^ Whiting 1996, p. 144.
  108. ^ Whiting 1996, pp. 98–99, 101.
  109. ^ Whiting 1996, pp. 162–164.
  110. ^ Levy 2006, p. 165.
  111. ^ Whiting 1996, p. 191.
  112. ^ Lang 1979, p. 417.
  113. ^ Whiting 1996, p. 200.
  114. ^ Whiting 1996, pp. 136–137.
  115. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 421–422.
  116. ^ a b c Whiting 1996, pp. 217–218.
  117. ^ a b c Lang 1979, p. 432.
  118. ^ Lang 1979, p. 436.
  119. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 410, 437.
  120. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Miller 2006, p. 154.
  121. ^ Karacs 1998.
  122. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 52–53.
  123. ^ McGovern 1968, pp. 20–21.
  124. ^ Lang 1979, p. 326.
  125. ^ Traueranzeigen: Martin Bormann.
  126. ^ Lang 1979, p. 53.
  127. ^ a b McGovern 1968, p. 189.
  128. ^ Lang 1979, p. 58.
  129. ^ a b Lang 1979, p. 187.
  130. ^ Lang 1979, pp. 387–388.
  131. ^ Lang 1979, p. 388.

Bibliography

  • Beevor, Antony (2002). Berlin: The Downfall 1945. New York: Viking-Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-03041-5.
  • Bullock, Alan (1999) [1952]. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 978-1-56852-036-0.
  • Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3.
  • Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4.
  • Fest, Joachim C. (1970). The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 978-0-394-73407-1.
  • Hamilton, Charles (1984). Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol. 1. San Jose, CA: R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0.
  • "Hitler's last days: Preparations for death". Security Service (MI5). Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  • Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) [1995]. The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, the Evidence, the Truth. Trans. Helmut Bögler. London: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8.
  • Karacs, Imre (4 May 1998). "DNA test closes book on mystery of Martin Bormann". The Independent. London: Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-06757-2.
  • Lang, Jochen von (1979). The Secretary. Martin Bormann: The Man Who Manipulated Hitler. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-50321-9.
  • Le Tissier, Tony (2010) [1999]. Race for the Reichstag: The 1945 Battle for Berlin. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-84884-230-4.
  • Levy, Alan (2006) [1993]. Nazi Hunter: The Wiesenthal File (Revised 2002 ed.). London: Constable & Robinson. ISBN 978-1-84119-607-7.
  • Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.
  • McGovern, James (1968). Martin Bormann. New York: William Morrow & Company. OCLC 441132.
  • Miller, Michael (2006). Leaders of the SS and German Police, Vol. 1. San Jose, CA: R. James Bender. ISBN 978-93-297-0037-2.
  • Moll, Martin (2016). Spencer C. Tucker (ed.). World War II: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection [5 volumes]. 1. Santa Barbara; Denver: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-4593-2.
  • Mosse, George (2003). Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-19304-1.
  • Overy, Richard (2005) [2004]. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-191224-0.
  • Rees, Laurence (writer, director) Kershaw, Ian (writer, consultant) (2012). The Dark Charisma of Adolf Hitler (television documentary). UK: BBC. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  • Sereny, Gitta (1996) [1995]. Albert Speer: His Battle With Truth. New York: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-679-76812-8.
  • Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
  • Speer, Albert (1971) [1969]. Inside the Third Reich. New York: Avon. ISBN 978-0-380-00071-5.
  • "Traueranzeigen: Martin Bormann" (in German). Westfälische Rundschau. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (2002) [1947]. The Last Days of Hitler. London: Pan Books. ISBN 978-0-330-49060-3.
  • Whiting, Charles (1996) [1973]. The Hunt for Martin Bormann: The Truth. London: Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-527-6.

External links

Party political offices
Position established Secretary to the Deputy Führer
1933–1941
Position abolished
Reichsleiter
1933–1945
Preceded by
Rudolf Hess
as Deputy Führer
Chief of the Party Chancellery
1941–1945
Position established Secretary to the Führer
1943–1945
Position established Party Minister
1945
Albert Bormann

Albert Bormann (2 September 1902 – 8 April 1989) was a German National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) officer, who rose to the rank of Gruppenführer (Generalleutnant) during World War II. Bormann served as an adjutant to Adolf Hitler, and was the younger brother of Martin Bormann.

