No air force in an English-speaking country formally uses the exact title "marshal of the air force", although it is sometimes used as a shortened form of the full title. In several Commonwealth air forces and many Middle Eastern air forces the most senior rank is named "marshal of the", followed by the name of the air force (e.g. Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force).
Brazil and Italy have used rank titles which literally translate as marshal of the air, whereas Portugal's rank translates as "marshal of the air force". Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe used the rank of Generalfeldmarschall (also used by the World War II German Army) The premier rank of Reichsmarschall was also held solely by Hermann Göring.
The first instance of this rank was marshal of the Royal Air Force, which was established on paper in 1919 and was first held by Lord Trenchard (from 1927 onwards). Other Commonwealth countries later adopted their own national versions of the rank but, unlike the United Kingdom, they have only used it as a ceremonial honour.
|Field marshal or
General of the Army
|Marshal ofthe air force|
|Admiral||General||Air chief marshal|
|Vice admiral||Lieutenant general||Air marshal|
|Rear admiral||Major general||Air vice-marshal|
|Commander||Lieutenant colonel||Wing commander|
junior grade or
|Second lieutenant||Pilot officer|
|Officer cadet||Officer cadet||Flight cadet|
|Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
|Warrant officer or
|Leading seaman||Corporal or
Marshals of the air force can be properly considered marshals and such ranks are equivalent to the army rank of field marshal and the navy rank of admiral of the fleet. Marshal of the air force is a five-star rank and in NATO countries it is described by the ranking code of OF-10. As such a senior rank, it is very seldom held. It is awarded either in a ceremonial capacity to heads of state or members of royal families, or to the most senior officers in large air forces.
In the air forces of Australia, India, Thailand and the United Kingdom, marshals of the air force are immediately senior to air chief marshals. In the case of New Zealand, although the rank of marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force has been bestowed, no Royal New Zealand Air Force officer has attained higher rank than air marshal and the New Zealand rank of air chief marshal only exists on paper. A similar situation to the one in New Zealand also existed in Malaysia until the 1970s when the Royal Malaysian Air Force replaced its air-officer ranks with general-officer ranks, although it retained the rank of marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force. The rank of marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force was never granted.
During Germany's Nazi period, the Luftwaffe (air force), in common with the Heer (army), used the rank of generalfeldmarschall (field marshal), which was equivalent to großadmiral (grand admiral) in the navy. Generalfeldmarschall was immediately senior to generaloberst (colonel general) and it was the most senior German air force and army rank until the promotion of Hermann Göring, the commander of the Luftwaffe, to the even higher rank of reichsmarschall (imperial marshal or marshal of the realm) in July 1940. The German ranks of reichsmarschall and generalfeldmarschall ceased to exist with the fall of the Third Reich.
There are a variety of rank insignia in use by the different air forces which maintain a rank of marshal of the air force. Some, such as the Royal Air Force, derive the pattern from the sleeve lace for an admiral of the fleet, using one broad light blue band on a wider broad black band with four narrow light blue bands each on slightly wider black bands. Others use a pattern of stars, typically numbering five in total.
The following command or rank flags are or have been in use:
As of 2017, there are 14 living individuals who hold or have held the rank, or its equivalents, of Marshal of the Air Force. 10 of those are royalty who have been appointed to the rank in a ceremonial capacity, including Queen Sirikit of Thailand, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales and the current head of state of Malaysia. In the case of Malaysia, the elected Yang di-Pertuan Agong is appointed a Marshal of the Air Force for his tenure as head of state, but relinquishes the rank after completing his term in office. He can, however, be re-appointed to the rank if he later serves another term.
The Duke of Edinburgh holds the ceremonial rank of a Marshal of the Royal Air Force, as well as the honorary ranks of Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force and Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force; owing to their smaller size, however, neither of the latter two air forces have ever used the rank in an operational capacity. Although the rank of Marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force existed on paper until 1968, the Duke of Edinburgh was never appointed to this rank nor to the other Canadian 5-star ranks before they were abolished that year. In 2012, his son, the Prince of Wales, was appointed to the British rank.
