Martín de Goiti (c. 1534 - 1575) was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific, in 1565. From his main base in Mexico City, he was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1569. There, he fought a number of battles against the Muslim, Tariq Suleiman/Soliman (Arabic سليمان), the Hindu Rajah Matanda (Hindi ऋअज ंअतन्द), and the Taoist Lakandula (trad. Chinese 王 杜拉) of the kingdoms in Luzon; for control of the lands and its settlements. He is also known for his statesmanship by betrothing his sister to Batang Dula, the eldest son and successor apparent of Lakan Dula of Tondo (trad. Chinese"東都" pronounced Dongdu), the paramount ruler of Manila. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the Basque Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family eventually married with the Mendoza family who came over from Latin-America, who were Sephardic Hebrews that were practicing Catholics. Afterwards, the Dula y Goiti surname was shortened to Dulay. However, during the Spanish era, some descendants changed their surnames even further in order to avoid persecution and among which; the Salonga and Macapagal families are known descendants of these royal houses albeit only through a different family name.
Martin de Goiti
Martín de Goiti
Basque Country, Spain
|Died||1575 (aged 40–41)|
The Spaniards arrived in Luzon on May 8, 1570, and camped on the shores of Manila Bay for several weeks, while forming an alliance with the Muslims. On May 24, 1570, disputes and hostility erupted between the two groups. The Spaniards occupied the city of Tondo where they were greeted with thousands of warriors. There, they defeated most of Tariq Suleiman's (سليمان), Rajah Matanda's (ऋअज ंअतन्द), and Lakan Dula's (王 杜拉) people. The Spaniards marched their armies towards the Pasig River, and occupied the settlements in Manila on June 6, 1570 and burned them.
Guerrilla warfare broke out following the battle, which continued for about ten months. The Spaniards fortified themselves in the area and constructed their military barracks of Fort Santiago, which became their outpost for trade with Mexico. The Spaniards gained control of the settlements on June 24, 1571, after the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi in Manila, who agreed to a peace agreement sealed by betrothing one of his half-caste (Half Aztec and Half Spanish) daughters to Batang Dula, heir apparent of Lakan Dula. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the half-Aztec and half Spanish de Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family married with the Mendoza family who were Catholic Sephardic Hebrews and to mark the dynasty, changed the surname to Dulay. However, upon the commencement of persecutions the Dulay family's descendants changed their surnames even further and thus we have the Salonga and Macapagal families that are known descendants of these royal houses but subsist under a different family name.
The Spanish colonization paved the way for the establishment of Manila as a permanent settlement and capital city of the Spanish East Indies. He later explored Pampanga, Pangasinan and founded several Spanish cities in Luzon between the periods of 1571 -1573. De Goiti, along with other soldiers were granted with haciendas (estates) for the lands they had conquered, by Philip II of Spain.
In 1574, De Goiti fought in the war during the invasion of about 3,000 Chinese sea pirates who had sailed from the South China sea. Their leader, Limahong, besieged on the Spanish settlements in Manila. De Goiti was killed by these pirates. Most of the Spanish reinforcements came from Vigan and Cebu. Martín de Goiti's second in command, Juan de Salcedo left Ilocos Sur, after hearing the news and traveled to Manila where he discovered their settlements had been ceded to the pirates. Salcedo's forces attacked and drove the pirates out of Manila. Limahong and his fleets retreated to Pangasinan where they re-organize their forces.
In 1575, Salcedo's army marched north to Pangasinan, in pursuit of the pirates, and besieged them for three months. There the Spaniards captured Limahong and his fleets in the river of Pangasinan and executed them.
Calumpit, officially the Municipality of Calumpit, (Tagalog: Bayan ng Calumpit), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 108,757 people.Capital of the Philippines
This is a list of current and former national capital cities in the Philippines, which includes during the time of the Spanish colonization, the First Philippine Republic, the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the Second Republic of the Philippines (Japanese-sponsored Republic), the Third Republic of the Philippines, the Fourth Republic of the Philippines and the current Fifth Republic of the Philippines.The current capital city, Manila, was established by presidential order on June 24, 1976.Captaincy General of the Philippines
The Captaincy General of the Philippines (Spanish: Capitanía General de las Filipinas [kapitaˈni.a xeneˈɾal ðe las filiˈpinas]; Filipino: Kapitaniyang Heneral ng Pilipinas) also known as the Kingdom of the Philippines (Spanish: Reino de Las Filipinas; Filipino: Kaharian ng Pilipinas) was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire in Southeast Asia governed by a Governor-General. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included among others the Philippine Islands and the Caroline Islands. It was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements.
