Martin B-10

The Martin B-10 was the first all-metal monoplane bomber to be regularly used by the United States Army Air Corps, entering service in June 1934.[3] It was also the first mass-produced bomber whose performance was superior to that of the Army's pursuit aircraft of the time.[4]

The B-10 served as the airframe for the B-12, B-13, B-14, A-15 and O-45 designations using Pratt & Whitney engines instead of Wright Cyclones. A total of 348 of all versions were built. The largest users were the US, with 166, and the Netherlands, with 121.

B-10
Martin-B-10B
B-10 being flown during a training session at Maxwell Field
Role Bomber aircraft
Manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company
Designer Peyton M. Magruder
First flight 16 February 1932
Introduction November 1934
Retired 1949 Royal Thai Air Force
Primary users United States Army Air Corps
Netherlands East Indies AF
Turkish Air Force
Chinese Nationalist Air Force[1]
Argentine Air Force
Produced 19331940
Number built 121 B-10
82 model 166
32 B-12
348 of all variants including 182 export versions
Unit cost
$52,083[2]
Variants Martin Model 146

Design and development

25th Bombardment Squadron B-10s
Martin B-10, 25th Bombardment Squadron, Panama Canal Zone
Martin B-10 Variant
Martin B-10 during exercises over Oahu, Hawaii, 1941
Martin B-10B airplane (00910460 136)
Martin B-10B airplane

The B-10 began a revolution in bomber design. Its all-metal monoplane airframe, along with its features of closed cockpits, rotating gun turrets (almost simultaneously to the British Overstrand biplane bomber's own enclosed nose-turret), retractable landing gear, internal bomb bay, and full engine cowlings, would become the standard for bomber designs worldwide for decades.[4] It made all existing bombers completely obsolete. Martin received the 1932 Collier Trophy for designing the XB-10.[5]

The B-10 began as the Martin Model 123, a private venture by the Glenn L. Martin Company of Baltimore, Maryland. It had a crew of four: pilot, copilot, nose gunner and fuselage gunner. As in previous bombers, the four crew compartments were open, but it had a number of design innovations as well.[6][7]

These innovations included a deep belly for an internal bomb bay and retractable main landing gear. Its 600 hp (447 kW) Wright SR-1820-E Cyclone engines provided sufficient power. The Model 123 first flew on 16 February 1932 and was delivered for testing to the U.S. Army on 20 March as the XB-907. After testing it was sent back to Martin for redesigning and was rebuilt as the XB-10.[6][7]

The XB-10 delivered to the Army had major differences from the original aircraft. Where the Model 123 had Townend rings, the XB-10 had full NACA cowlings to decrease drag.[2] It also sported a pair of 675 hp (503 kW) Wright R-1820-19 engines, and an 8 feet (2.4 m) increase in the wingspan, along with an enclosed nose turret. When the XB-10 flew during trials in June, it recorded a speed of 197 mph (317 km/h) at 6,000 ft (1,830 m). This was an impressive performance for 1932.[4]

Following the success of the XB-10, a number of changes were made, including reduction to a three-man crew, addition of canopies for all crew positions, and an upgrade to 675 hp (503 kW) engines. The Army ordered 48 of these on 17 January 1933. The first 14 aircraft were designated YB-10 and delivered to Wright Field, starting in November 1933, and used in the Army Air Corps Mail Operation. The production model of the XB-10, the YB-10 was very similar to its prototype.

Operational history

Martin B-10B during exercises
Martin B-10B during exercises
Martin B-12 at March Field, Calif., on Nov. 19, 1935
Martin B-12 at March Field, California, 1935

In 1935, the Army ordered an additional 103 aircraft designated B-10B. These had only minor changes from the YB-10. Shipments began in July 1935. B-10Bs served with the 2d Bomb Group at Langley Field, the 9th Bomb Group at Mitchel Field, the 19th Bomb Group at March Field, the 6th Composite Group in the Panama Canal Zone, and the 4th Composite Group in the Philippines. In addition to conventional duties in the bomber role, some modified YB-10s and B-12As were operated for a time on large twin floats for coastal patrol.[8][9]