The remaining four holders of the rank were all serving air officers, three of whom served as Chief of the Air Staff of the Royal Air Force, and were promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Royal Air Force upon concluding their tenure. Of those, only Lord Craig did not retire then, as he went on to serve as Chief of the Defence Staff as a Marshal of the RAF. In June 2014, retired Air Chief Marshal the Lord Stirrup was promoted to Marshal of the RAF in a ceremonial capacity, marking the first time since 1992 that an RAF air officer had been awarded the rank; Lord Stirrup had served as Chief of the Defence Staff from 2006 to 2010.
||Year of promotion /
||Year of birth
||Year of death
|Australia||1939||HM King George VI||Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force||1895||1952||Honorary rank.|
|Australia||1954||HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh||Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force||1921||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 1 April 1954.
|Bahrain||HM Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah||Marshal of the Royal Bahrain Air Force||1950||-||Honorary rank.|
|Brazil||1959||Armando Figueira Trompowsky de Almeida||Marechal-do-ar||1889||1964||Promoted 30 January 1959|
|Brazil||1960||Eduardo Gomes||Marechal-do-ar||1896||1981||Patron of the Brazilian Air Force. Promoted 22 September 1960.|
|Brazil||Casimiro Montenegro Filho||Marechal-do-ar||1904||2000|
|Egypt||HM King Farouk||Marshal of the Royal Egyptian Air Force||1920||1965||Honorary rank.|
|Egypt||1952||HM King Fuad II||Marshal of the Royal Egyptian Air Force||1952||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 26 July 1952 at the age of six months.
|Ethiopia||HIM Haile Selassie||Marshal of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force||1892||1975||Honorary rank.|
|Ethiopia||HIM Amha Selassie||Marshal of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force||1916||1997||Honorary rank.|
|Germany||1938||Hermann Göring||Reichsmarschall||1893||1945||Promoted to Generalfeldmarschall 4 February 1938, promoted to Reichsmarschall 19 July 1940|
|Germany||1940||Albert Kesselring||Generalfeldmarschall||1885||1960||Promoted 19 July 1940|
|Germany||1940||Erhard Milch||Generalfeldmarschall||1892||1972||Promoted 19 July 1940|
|Germany||1940||Hugo Sperrle||Generalfeldmarschall||1885||1953||Promoted 19 July 1940|
|Germany||1943||Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen||Generalfeldmarschall||1895||1945||Promoted 16 February 1943|
|Germany||1945||Robert Ritter von Greim||Generalfeldmarschall||1892||1945||Promoted 25 April 1945|
|Greece||1937||George II of Greece||Aitherarchis (Marshal of the Royal Hellenic Air Force)||1890||1947||Honorary rank.|
|Greece||1947||Paul of Greece||Aitherarchis (Marshal of the Royal Hellenic Air Force)||1901||1964||Honorary rank.|
|Greece||1964||Constantine II of Greece||Aitherarchis (Marshal of the Royal Hellenic Air Force)||1940||Honorary rank.|
|India||2002||Arjan Singh||Marshal of the Indian Air Force||1919||2017||Promoted.|
26 January 2002
|Iraq||1933||HM King Ghazi||Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force||1912||1939||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 8 September 1933
|Iraq||1939||HRH Prince Abdul Illah||Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force||1913||1958||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 6 April 1939
|Iraq||1953||HM King Faisal II||Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force||1935||1958||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 2 May 1953
|Italy||1933||Italo Balbo||Maresciallo dell'Aria||1896||1940||Promoted August 1933|
|Jordan||HM King Hussein of Jordan||Marshal of the Royal Jordanian Air Force||1935||1999||Honorary rank.|
|Jordan||1999||HM King Abdullah II||Marshal of the Royal Jordanian Air Force||1962||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 7 February 1999
|Malaysia||1970||Sultan Abdul Halim||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1927||2017||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 21 September 1970. Relinquished role as Head of State on 20 September 1975. Re-appointed Head of State on 13 December 2011.
|Malaysia||1975||Sultan Yahya Petra||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1917||1979||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 21 September 1975
|Malaysia||1979||Sultan Ahmad Shah||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1930||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 30 March 1979
|Malaysia||1984||Sultan Iskandar||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1932||2010||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 26 April 1984, died 22 January 2010.