Antiqua–Fraktur dispute

The Antiqua–Fraktur dispute was a typographical dispute in 19th- and early 20th-century Germany.

In most European countries, blackletter typefaces like the German Fraktur were displaced with the creation of the Antiqua typefaces in the 15th and 16th centuries. However, in Germany, both fonts coexisted until the first half of the 20th century.

During that time, both typefaces gained ideological connotations in Germany, which led to long and heated disputes on what was the "correct" typeface to use. The eventual outcome was that the Antiqua-type fonts won when the Nazi Party chose to phase out the more ornate-looking Fraktur.

Blondi

Blondi (1941 – 29 April 1945) was Adolf Hitler's German Shepherd, a gift as a puppy from Martin Bormann in 1941. Blondi stayed with Hitler even after his move into the Führerbunker located underneath the garden of the Reich Chancellery on 16 January 1945.Hitler was very fond of Blondi, keeping her by his side and allowing her to sleep in his bed in the bunker. According to Hitler's secretary Traudl Junge, this affection was not shared by Eva Braun, Hitler's companion, who preferred her two Scottish Terrier dogs named Negus and Stasi.

Blondi played a role in Nazi propaganda by portraying Hitler as an animal lover. Dogs like Blondi were coveted as "germanische Urhunde", being close to the wolf, and became very fashionable during the Nazi era. On 29 April 1945, Hitler expressed doubts about the cyanide capsules he had received through Heinrich Himmler's SS. To verify the capsules' potency, Hitler ordered Dr. Werner Haase to test one on Blondi, who died as a result.

Bormann

Bormann is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Eugen Bormann (1842–1917), German-Austrian historian

Juana Bormann (1893–1945), or Johana Bormann, German SS Nazi concentration camp prison guard executed for war crimes

Ernst Bormann (1897–1960), German World War I flying ace and World War II Luftwaffe general

Two siblings prominent in the German Nazi Party:

Martin Bormann (1900–1945), Adolf Hitler's private secretary, tried in absentia, his remains were not identified until 1972

Albert Bormann (1902–1989), adjutant to Adolf Hitler

Ernest Bormann (1925–2008), American academic in speech-communication

F. Herbert Bormann (1922–2012), American plant ecologist

Martin Adolf Bormann (1930–2013), German theologian and Roman Catholic priest, son of Martin Bormann

Michael Bormann (born 1966), German rock vocalist

Cheryl Bormann (fl. 2008), US attorney for a Guantanamo detainee

John Bormann (born 1993), American baseball player

Franz Hofer

Franz Hofer (November 27, 1902 in Bad Hofgastein – February 18, 1975 in Mülheim an der Ruhr) was, in the time of the Third Reich, the Nazi Gauleiter of the Tyrol and Vorarlberg. As the Nazi party chief for the Tirol/Vorarlberg province he was the most powerful figure in the region. As the area's supreme Nazi, Hofer dealt directly with Hitler or with the Führer's deputy, Martin Bormann. Hofer was not only the party chief but the Reichskommissar in charge of the Tirol-Vorarlberg defences. His region embraced much of the suspected National Redoubt. Indeed, Hofer might well be considered the father of the Redoubt.Born to a Bad Hofgastein hotelkeeper, Hofer went to the Volksschule-Realschule in Innsbruck and in 1922 began a career as a freelance salesman. In September 1931, he joined the NSDAP. He very quickly rose in the Party, becoming District Leader in April 1932, and in July of the same year acting Gauleiter of the Tyrol. Only four months later, on 27 November 1932 – Hofer's thirtieth birthday – he was promoted to Gauleiter of the Tyrol.

For his activities in the Nazi Party, which was banned in Austria, Hofer was arrested in June 1933 and sentenced by a Tyrolean court to two years in prison. On 30 August 1933, 4 armed SA men broke into Hofer's prison cell by force and freed him. He fled the prison amid gunfire, which wounded him. He made it to Italy, and only a few weeks later gave a speech at the Nuremberg Party Congress from his stretcher.

In early 1937, having recovered from his gunshot wounds, Hofer became leader of the "Leaders' and Members' Political Gathering Place for Austrians in Germany", with a job in Berlin.

After the Anschluss, he was once again appointed the Gauleiter of the Tyrol and Vorarlberg. In the same year, he was given the function of ministerial adviser and the rank of NSKK Obergruppenführer. On 1 September 1940 he was furthermore made the governor (Reichsstatthalter) of the Reichsgau of Tyrol-Vorarlberg.