In February 1936, the U.S. Army Air Corps used 13 49th Bomb Squadron B-10Bs to drop supplies to the residents of Virginia′s Tangier Island and Maryland′s Smith Island; with ships unable to reach the islands due to heavy ice in the Chesapeake Bay, the islanders faced starvation after a severe winter storm. The B-10B supply flights followed earlier supply flights to the islands by the Goodyear Blimp Enterprise on 2 February 1936 and by the squadron's Keystone B-6A bombers on 9 and 10 February 1936.[10][11]

With an advanced performance, the Martin company fully expected that export orders for the B-10 would flood in. The U.S. Army owned the rights to the Model 139 design. Once the Army's orders had been filled in 1936, Martin received permission to export Model 139s, and delivered versions to several air forces. For example, six Model 139Ws were sold to Siam in April 1937, powered by Wright R-1820-G3 Cyclone engines; 20 Model 139Ws were sold to Turkey in September 1937, powered by R-1820-G2 engines.

On 19 May 1938, during the Sino-Japanese War, two Chinese Nationalist Air Force B-10s successfully flew to Japan. However, rather than dropping bombs, the aircraft dropped propaganda leaflets.[12][13][14][15][16] That followed the project submitted during February 1938. Two French pilots from the 14th International Volunteer Squadron prepared a raid for dropping incendiary bombs over Kagoshima. It was refused.[17]

The Dutch Martins fought in the defense of Singapore and the Netherlands East Indies.

Legacy

At the time of its creation, the B-10B was so advanced that General Henry H. Arnold described it as the airpower wonder of its day. It was half again as fast as any biplane bomber, and faster than any contemporary fighter. The B-10 began a revolution in bomber design; it made all existing bombers completely obsolete.[2]

Rapid advances in bomber design in the late 1930s meant that the B-10 was eclipsed by the time the United States entered World War II. The Model 139s in combat in China and South East Asia suffered the same disadvantages as the other early war medium bombers, i.e. not enough armour and guns, while it could not outrun the latest fighters.

An abortive effort to modernize the design, the Martin Model 146, was entered into a USAAC long-distance bomber design competition 1934–1935, but lost out to the Douglas B-18 and much bigger Boeing B-17.

Variants

Martin XB-907 in flight
Martin XB-907
Martin YB-10
Martin YB-10
Martin B-12 parked
Martin B-12
Martin B-12A
Martin B-12A
Martin XB-14
Martin XB-14

Martin Model 123

Private venture of Martin company, predecessor of the XB-10, served as prototype for the series, one built.[18]

XB-907
US Army designation for the Model 123 in evaluation,[18] with open cockpits and two Wright SR-1820-E, delivered April 1932.
XB-907A
Modified XB-907 after Martin returned it to U.S. Army for further operational trials,[2] with larger wingspan and two Wright R-1820-19.
XB-10
Designation of the prototype when purchased by the United States Army Air Corps, Modified XB-907A with enclosed cockpits and turret and single strut landing gear.[4][19]

Martin Model 139, 139A and 139B

Army Air Corps versions, 165 built.