|Malaysia||1989||Sultan Azlan Shah||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1928||2014||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 26 April 1989 died 28 May 2014.
|Malaysia||1994||Tuanku Jaafar||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1922||2008||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 26 April 1994, died 27 December 2008.
|Malaysia||1999||Salahuddin||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1926||2001||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 26 April 1999 died 21 November 2001.
|Malaysia||2001||Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1943||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 12 December 2001.
|Malaysia||2007||Mizan Zainal Abidin||Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force||1962||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 16 February 2007.
|New Zealand||1977||HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh||Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force||1921||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 11 June 1977.
|Oman||1974||Sultan Qaboos||Marshal of the Royal Air Force of Oman||1940||-||Honorary rank.|
|Portugal||1958||Francisco Craveiro Lopes||Marechal da Força Aérea||1894||1964||Honorary rank.|
|Portugal||1990||Humberto Delgado||Marechal da Força Aérea||1906||1965||Posthumous promotion.|
|Saudi Arabia||1991||HRH Prince Khalid bin Sultan||Field Marshal||1949||-|
|Thailand||1941||Plaek Phibunsongkhram||Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force||1897||1964||Appointed 28 July 1941.|
|Thailand||1954||Fuen Ronnaphagrad Ritthakhanee||Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force||1900||1987||Appointed 27 July 1954.|
|Thailand||1959||Sarit Dhanarajata||Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force||1908||1963||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 28 February 1959.
|Thailand||1960||Chalermkiat Vatthanangkun||Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force||1914||1960||Awarded Posthumously, after plane crashed while on duty.|
Appointed 24 May 1960.
|Thailand||1964||Thanom Kittikachorn||Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force||1911||2004||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 11 January 1964.
|Thailand||1973||Praphas Charusathien||Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force||1912||1997||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 6 June 1973.
|Thailand||1992||HM Queen Sirikit||Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force||1932||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 4 August 1992.
Possibly the only woman to have held such rank.
|United Kingdom||1927||Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1873||1956||Promoted 1 January 1927.|
|United Kingdom||1933||Sir John Salmond||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1881||1968||Promoted 1 January 1933.|
|United Kingdom||1936||HM King Edward VIII||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1894||1972||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 21 January 1936.
|United Kingdom||1936||HM King George VI||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1895||1952||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 11 December 1936.
|United Kingdom||1937||Sir Edward Ellington||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1877||1967||Promoted 1 January 1937.|
|United Kingdom||1940||Cyril Newall, 1st Baron Newall||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1886||1963||Promoted 4 October 1940. Retired 20 days later.|
|United Kingdom||1944||Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1893||1971||Promoted 1 June 1944.|
|United Kingdom||1945||Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1890||1967||Promoted 12 September 1945.|
|United Kingdom||1946||Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1893||1969||Promoted 1 January 1946.|
|United Kingdom||1946||Sir Arthur Harris||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1892||1984||Promoted 1 January 1946, several months after retirement.|
|United Kingdom||1950||Sir John Slessor||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1897||1979||Promoted 8 June 1950.|
|United Kingdom||1953||HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1921||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 15 January 1953.
|United Kingdom||1954||Sir William Dickson||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1898||1987||Promoted 1 June 1954.|
|United Kingdom||1958||Sir Dermot Boyle||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1904||1993||Promoted 1 January 1958.|
|United Kingdom||1958||HRH Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1900||1974||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 12 June 1958.