For centuries all the political and economic aspects of the Captaincy were administered in Mexico City by the Viceroyalty of New Spain, while the administrative issues had to be consulted with the Spanish Crown or the Council of the Indies through the Royal Audience of Manila. However, in 1821, following the independence of Mexico, all control was transferred to Madrid. It was succeeded by the short-lived First Philippine Republic following its Independence through the Philippine Revolution.Cusco School
The Cusco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) or Cuzco School, was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. It was not limited to Cuzco only, but spread to other cities in the Andes, as well as to present day Ecuador and Bolivia.There are high amount of Cusco School's paintings preserved, currently most of them are located at Cusco, but also currently there are in the rest of Peru and in museums of Brazil, England and United States.Haijin
The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing. First imposed to deal with Japanese piracy amid the mopping up of Yuan partisans, the sea ban was completely counterproductive: by the 16th century, piracy and smuggling were endemic and mostly consisted of Chinese who had been dispossessed by the policy. China's foreign trade was limited to irregular and expensive tribute missions, and the military pressure from the Mongols after the disastrous Battle of Tumu led to the scrapping of Zheng He's fleets. Piracy dropped to negligible levels only upon the end of the policy in 1567, but a modified form was subsequently adopted by the Qing. This produced the Canton System of the Thirteen Factories, but also the opium smuggling that led to disastrous wars with Britain and other European powers in the 19th century.
The policy was also mimicked by both Tokugawa Japan (as the Sakoku) and Joseon Korea, which became known as the "Hermit Kingdom", before they were opened militarily in 1853 and 1876.Hernán Venegas Carrillo
Hernán Venegas Carrillo Manosalvas (c.1513 – 2 February 1583) was a Spanish conquistadorfor who participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and Panche people in the New Kingdom of Granada, present-day Colombia. Venegas Carrillo was mayor of Santa Fe de Bogotá for two terms; in 1542 and from 1543 to 1544.History of the Philippines (1521–1898)
The history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, also known as the Spanish colonial period from 1565, was the period following the arrival of Magellan in the Philippines and during which Spain financed expeditions to the Philippine islands and then ruled them as the Captaincy General of the Philippines within the Spanish East Indies, initially under New Spain until Mexican independence in 1821, which gave Madrid direct control over the area. It started with the arrival in 1521 of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain, which heralded the period when the Philippines was a colony of the Spanish Empire, and ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonial era of Philippine history..Intramuros
Intramuros (Spanish for "within the walls") is the 0.67 square kilometres (0.26 sq mi) historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration (IA), which was created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979. IA is tasked to rebuild, redevelop, administer and preserve the remaining pre-war buildings, structures and fortifications of Intramuros.
Intramuros is also called the Walled City, and at the time of the Spanish Empire was synonymous to the City of Manila. Other towns and arrabales (suburbs) located beyond the walls are referred to as "extramuros", the Spanish for "outside the walls". It was the seat of government and political power when the Philippines was a component realm of the Spanish Empire. It was also the center of religion, education and economy. The standard way of life in Intramuros became the standard way of life throughout the Philippines. The Manila Galleons which sailed the Pacific for 250 years, carried goods to and from Intramuros (Manila) and Acapulco, Mexico.
Construction of the defensive walls was started by the Spanish imperial government in the late 16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions. The Walled City was originally located along the shores of the Manila Bay, south of the entrance to Pasig River. Guarding the old city is Fort Santiago, its citadel located at the mouth of the river. Land reclamations during the early 20th century subsequently obscured the walls and fort from the bay. The Battle of Manila in 1945 devastated Intramuros. It is the place where the occupying Japanese Imperial Army made their last stand against Allied soldiers and Filipino guerillas. The battle destroyed its churches, universities, houses, and government buildings, most of which dated back to the Spanish Colonial Period.
Intramuros, particularly the Fort Santiago, was designated as a National Historical Landmark in 1951. The fortifications of Intramuros, collectively called "Fortifications of Manila", were declared as National Cultural Treasures, by the National Museum of the Philippines, owing to its architectural, scientific and archaeological significance. San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, is located within Intramuros.Juan de Salcedo
Juan de Salcedo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwan de salˈθeðo]; 1549 – March 11, 1576) was a Spanish conquistador. He was born in Mexico in 1549 and he was the grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi and brother of Felipe de Salcedo. Salcedo was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the Philippines in 1565. He joined the Spanish military in 1564 for their exploration of the East Indies and the Pacific, at the age of 15. In 1567, Salcedo led an army of about 300 Spanish and Mexican soldiers and 600 Visayan (Filipino) allies along with Martín de Goiti for their conquest of Islamic Manila (then under occupation by the Sultanate of Brunei). There they fought a number of battles against the Muslim leaders, mainly against Tarik Sulayman (ironically named from the Arabic طارق بن زياد Tāriq, Islamic conqueror of Spain before the Christian Spanish expelled the Muslims during the Reconquista). The Spanish officers, Mexican recruits and Filipino warriors coalesced in 1570 and 1571 to attack the Islamised areas of Luzon, for control of lands and settlements.