YB-10
Model 139A, test and production version of the XB-10 with crew reduced to three members, and two 675 hp/503 kW R-1820-25, 14 built, some flown temporarily as float planes.[8]
YB-10A
The YB-10A was different from a YB-10 only in its engines. It used Wright R-1820-31 turbo-supercharged radials, allowing it to attain speeds of 236 mph (380 km/h). This made it the fastest aircraft of the B-10 series. Despite this advantage, only one was built, as a test aircraft.[8]
B-10
According to one source, two additional aircraft ordered in 1936.[8]
B-10B
Model 139, main production version with two 775 hp (578 kW) R-1820-33 engines, 105 built, delivered August 1936.[8]
B-10M
According to one source this was, these were B-10Bs converted as target tugs.[8] According to Martin's own archive, this was the designation of the YB-10 after testing, then used for airmail and Alaska missions, 13 of the 14 built were still in service in April 1940.
RB-10MA
One former NEIAF Model 139WH-3A model impressed in July 1942 and flown from Australia to the United States.[8]
YB-12
Model 139B. With 250 or 500 gallons flotation chambers for safety on overwater flights, and two Pratt & Whitney R-1690-11 "Hornet" radial engines. These 775 hp (578 kW) engines gave similar performance to those on the B-10B (218 mph/351 km/h), seven built, five still in service in April 1940.[8]
(Y)B-12A
The production version of the YB-12 with provision for a 365 gal (1,381 l) fuel tank in the bomb bay, giving the B-12A a combat range of 1,240 mi (1,995 km), 25 built, 23 still in service in April 1940.[8]
YB-13
Re-engined version of the YB-10 powered by two 700 hp (522 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1860-17 Hornet B radial engines. Ten were on order but cancelled before production started, not built.[8]
XB-14
To test the new 900 hp Pratt & Whitney YR-1830-9 "Twin Wasp" radial engines, one built which was converted back to YB-12 after testing.[8]
A-15
Proposed attack variant of the YB-10 with two 750 hp (559 kW) R-1820-25 engines, was never built. The contract fell to the A-14 Shrike.[20]
YO-45
With two 750 hp Wright R-1820-17, proposed high-speed observation role, one B-10 was beginning to be converted in 1934 and another in 1935 but both were stopped before being completed and were converted back into B-10s.

Model 139W and 166

The export versions, 100 built (182 including the Model 166, see below).

Model 139WA
Martin demonstrator for Argentina, later sold to Argentine Navy.
Model 139WAA
Export version for Argentine Army, 22 built, delivered April 1938.
Model 139WAN
Export version for the Argentine Navy, 12 built, delivered November 1937.
Model 139WC and WC-2
Export version for China, six and three built, delivered in February and August 1937.[3][21]
Model 139WH
Export version for the Netherlands, used in the Netherlands East Indies. Produced in block series WH(-1) (13 built, delivered February 1937) and WH-2 (26 built, delivered March 1938).
Model 139WR
Single demonstrator to the Soviet Union.[8][21]
Model 139WSM and WSM-2
Export version for Siam, three and three built, delivered in March and April 1937.[8]
Model 139WSP
Proposed licence built version to be built by CASA of Spain, production blocked by U.S. State Department.
Model 139WT
Export version for Turkey, 20 built, delivered September 1937.[3]
Dutch Martin Model 166
Side view of Dutch Martin Model 166
Model 166

Final version, a.k.a. 139WH-3 and 139WH-3A, 82 built.

Export version for the Netherlands, used in the Netherlands East Indies. Redesigned wings, nose and single 'glass house' canopy, bomb shackles between engines and fuselage, and better engines. The WH-3 had two 900 hp (671 kW) R-1820-G5 (40 built, delivered September 1938), the WH-3A had two 1,000 hp (671 kW) R-1820-G-105A (42 built, delivered March 1940). With the bomb shackles the bomb load could be doubled for a shorter range. A total of 121 of all types were built for the Dutch.[8]

Operators

 Argentina
 China
 The Netherlands
 Philippine Commonwealth
Thailand Siam
 Turkey
 Soviet Union
 United States

Survivors

  • The only surviving complete B-10 is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. The aircraft is painted as a B-10 used in the 1934 Alaskan Flight. It was an export version sold to Argentina in 1938. The aircraft survived as a ground crew trainer, and was still being used by the Argentine Air Force for training its ground crews until the 1960s. The Air Force Museum conducted an exhaustive search for any surviving B-10 remains, and eventually learned of the aircraft. In 1970, the incomplete airframe was donated by the Government of Argentina to the U.S. Government in a formal ceremony attended by the U.S. Ambassador. The aircraft was restored by the 96th Maintenance Squadron (Mobile), Air Force Reserve, at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, in 1973–1976, and placed on display in 1976.[28]
  • Various parts of crashed B-10s, such as turrets and wings, were retrieved from the jungle of Borneo and are now on display in the Militaire Luchtvaart Museum (Military Aviation Museum) at Soesterberg, the Netherlands.[29]