|United Kingdom||1962||Sir Thomas Pike||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1906||1983||Promoted 6 April 1962.|
|United Kingdom||1967||Charles Elworthy, Baron Elworthy||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1911||1993||Promoted 1 April 1967.|
|United Kingdom||1971||Sir John Grandy||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1913||2004||Promoted and retired on the same day (1 April 1971).|
|United Kingdom||1974||Sir Denis Spotswood||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1916||2001||Promoted and retired on the same day (31 March 1974).|
|United Kingdom||1976||Sir Andrew Humphrey||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1921||1977||Promoted 6 August 1976.|
|United Kingdom||1977||Neil Cameron, Baron Cameron of Balhousie||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1920||1985||Promoted 31 July 1977.|
|United Kingdom||1982||Sir Michael Beetham||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1923||2015||Promoted and retired on the same day (14 October 1982).|
|United Kingdom||1985||Sir Keith Williamson||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1928||-||Promoted and retired on the same day (15 October 1985).|
|United Kingdom||1988||David Craig, Baron Craig of Radley||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1929||-||Promoted 14 November 1988.|
|United Kingdom||1992||Sir Peter Harding||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1933||-||Promoted 6 November 1992. Resigned commission 14 June 1994.|
|United Kingdom||2012||HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1948||-||Honorary rank.|
Appointed 16 June 2012.
|United Kingdom||2014||Jock Stirrup, Baron Stirrup||Marshal of the Royal Air Force||1949||-||Honorary rank. Promoted 13 June 2014.|
The rank also exists or has existed (on paper) in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brunei, Iran, South Korea, Nigeria, Pakistan and South Vietnam, but not all of these countries have used it. The Turkish Air Force maintains a rank of hava mareşalı (literally air marshal but equivalent to five-star rank). The Indonesian Air Force maintains the rank of marsekal besar (literally, "great marshal" and also a five-star rank) although no Indonesian Air Force officer has ever been promoted to the rank. The French Air Force, in common with the French Army has marshal of France as its most senior rank. However, unlike the French Army, the Air Force has never had one of its officers created a marshal of France.
The United States does not use the rank, instead using general of the air force which has only been held once and is currently retained only on paper. China also does not use a marshal rank, preferring first class general (kong jun yi ji shang jiang) which has never been held by an air force officer and was abolished in 1994. Spain uses the equivalent rank of captain general of the Air Force which is held only by HM King Felipe VI.
An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (sometimes also known as admiral of the navy or grand admiral) is a military naval officer of the highest rank. In many nations the rank is reserved for wartime or ceremonial appointments. It is usually a rank above admiral (which is now usually the highest rank in peacetime for officers in active service), and is often held by the most senior admiral of an entire naval service.
It is also a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. If actually a rank its name can vary depending on the country. In addition to "fleet admiral" and "admiral of the fleet", such rank names include "admiral of the navy" and "grand admiral".It ranks above vice admiral, rear admiral and usually full admiral, and is usually given to a senior admiral commanding multiple fleets as opposed to just one fleet. It is often classified in NATO nations as a five-star rank.Admiral of the fleet is equivalent to an army field marshal. It is also equivalent to a marshal of the air force which in many countries has a similar rank insignia to admiral of the fleet.Air Force ranks and insignia of Pakistan
The Ranks of Pakistan Air Force are primarily based on Royal Air Force rank structure, though ranks for other ranks personnel and insignia differ. Insignia for officer ranks were changed from the British influenced ranks to a Turkish style one on 5 July 2006.Arjan Singh
Marshal of the Indian Air Force Arjan Singh, DFC (15 April 1919 – 16 September 2017) was an Indian Air Force marshal who served as Chief of the Air Staff from 1964 to 1969. For his distinguished service in commanding the IAF during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan and in 1966 became the first IAF officer to be promoted to air chief marshal. After retiring from the IAF, he served as a diplomat, politician and advisor to the Indian government. He was Lieutenant Governor of Delhi from 1989 to 1990. In 2002, he became the first and only officer of the Indian Air Force to be promoted to five-star rank as Marshal of the Indian Air Force, equal to the army rank of Field Marshal.Captain general of the Air Force
Captain General of the Air Force (Capitán General del Aire / Capitán General del Ejército del Aire in Spanish) is a five-star air force officer rank and the highest rank of the Spanish Air Force. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10. The honorary appointments formally ceased in 1999. The rank of Air captain general is equivalent to a Marshal of the Air Force in many nations such as the United Kingdom, a general of the Air Force of the United States, a capitain general of the Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra Español) or the Navy (Armada Española). This rank is reserved to the monarch as Commander-in-chief. An Air captain general's insignia consists of two command sticks under five four-pointed stars below the Royal Crown and a golden string.