After Italy forsook the Axis Powers, Hofer was chosen on 10 September 1943 to be the Supreme Commissar in the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills (consisting of the neighbouring Italian provinces of Belluno, South Tyrol and Trentino joined to his own Reichsgau of Tyrol-Vorarlberg).

Gauleiter Hofer was an accomplished marksman who often competed in regional and national shooting matches. In 1944 Hofer won a shooting competition in the city of Bolzano, qualifying him for the national competition which was held in Innsbruck that year. Using a specially crafted 22 cal Mauser rifle (serial #300354) Hofer finished 7th.

In November 1944, Hofer suggested in a memorandum to Adolf Hitler that an "Alpenfestung" ("Alpine Fortress") ought to be built up in the heart of the Alps as Nazi Germany's last bastion. Apparently Hitler's secretary Martin Bormann only brought this document to the Führer's attention early the next year, leading to Hofer's being called to Hitler's Berlin bunker only on 12 April 1945 to present his proposal. Hitler – 18 days before his own suicide and still convinced that his Endsieg was possible – approved Hofer's plan and appointed him Reich Defence Commissar of the Alpenfestung.

On May 3, 1945 Hofer surrendered to American troops. This surrender was achieved by OSS agent Frederick Mayer.

It was not long before Hofer's freedom was curtailed. On 6 May 1945, he was arrested by the United States Army in Hall in Tirol and held in an internment camp. In 1948, he managed to flee to Germany, where he continued his former trade as a salesman in Mülheim, in the end under his true name.

In Austria in June 1949, Hofer was sentenced to death in absentia. In July 1953, a Munich appeal court upheld a sentence of 3 years and 5 months in labour prison. When interviewed by the press during this time, Hofer made it known he was unrepentant about his National Socialist convictions.

In 1964, a lawsuit brought by Hofer's children for the return of ownership of the Lachhof bei Hall where their father had lived while he was the Gauleiter, was dismissed by an Austrian court.

Hofer spent his later years in Mülheim an der Ruhr with his wife and seven children, continued his former trade as a salesman and died a natural death on February 18, 1975, under his real name.

Fraulein Spy

Fraulein Spy is the fifth novel in the long-running Nick Carter-Killmaster series.

Fritz Darges

Fritz Darges (8 February 1913 – 25 October 2009) was an Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) in the Waffen-SS during World War II who was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. He served as an adjutant to Martin Bormann and later was a personal adjutant to Adolf Hitler.

Goebbels cabinet

The Josef Goebbels Cabinet was named by Adolf Hitler in his political testament of 30 April 1945. To replace himself, Hitler named Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident. The cabinet was shortlived, and was followed on 2 May 1945 by the Flensburg Government. This was caused when Josef Goebbels took his own life on 1 May and Martin Bormann did likewise the following day.

Hitler's Table Talk

"Hitler's Table Talk" (German: Tischgespräche im Führerhauptquartier) is the title given to a series of World War II monologues delivered by Adolf Hitler, which were transcribed from 1941 to 1944. Hitler's remarks were recorded by Heinrich Heim, Henry Picker and Martin Bormann and later published by different editors under different titles in three different languages.Martin Bormann, who was serving as Hitler's private secretary, persuaded Hitler to allow a team of specially picked officers to record in shorthand his private conversations for posterity. The first notes were taken by the lawyer Heinrich Heim, starting from 5 July 1941 to mid-March 1942. Taking his place, Henry Picker took notes from 21 March 1942 until 2 August 1942, after which Heinrich Heim and Martin Bormann continued appending material off and on until 1944.

The talks were recorded at the Führer Headquarters in the company of Hitler's inner circle. The talks dwell on war and foreign affairs but also Hitler's attitudes on religion, culture, philosophy, his personal aspirations and feelings towards his enemies and friends.

Last will and testament of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler signed his last will and testament in the Berlin Führerbunker on 29 April 1945, the day before he committed suicide with his wife Eva (nee) Braun.

The will was a short document stating that they had chosen death over capitulation, and that they were to be cremated; it named Martin Bormann as executor. The testament was in two parts. In the first, he denied charges of warmongering, expressed his thanks to Germany’s loyal citizens, and appealed to them to continue the struggle. In the second, he declared Heinrich Himmler and Hermann Göring to be traitors, and set out his plan for a new government under Karl Dönitz. Hitler’s secretary Traudl Junge recalled that he was reading from notes as he dictated the testament, and it is believed that Joseph Goebbels had helped him to write it.