Specifications (B-10B)

Data from United States Military Aircraft Since 1909[30]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

  1. ^ Broshot, James A. "Dutch Air Force Order of Battle in the Dutch East Indies, 30 November 1941." Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. Retrieved: 17 July 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d Fitzsimons 1969, p. 1846.
  3. ^ a b c Jackson 2003, p. 246.
  4. ^ a b c d Eden and Moeng 2002, p. 931.
  5. ^ Collier Trophy Is Presented to Martin, June 1, 1933.
  6. ^ a b "Flying Fish–Our Army's Newest Plane Hits Terrific Speeds (photo of Model 123, US Army designation XB-907, in flight)." Popular Science, October 1932. Retrieved: 22 December 2010.
  7. ^ a b "M-list." Aerofiles. Retrieved: 22 December 2010.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Eden and Moeng 2002, p. 932.
  9. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1964, p. 331.
  10. ^ Bentley, Stewart W., Jr., PhD., "The Touch of Greatness: Colonel William C. Bentley, Jr., USAAC/USAF; Aviation Pioneer, Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4490-2386-7, pp. 41–42.
  11. ^ Anonymous, "Bombing Planes to Bring Food to Ice Victims," Chicago Tribune, February 2, 1936.
  12. ^ Dunn, Richard L. "Illusive <sic> Target: Bombing Japan from China." warbirdforum.com, 2006. Retrieved: 16 May 2013.
  13. ^ Li & Li 1998, p. 265.
  14. ^ Xu 2001, p. 126.
  15. ^ Fenby 2009, p. 320.
  16. ^ Underwood 1942, p. 86.
  17. ^ Avions n°4, June 1993. Retrieved: 2 October 2016.ISSN 1243-8650
  18. ^ a b Fitzsimons 1967/1969, p. 1845.
  19. ^ "Photo of XB-10." Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine 10af.afrc.af.mil. Retrieved: 17 July 2011.
  20. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1964, p. 332.
  21. ^ a b Baugher, Joe. "Martin B-10". American Military Aircraft, 11 July 1999. Retrieved: 13 June 2010.
  22. ^ Ay, Carlos (15 August 2013). "Catálogo Ilustrado de Aeronaves de la Fuerza Aérea Argentina". Gaceta Aeronautica (in Spanish). Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  23. ^ "Donation of the Martin B-10." Archived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 13 June 2010.
  24. ^ Photos as well as paintings of ROC
  25. ^ Shores, Cull and Izawa 1992, pp. 38, 56.
  26. ^ Young 1984, p. 23.
  27. ^ Casius 1983, p. 20.
  28. ^ "USAF Fact Sheet Martin B-10." Archived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 13 June 2010.
  29. ^ "Martin B-10" (in Dutch). Archived 23 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine Netherlands Military Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 22 December 2010.
  30. ^ Swanborough and Bowers, 1964, p. 333.