The Spanish Air Force as a separated branch of the Spanish Armed Forces was officially established on 7 October 1939, after the Spanish Civil War. Francisco Franco as head of Spanish state and commander-in-chief named himself 1st captain general of the Spanish Air Force. General Ángel Salas Larrazábal, a veteran fighter pilot, has been the only honorary Air captain general (1991-1994).Chief of the Air Staff (India)
Chief of the Air Staff is the professional head and the commander of the Indian Air Force. The position is abbreviated as CAS in the Indian Air Force cables and communication, and is usually held by a four-star air officer of the rank Air Chief Marshal. The current CAS is Air Chief Marshal Birender Singh Dhanoa who took office on 31 December 2016, following the retirement of Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha.The position was held by an Air Commodore (1919–1923), by an Air Vice-Marshal (1923–1929) and by an Air Marshal (1929–1965). In 1966, the position was upgraded to that of an Air Chief Marshal. The highest rank in the India's IAF is Marshal of the Air Force, which is conferred by the President of India only in exceptional circumstances. It has only been given once in January 2002 to Marshal of the Indian Air Force Arjan Singh. This is a five-star rank and is equivalent to a Field Marshal in the Army and Admiral of the Fleet in the Navy.Comparative air force officer ranks of Asia
Rank comparison chart of air forces of Asian states.Comparative air force officer ranks of the Commonwealth
Rank comparison chart of air forces of Commonwealth of Nations states.Field marshal
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank. Examples of the different uses of the rank include Austria-Hungary, Prussia, Germany and Sri Lanka for an extraordinary achievement; Spain and Mexico for a divisional command (Spanish: mariscal de campo); and France, Portugal and Brazil for a brigade command (French: maréchal de camp, Portuguese: marechal de campo).
The origin of the term dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses (from Old German Marh-scalc = "horse-servant"), from the time of the early Frankish kings. The exact wording of the titles used by field marshals varies: examples include "marshal" and "field marshal general". The air force equivalent in Commonwealth and many Middle Eastern air forces is marshal of the air force (not to be confused with air marshal). Navies, which usually do not use the nomenclature employed by armies or air forces, use titles such as "fleet admiral," "grand admiral" or "admiral of the fleet" for the equivalent rank. The traditional attribute distinguishing a field marshal is a baton. The baton nowadays is purely ornamental, and as such may be richly decorated. That said, it is not necessary for the insignia to be a baton (Such is the case in Russia post-1991 and the former Soviet Union, which use a jewelled star referred to as a Marshal's Star).Field marshal (India)
Field marshal (or field marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a five–star general officer rank and the highest attainable rank in the Indian Army. Field marshal is ranked immediately above general, but not exercised in the regular army structure. It is a largely ceremonial or wartime rank, having been awarded only twice. A field marshal's insignia consists of the national emblem over a crossed baton and sabre in a lotus blossom wreath.
Sam Manekshaw was the first field marshal of India, and was conferred the rank in January 1973. The second was Kodandera M. Cariappa, who was conferred the rank on 14 January 1986.
Field marshal is equivalent to an admiral of the fleet in the Indian Navy or a marshal of the air force in the Indian Air Force. In the navy, admiral of the fleet has never been awarded, but from the air force, Arjan Singh was promoted to the marshal of the air force.Field marshal (Sri Lanka)
Field Marshal (FM) is a five-star General officer rank and the highest attainable rank in the Sri Lanka Army. Field Marshal is ranked immediately above General and is largely a ceremonial rank, having been awarded only once, to Sarath Fonseka. It is equivalent to Admiral of the Fleet and Marshal of the Air Force.Field marshal (Thailand)
Chom Phon (Thai: จอมพล, จอมพลทหารบก) or Field Marshal is the most senior rank of the Royal Thai Army, considered the equivalent to a Field Marshal or General of the Army (although 'Field Marshal' is more widely used). Today it is ceremonially held by members of the Thai Royal family and exists only on paper in the actual Thai military (it has not been awarded to regular commissioned officers since 1973). The Royal Thai Navy equivalent is known as Chom Phon Ruea (Admiral of the Fleet) and Chom Phon Akat (Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force) for the Royal Thai Air Force.