Lou Kilzer

Lou Kilzer (born 1951) is an investigative journalist and author and a two time Pulitzer Prize Winner.

Ludwig Ruckdeschel

Ludwig Ruckdeschel (15 March 1907 – 8 November 1986) was the Nazi Gauleiter of Bayreuth during final month of the Gau's existence before the collapse of Nazi Germany in 1945. Before this, from 1933 to 1941, he served as the deputy of Gauleiter Fritz Wächtler, whom he had executed on orders by Martin Bormann. From 1933 to 1945 he was also a member of the German Parliament, the Reichstag.

During the Second World War Ruckdeschel served in the Waffen-SS, rising to the rank of a Sturmbannführer, a rank equivalent to a major. After the war he was arrested in 1947 and eventually sentenced to 13 years in prison but released in 1952.

Martin Adolf Bormann

Martin Adolf Bormann (born Adolf Martin Bormann; 14 April 1930 – 11 March 2013) was a German theologian and laicized Catholic priest. He was the eldest of the ten children of Martin Bormann.

Nazi Party Chancellery

The Party Chancellery (German: Parteikanzlei), was the name of the head office for the German Nazi Party (NSDAP), designated as such on 12 May 1941. The office existed previously as the Staff of the Deputy Führer (Stab des Stellvertreters des Führers) but was renamed after Rudolf Hess flew to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate a peace agreement without Hitler's authorization. Hess was denounced by Hitler, his former office was dissolved, and the new Party Chancellery was formed in its place under Martin Bormann.

Nuremberg executions

The Nuremberg executions took place on 16 October 1946, shortly after the conclusion of the Nuremberg Trials. Ten prominent members of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany were executed by hanging: Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, and Julius Streicher. Hermann Göring was also scheduled to be hanged on that day, but committed suicide using a potassium cyanide capsule the night before. Martin Bormann was also sentenced to death in absentia, but reportedly had committed suicide while attempting to escape Berlin on 2 May 1945.

The sentences were carried out in the gymnasium of Nuremberg Prison by the United States Army using the standard drop method instead of long drop.The executioners were Master Sergeant John C. Woods and his assistant, military policeman Joseph Malta. Woods may have miscalculated the lengths for the ropes used for the executions, such that some of the men did not die quickly of an intended broken neck but instead strangled to death slowly.Some reports indicated some executions took from 14 minutes to 28 minutes. The Army denied claims that the drop length was too short or that the condemned died from strangulation instead of a broken neck.Additionally, the trapdoor was too small, such that several of the condemned suffered bleeding head injuries when they hit the sides of the trapdoor while dropping through.The bodies were rumored to have been taken to Dachau for cremation, but were instead incinerated in a crematorium in Munich and the ashes scattered over the river Isar.Kingsbury Smith of the International News Service wrote an eyewitness account of a reporter watching the hangings. His historical press account of it appeared with photos in newspapers.

Rhodesia (novel)

Rhodesia is the fortieth novel in the long-running Nick Carter-Killmaster series of spy novels. Carter is a US secret agent, code-named N-3, with the rank of Killmaster. He works for AXE – a secret arm of the US intelligence services.

Thomas Thieme

Thomas Thieme (born 29 October 1948) is a German actor. In addition to his extensive stage career, he appeared in more than 100 film and television productions since 1973.

In his films, Thieme often plays powerful but morally dubious characters. He is perhaps best-known internationally for his roles as Martin Bormann in Downfall (2004) and as Communist minister Bruno Hempf in the Oscar-winning The Lives of Others, for which he was compared to Sydney Greenstreet by Roger Ebert in his review.

Walter Buch

Walter Buch (24 October 1883 – 12 November 1949) was a German jurist and SS official during the Nazi era. He was Martin Bormann's father-in-law. After the end of the Second World War in Europe, Buch was classified as a major regime functionary or "Hauptschuldiger" in the denazification proceedings in 1949. On 12 November of that year, he committed suicide.

Wilhelm Zander

Wilhelm Zander (22 April 1911 – 27 September 1974) was an adjutant to Martin Bormann during World War II. He died in Munich in 1974.

Members of the Hitler Cabinet
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