Sources

  • Bridgwater, H.C. and Peter Scott. Combat Colours Number 4: Pearl Harbor and Beyond, December 1941 to May 1942. Luton, Bedfordshire, UK: Guideline Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-9539040-6-7.
  • Casius, Gerald. "Batavia's Big Sticks." Air Enthusiast, Issue Twenty-two, August–November 1983, pp. 1–20. Bromley, Kent, UK: Pilot Press Ltd, 1983. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • "Collier Trophy Is Presented to Martin By Roosevelt for New Airplane Design." New York Times, June 1, 1933.
  • Eden, Paul and Soph Moeng, eds. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. London: Amber Books Ltd., 2002. ISBN 0-7607-3432-1.
  • Fenby, Jonathan (2009). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0786739843.
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the 20th Century Weapons and Warfare. New York: Purnell & Sons Ltd., 1969, First edition 1967. ISBN 0-8393-6175-0.
  • Jackson, Robert. The Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft. London: Parragon Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-4054-2465-6.
  • Glenn L. Martin Aviation Museum. Martin Aircraft Specifications.
  • Li, Xiaobing; Li, Hongshan, eds. (1998). China and the United States: A New Cold War History. University Press of America.
  • Shores, Christopher; Cull, Brian and Yasuho Izawa. Bloody Shambles: Volume One: The Drift to War to the Fall of Singapore. London: Grub Street, 1992. ISBN 0-948817-50-X
  • Swanborough, F. Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Military Aircraft Since 1909. New York: Putnam, 1964. ISBN 0-85177-816-X.
  • Taylor, John W. R. "Martin B-10". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
  • Xu, Guangqiu (2001). War Wings: The United States and Chinese Military Aviation, 1929–1949. Volume 211 of Contributions in Sociology (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Press. ISSN 0883-6884.
  • Underwood, J. Barton (November 1941). "America Plays Its Part in the Chinese Air Force". Flying Magazine. 29 (No. 5). ISSN 0015-4806.
  • Young, Edward M. "France's Forgotten Air War". Air Enthusiast Issue Twenty Five, August–November 1984, pp. 22–33. Bromley, Kent: Pilot Press. ISSN 0143-5450.

Further reading

  • Núñez Padin, Jorge Felix; Benedetto, Fernando C. (2007). Núñez Padin, Jorge Felix (ed.). Martin 139W en Argentina. Serie en Argentina (in Spanish). Nº1. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Fuerzas Aeronavales. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.

External links

105th Attack Squadron

The 105th Airlift Squadron (105 AS) is a unit of the Tennessee Air National Guard 118th Wing (118 WG). It is assigned to Berry Field Air National Guard Base, Nashville, Tennessee and was previously equipped with the C-130H Hercules aircraft. It has since transitioned to the MQ-9 Reaper, with its parent organization, the former 118th Airlift Wing (118 AW), having recently been redesignated as the 118th Wing. The 105th will likely be redesignated as either an attack squadron or a reconnaissance squadron in the near future.The squadron is a descendant organization of the World War I 105th Aero Squadron, established on 27 August 1917. It was reformed on 4 December 1921, as the 105th Observation Squadron, and is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II.

1st Air and Space Test Squadron

The 1st Air and Space Test Squadron is a unit of the 30th Space Wing of the United States Air Force, responsible for spacelift and test operations.

The squadron's operations include launching of the Minotaur I and Minotaur IV and Pegasus rockets; as well as testing the Boeing Interceptor and Minotaur II target vehicles.

1st Photographic Group

The 1st Photographic Group is an inactive United States Army Air Forces unit. It was last assigned to the 311th Photographic Wing, stationed at Buckley Field, Colorado. It was disbanded on 5 October 1944, but reconstituted in 1985 as the 358th Special Operations Group.

31st Test and Evaluation Squadron

The 31st Test and Evaluation Squadron (31 TES) is a United States Air Force unit, assigned to the 53d Test and Evaluation Group, stationed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The 31 TES is an Air Combat Command (ACC) tenant unit at Edwards, providing personnel to support combined test and evaluation on Air Force weapons systems.

The squadron is one of the oldest in the United States Air Force, its origins dating to 26 June 1917, being organized at Kelly Field, Texas. The squadron deployed to England as part of the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. The squadron saw combat during World War II, and later became part of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) during the Cold War.

6th Operations Group

The 6th Operations Group (6 OG) is the operational flying component of the 6th Air Mobility Wing, stationed at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida.

The mission of the 6th OG is the planning and executing global aerial refueling, combatant commander airlift, and specialized missions for US and allied combat and support aircraft. The group extends US global power and global reach through employment of a mix of KC-135R and C-37 aircraft.

The 6th Operations Group is a successor organization of the 6th Group (Composite), one of the 15 original combat air groups formed by the Army before World War II. During World War II, the 6th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy), was a B-29 Superfortress group assigned to Twentieth Air Force flying bombardment operations against Japan. Its aircraft were identified by a "R" inside a Circle painted on the tail.