William Scott called Salcedo, "the last of the Conquistadores." In May 1572, Salcedo led an exploration expedition of 45 Spaniards northward. Leaving 30 of his men at Vigan, Salcedo proceeded to sail around the northern coast, and down the eastern shore, with 15 men in 2 open boats. He returned to Manila 3 months later with 50 pounds of gold.In 1574, Salcedo hurried back to Manila, when that city was threatened by Limahong and he fought with his 600 warriors (300 Mexicans and Spaniards plus 300 local Filipino Militia) against 6,500 Chinese pirates and Japanese Ronins. After the Spanish success in the Battle of Manila (1574), Salcedo pursued Limahong to Pangasinan in 1575. There the Spaniards besieged the pirates for four months, before Limahong made good his escape.Salcedo died in March 1576, probably of dysentery, at the age of 27.His body is interred at the San Agustin Church in Intramuros.Lacandola Documents
The term "Lacandola Documents" is used by Philippine Historiographers to describe the section of the Spanish Archives in Manila which are dedicated to the genealogical records (cuadernos de linaje) of the "Manila aristocracy" from the period immediately following European colonial contact. As of 2001, only one bundle of twelve folders (containing eleven distinct sets of documents) remains in the archive, the rest having been lost, misplaced, or destroyed by various events such as the Japanese Occupation of Manila during World War II. The surviving bundle is labeled "Decendientes de Don Carlos Lacandola" (Descendants of Don Carlos Lakandula), and scholars use the term "Lacandola Documents" as an informal shortcut.Scholars specializing in the noble houses of Rajah Matanda, Rajah Sulayman, and Lakandula mostly use these documents in conjunction with the Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies) in Seville, Spain in studying the genealogies of these "noble houses." Other primary sources frequently referred to by historiographers are the Silsila or Tarsilas of Sulu, Maguindanao, and Brunei, and local records (usually Catholic parish registers) of towns where descendants of the three houses may have moved.List of conquistadors
The following is a list of conquistadors.Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel ˈlopeθ ðe leˈɣaθpi]; c. 1502 – August 20, 1572), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Cebu the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1565 and later transferred to Manila in 1571. The capital city of the province of Albay bears his name.Pangasinan
Pangasinan is a province in the Philippines. Its provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is on the western area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and West Philippine Sea. It has a total land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi). According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 2,956,726 people. The official number of registered voters in Pangasinan is 1,651,814. The western portion of the province is part of the homeland of the Sambal people, while the central and eastern portions are the homeland of the Pangasinan people. Due to ethnic migration, Ilocano people have settled in some areas of the province.
Pangasinan is the name for the province, the people, and the language spoken in the province. Indigenous Pangasinan speakers are estimated to number at least 2 million. The Pangasinan language, which is official in the province, is one of the officially recognized regional languages in the Philippines. In Pangasinan, there were several ethnic groups who enriched the cultural fabric of the province. Almost all of the people are Pangasinans and the rest are descendants of Bolinao and Ilocano, who settled the eastern and western parts of the province. Pangasinan is spoken as a second-language by many of the ethnic minorities in Pangasinan. The secondary ethnic groups are the Bolinaos (who are essentially Sambal people) and the Ilocanos.
The name Pangasinan (pronounced "Pang-ASINan") means "place of salt" or "place of salt-making"; it is derived from the prefix pang, meaning "for", the root word asin, meaning "salt”, and suffix an, signifying "location". At present it is pronounced "Paŋgasinan" based on the Spanish pronunciation. The province is a major producer of salt in the Philippines. Its major products include bagoong ("salted-krill") and alamang ("shrimp-paste").
Pangasinan was first founded by Austronesian peoples who called themselves Anakbanwa by at least 2500 BC. A kingdom called Luyag na Caboloan, which expanded to incorporate much of northwestern Luzon, existed in Pangasinan before the Spanish conquest that began in the 16th century. The Kingdom of Luyag na Kaboloan was known as the Wangdom of Pangasinan in Chinese records. The ancient Pangasinan people were skilled navigators and the maritime trade network that once flourished in ancient Luzon connected Pangasinan with other peoples of Southeast Asia, India, China, Japan and the rest of the Pacific. The ancient kingdom of Luyag na Caboloan was in fact mentioned in Chinese and Indian records as being an important kingdom on ancient trade routes.Popular tourist attractions in Pangasinan include the Hundred Islands National Park in Alaminos City and the white-sand beaches of Bolinao and Dasol. Dagupan City is known for its Bangus Festival ("Milkfish Festival"). Pangasinan is also known for its delicious mangoes and ceramic oven-baked Calasiao puto ("native rice cake"). Pangasinan occupies a strategic geo-political position in the central plain of Luzon. Pangasinan has been described as a gateway to northern Luzon.Quito School
The Quito School (Escuela Quiteña) is a Latin American artistic tradition that constitutes essentially the whole of the professional artistic output developed in the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito — from Pasto and Popayán in the north to Piura and Cajamarca in the south — during the Spanish colonial period (1542-1824). It is especially associated with the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the realistic and by the degree to which indigenous beliefs and artistic traditions are evident, these productions were among of the most important activities in the economy of the Royal Audience of Quito. Such was the prestige of the movement even in Europe that it was said that King Carlos III of Spain (1716–1788), referring to one of its sculptors in particular, opined: "I am not concerned that Italy has Michelangelo; in my colonies of America I have the master Caspicara".Rajah Matanda
Rajah Ache (Baybayin: ᜎᜇᜒᜌ ᜀᜐᜒ, Abecedario: Rája Aché), better known by his title Rajah Matanda (1480–1572), was one of the rulers of Maynila, a pre-colonial Indianized Tagalog polity along the Pasig River in what is now Manila, Philippines.