The King of Thailand as Head of the Armed Forces is automatically made a Chom Phon upon accession. The rank was formally created in 1888, together with all other ranks of the military by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), who wanted to modernize his Armed Forces through western lines. Apart from the monarchs, there have been 13 appointments to this rank.Italo Balbo
Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.
After serving in World War I, Balbo became the leading Fascist organizer in his home region of Ferrara. He was one of the four principal architects (Quadrumviri del Fascismo) of the March on Rome that brought Mussolini and the Fascists to power in 1922, along with Michele Bianchi, Emilio De Bono and Cesare Maria De Vecchi. In 1926, he began the task of building the Italian Royal Air Force and took a leading role in popularizing aviation in Italy, and promoting Italian aviation to the world. In 1933, perhaps to relieve tensions surrounding him in Italy, he was given the government of Italian Libya, where he resided for the remainder of his life. Balbo was the only leading Fascist to oppose Mussolini's alliance with Nazi Germany. Early in World War II, he was killed by friendly fire when his plane was shot down over Tobruk by Italian anti-aircraft guns.Jenderal besar
Jenderal besar, translated literally as "grand general", is the highest rank of the Army of Indonesia. It is the equivalent of a general of the army, and is used to translate that rank into Indonesian. Within the Indonesian Armed Forces ranking system, jenderal besar is the equivalent of laksamana besar (admiral of the fleet) and marsekal besar (marshal of the air force).
Currently the rank has been held only by three persons, all granted in 1997 on the 50th anniversary of Indonesian National Armed Forces.
Sudirman, also styled panglima besar ("grand commander"), the commander of the armed forces during the Indonesian War of Independence. The rank was granted posthumously.
Abdul Haris Nasution, a national hero, twice appointed Army Chief of Staff, and a survivor of an assassination attempt in the 1965 incident.
Suharto, the President of Indonesia for 31 years. His rank was granted during his own rule.A jenderal besar could technically be appointed if ever Indonesia became engaged in a major war or suffered from a massive invasion. A jenderal besar would then, most likely, become supreme commander of all Indonesian military forces.The insignia for jenderal besar is five golden stars arranged in a pentagon formation. Thus, the insignia is very similar to the United States Army rank of general of the army.List of Admirals of the Fleet (Thailand)
Chom Phon Ruea (Thai: จอมพลเรือ) or Admiral of the Fleet is the most senior naval officer rank of the Royal Thai Navy, and is the equivalent to a Admiral of the fleet. Today it is only ceremonially held by members of the Thai Royal family. The Royal Thai Army equivalent is known as just Chom Phon and Chom Phon Akat for the Royal Thai Air Force.
The King of Thailand as Head of the Armed Forces is automatically made a Chom Phon upon accession. The rank was formally created in 1888, together with all other ranks of the military by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), who wanted to modernize his Armed Forces through western lines.Malaysian military ranks
The following tables present the ranks of the Malaysian Armed Forces.Marshal of Italy
Marshal of Italy (Italian: Maresciallo d'Italia) was a rank in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito). Originally created in 1924 by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini for the purpose of honoring Generals Luigi Cadorna and Armando Diaz, the rank was granted to several other general officers from 1926 to 1943. The rank was the highest in the Italian Army prior to the creation of the rank of First Marshal of the Empire in 1938. The rank of Marshal of Italy was abolished in 1946 with the creation of the Republic of Italy. The equivalent Royal Navy (Regia Marina) rank was Grand Admiral (Grande Ammiraglio), while the equivalent Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) rank was Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), all of them abolished for the Armed Forces of the Republic of Italy.Military ranks of Ethiopia
The Military ranks of Ethiopia are the military insignia used by the Ethiopian Armed Forces. Being a Landlocked country, Ethiopia does not have a navy.Military ranks of Nigeria
The Military ranks of Nigeria are the military insignia used by the Nigerian Armed Forces. Being a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Nigeria shares a rank structure similar to that of the United Kingdom.RAF officer ranks
The officer ranks of the Royal Air Force, as they are today, were introduced in 1919. Prior to that Army ranks were used.