B10

B10, B X or B-10 may refer to:

Big Ten Conference

B10 (1930s New York City bus) serving Brooklyn

B10 road (Cyprus)

B10 Biodiesel blend: 10% biodiesel, 90% petrodiesel is labeled B10

B-10 motorway (Spain), a ring motorway around Barcelona

B-10 recoilless rifle, a rifle used by the Soviet Army

Bavarian B X, an 1890 German locomotive model

Bensen B-10, a 1958 American unconventional aircraft

Bundesstraße 10, a federal highway in Germany

HMS B10, a British B class submarine

Martin B-10, a US bomber

B10 when relating to Functional Safety is the number of operations that a devices will operate prior to 10% of a sample of those devices would fail. B10d is the same calculation, but where 10% of the sample would fail to danger.

10 amp, type B – a standard circuit breaker current rating

B13

B13 may refer to:

B13 (New York City bus) serving Brooklyn

B13 road (Cyprus)

B13tech, a futuristic fictional technology created by the character Brainiac 13

Bensen B-13, a Bensen aircraft

Boston Thirteens, a Rugby League club competing in the USARL

Chery B13, a 2007 Chinese Chery Automobile model

District B13, a movie featuring David Belle

HLA-B13, an HLA-B serotype

Martin XB-13, a version of the Martin B-10 bomber

Caro-Kann Defence, a common opening in the game of chess

Moseley, a suburb of Birmingham, England, from its postcode

Orotic acid, formerly known as Vitamin B13

a chassis of the Nissan Sentra

Queensland B13 class locomotive

13 amp, type B – a standard circuit breaker current rating

Jalan Uniten–Dengkil, in Selangor, Malaysia

Battle of Borneo (1941–42)

The Battle of Borneo was a successful campaign by Japanese Imperial forces for control of Borneo island and concentrated mainly on the subjugation of the Raj of Sarawak, Brunei, North Borneo, and the western part of Kalimantan that was part of the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese main unit for this mission was the 35th Infantry Brigade led by Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi.

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry (prototype Model 299/XB-17) outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract (to the Douglas B-18 Bolo) because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88.

The B-17 was primarily employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central, eastern and southern England, and the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944. The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.From its prewar inception, the USAAC (by June 1941, the USAAF) promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon; it was a relatively fast, high-flying, long-range bomber with heavy defensive armament at the expense of bombload. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in World War II. Of approximately 1.5 million tons of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U.S. aircraft, over 640,000 tons were dropped from B-17s. In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was also employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft.

As of October 2019, 9 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were ever flown in combat. Dozens more are in storage or on static display. The oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean.

Boeing YB-9

The Boeing YB-9 was the first all-metal monoplane bomber aircraft designed for the United States Army Air Corps. The YB-9 was an enlarged alteration of Boeing's Model 200 Monomail commercial transport.

Development of Chinese Nationalist air force (1937–45)

The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) was formed by the Kuomintang after the establishment of the Aviation Ministry in 1920. As tensions mounted between China and Imperial Japan in the 1930s, a number of smaller Chinese warlord airforce men (including Guangdong Provincial Air Force) and equipment became integrated into the ROCAF in a centralized effort to counter Imperial Japanese military ambitions.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), the ROCAF participated in attacks on Japanese warships on the eastern front and along the Yangtze river and interdiction and close-air support during the Battle of Shanghai in 1937. The initially Chinese frontline fighter aircraft were mainly Curtiss Hawk IIs and IIIs and Boeing P-26Cs. These engaged Japanese fighters in many major air battles beginning on 14 August 1937, when Imperial Japanese Navy warplanes raided Chienchiao airbase; "814" has thus become known as "Air Force Day". Chinese Boeing P-26/281 fighters engaged Japanese Mitsubishi A5M fighters in the world's first dogfight between all-metal monoplane fighters. A unique mission in April 1938 saw two Chinese Martin B-10 bombers fly a mission over Japan, dropping only anti-war leaflets over the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Saga. It was a war of attrition for the Chinese pilots, as many of their most experienced ace fighter pilots, such as Lieutenant Liu Tsui-Kang and Colonel Kao Chih-Hang, were lost. Six months into the war, which is considered the beginning of World War II in Asia, the Chinese Air Force inventory of frontline American Hawk IIs and IIIss and P-26Cs were superseded by faster and better armed Polikarpov I-15s and I-16s as support from the Soviet Union grew and American support faded.