Ache ruled Maynila, together with Rajah Sulayman, and they, along with their cousin Lakan Dula, who was ruler of Tondo, were three "paramount rulers" with whom the Legaspi expedition dealt when they arrived in the area of the Pasig River delta in the early 1570s.Rajah Sulayman
Rajah Sulayman, sometimes referred to as Sulayman III (Sanskrit: स्ललैअह् , Baybayin: ᜐᜓᜎᜌ᜔ᜋᜈ᜔, Abecedario: Suláimán) (1558–1575), was the Rajah or paramount ruler of the Rajahnate of Maynila, a fortified Tagalog Muslim polity which was a vassal to the Brunei Sultanate, on the southern half of the Pasig River delta, by the time Spanish colonizers arrived in the early 1570s.Sulayman - along with his co-ruler Rajah Matanda of Maynila and Lakan Dula, who ruled the neighboring polity of Tondo - was one of three monarchs who figured most significantly in the Spanish conquest of the Port of Manila and the Pasig River delta. Spanish accounts describe him as the most aggressive of the three rulers – a characteristic chalked up to his youth relative to the other two rulers.He was penultimate indigenous paramount ruler (Lakan or Rajah) in the Pasig River Delta era: his adoptive son, baptized Agustin de Legaspi upon conversion to Roman Catholicism, was proclaimed Paramount ruler of Tondo upon the death of Lakan Dula, but he, along with most of Lakan Dula's sons and most of Sulayman's adoptive sons were executed by the Spanish after being implicated in the 1587–1588 Tondo Conspiracy, helping the Spanish Empire to further solidify its grip on Luzon and most of the Philippine archipelago.Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila (Latin: Archidioecesis Manilensis; Filipino: Arkidiyosesis ng Maynilà; Spanish: Arquidiócesis de Manila) is the archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Metro Manila, Philippines, encompassing the cities of Manila, Makati, San Juan, Mandaluyong, and Pasay (except Villamor Air Base and Newport City, which belong to the jurisdiction of the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines). The current Archbishop is Luis Antonio Gokim Cardinal Tagle, D.D., S.Th.D, the 32nd to hold the office and the fifth native Filipino following centuries of Spanish, American, and Irish predecessors.
The cathedral church is a minor basilica located in Intramuros, which comprises the old city of Manila. The Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title Immaculate Conception, is the principal patroness.
The archdiocese also owns and manages the following institutions located outside its own territorial jurisdiction: Mount Peace Retreat House (in Baguio City, Benguet), Saint Michael Retreat House (in Antipolo City, Rizal), Radio Veritas (in Barangay Philam, Quezon City; which is under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Cubao, and EDSA Shrine or the Archdiocesan Shrine of Mary, Queen of Peace (in Barangay Ugong Norte, Quezon City).Sangley
Sangley (Intsik term derived from Philippine Hokkien 𪜶叔 "in-chek/in-chiak", Sangley Mestizo, Mestisong Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese mestizo; plural: Sangleys or Sangleyes) is an archaic and derogatory term used in the Philippines beginning in the Spanish Colonial Period to describe and classify a person of pure Chinese ancestry. The Spanish used the term mestizo de sangley to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and indigenous/Indio (Filipino) ancestry (the latter were referred to as Indio). The Chinese immigrants and their descendants played important roles in the Philippines, contributing to trade, culture and politics.
Tsinoy (from the Spanish word Chino, and the word Pinoy) is also used to refer to a person of Chinese descent.
The Chinese had entered the Philippines as traders prior to Spanish colonization. That development increased some work and business opportunities. Many emigrated to the Philippines, establishing concentrated communities first in Manila, then in other cities.Timeline of Manila
The following is a timeline of the history of the city and metropolitan area of Manila.