Through attrition and loss of their most experienced fighter pilots in the first half of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Republic of China Air Force ultimately suffered irreversible losses in combat against the Japanese, and by the beginning of 1942 the ROCAF was practically annihilated by Japanese aircraft, particularly with the introduction of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero. The ROCAF was eventually supplemented with the establishment of the American Volunteer Group (known as the "Flying Tigers") with heavily armed and armored Curtiss P-40 Warhawks, and subsequently rebuilt each year following Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor with new aid and vigor from the United States.

The Sino-Japanese War started on 7 July 1937. At that time, Chinese sources estimated the Japanese could field approximately 600 aircraft (from a total of 1,530) against China's 230 combat aircraft. During the first phase up to 1939, aerial bombing of enemy bomber formations was tried with indifferent results, and leaflet-dropping raids carried out over Japanese cities.

The Japanese bombing raids were also fiercely contested, sometimes with significant Japanese losses. After suffering heavy losses in the Battle of Wuhan in October 1938, most air force units were withdrawn for reorganisation and training.

The ROC Air Force was reconstituted into seven Groups, one separate Squadron and four Volunteer Groups. In 1939, after the USSR concluded a non-aggression pact with Germany, the Soviet Volunteer Group was withdrawn. By the end of 1941, the air force had 364 operational aircraft. Up to 100 of these were P-40Bs operated by the American Volunteer Group. U.S. replacement aircraft began to arrive in March 1942. They included A-29s, P-40s, P-43s,In 1944, the USAAF Fourteenth Air Force commenced joint operations in the China theatre. By this time the Chinese Air Force was mostly equipped with current operational aircraft types and was superior in all respects to the opposing Japanese air forces which remained.

Douglas B-18 Bolo

The Douglas B-18 Bolo is an American medium bomber which served with the United States Army Air Corps and the Royal Canadian Air Force (as the Digby) during the late 1930s and early 1940s. The Bolo was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company, based on its DC-2, and was developed to replace the Martin B-10.

By 1940, it was considered to be underpowered, to have inadequate defensive armament, and to carry too small a bomb load. Many were destroyed during the attacks on Pearl Harbor and the Philippines in December 1941.

In 1942, the surviving B-18s were relegated to antisubmarine, transport duty, and training. A B-18 was one of the first American aircraft to sink a German U-boat, U-654 on 22 August 1942 in the Caribbean.

Douglas Y1B-7

The Douglas Y1B-7 was a 1930s United States bomber aircraft. It was the first US monoplane given the B- 'bomber' designation. The monoplane was more practical and less expensive than the biplane, and the United States Army Air Corps chose to experiment with monoplanes for this reason. At the time the XB-7 was ordered, it was being tested by Douglas Aircraft as an observational plane.

Glenn L. Martin Company

The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company founded by aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the US and allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War. During the 1950s and 60s, the Martin Company moved from the aircraft industry into the guided missile, space exploration, and space utilization industries.

In 1961, the Martin Company merged with American-Marietta Corporation, a large sand and gravel mining company, forming Martin Marietta Corporation. In 1995, Martin Marietta merged with aerospace giant Lockheed to form the Lockheed Martin Corporation.

Martin 146

The Martin Model 146 was an unsuccessful American bomber design that lost a 1934–1935 bomber design competition to the prototype for the Douglas B-18 Bolo (itself soon supplanted by the B-17 Flying Fortress).

Martin NBS-1

The Martin NBS-1 was a military aircraft of the United States Army Air Service and its successor, the Air Corps. An improved version of the Martin MB-1, a scout-bomber built during the final months of World War I, the NBS-1 was ordered under the designation MB-2 and is often referred to as such. The designation NBS-1, standing for "Night Bomber-Short Range", was adopted by the Air Service after the first five of the Martin bombers were delivered.

The NBS-1 became the standard frontline bomber of the Air Service in 1920 and remained so until its replacement in 1928–1929 by the Keystone Aircraft series of bombers. The basic MB-2 design was also the standard against which prospective U.S. Army bombers were judged until the production of the Martin B-10 in 1933.

Medium bomber

A medium bomber is a military bomber aircraft designed to operate with medium-sized bombloads over medium range distances; the name serves to distinguish this type from larger heavy bombers and smaller light bombers. Mediums generally carried about two tons of bombs, compared to light bombers that carried one ton, and heavies that carried four or more.

The term was used prior to and during World War II, based on available parameters of engine and aeronautical technology for bomber aircraft designs at that time. After the war, medium bombers were replaced in world air forces by more advanced and capable aircraft.

Prince George Airport

Prince George Airport (IATA: YXS, ICAO: CYXS) is an airport that serves Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, and the surrounding area. It is located just within the southern boundary of the city, 2.8 nautical miles (5.2 km; 3.2 mi) southeast, and is run by the Prince George Airport Authority.

In 2016, 462,007 passengers used Prince George Airport. The airport offers 22 flights every business day between Prince George and Vancouver serviced by Air Canada via its Air Canada Express affiliate, WestJet and its affiliate WestJet Encore, and Central Mountain Air (CMA). CMA and Northern Thunderbird Air also have scheduled and charter services to many points in northern and central British Columbia as well as Edmonton, Alberta. WestJet flies a weekly non-stop flight to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico from November through to April. In January 2015, Pacific Coastal Airlines set up shop at Prince George offering daily non-stop flights to Victoria, BC. Air Canada Express and WestJet Encore both operate Bombardier Q400 turboprop into the airport while WestJet operates Boeing 737 jet liners.In February 2015, Prince George hosted the 2015 Canada Winter Games. Approximately 15,000 people came to the city by air for the games.

The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). The airport can handle aircraft with up to 30 passengers or 120 if they are unloaded in stages.

Strategic bomber

A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war. Unlike tactical bombers, penetrators, fighter-bombers, and attack aircraft, which are used in air interdiction operations to attack enemy combatants and military equipment, strategic bombers are designed to fly into enemy territory to destroy strategic targets (e.g., infrastructure, logistics, military installations, factories, and cities). In addition to strategic bombing, strategic bombers can be used for tactical missions. There are currently only two countries that operate strategic bombers: the United States and Russia.The modern strategic bomber role appeared after strategic bombing was widely employed, and atomic bombs were first used in combat during World War II. Nuclear strike missions (i.e., delivering nuclear-armed missiles or bombs) can potentially be carried out by most modern fighter-bombers and strike fighters, even at intercontinental range, with the use of aerial refueling, so any nation possessing this combination of equipment and techniques theoretically has such capability. Primary delivery aircraft for a modern strategic bombing mission need not always necessarily be a heavy bomber type, and any modern aircraft capable of nuclear strikes at long range is equally able to carry out tactical missions with conventional weapons. An example is France's Mirage IV, a small strategic bomber replaced in service by the ASMP-equipped Mirage 2000N fighter-bomber and Rafale multirole fighter.

Martin and Martin Marietta aircraft
Model numbers
Airliners
Attack aircraft
Bombers
Maritime patrol
Military transports
Military trainers
Scout/Torpedo bombers
Reconnaissance aircraft
Martin Marietta
United States attack aircraft designations, Army/Air Force and Tri-Service systems
Army/Air Force sequence
(1925-1962)
Tri-service sequence
(1962-present)
Related designations
USAAS/USAAC/USAAF/USAF bomber designations, Army/Air Force and Tri-Service systems
Original sequences
(1924–1930)
Main sequence
(1930–1962)
Long-range Bomber
(1935–1936)
Non-sequential
Tri-Service sequence
(1962–current)
USAAC/USAAF observation aircraft
Observation
Observation Amphibian

Languages

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