Grand Marshal of Peru (Gran Mariscal del Peru), commonly referred as Marshal of Peru, is the highest rank in the Peruvian Army. Unlike the other ranks, it is conferred only to an officer who has been victorious at war.
1828 - Agustín Gamarra Messia
1834 - William Miller
1939 - Oscar R. Benavides Larrea
1946 - Eloy G. Ureta
1967 - Miguel Grau Seminario (posthumous) as Gran Almirante del Perú (Grand Admiral of Peru)
1989 - Francisco Bolognesi Cervantes (posthumous)Domingo Nieto
Domingo Nieto (15 August 1803 – 17 February 1844) was a Peruvian Grand Marshal, forefather of the nation, and politician who served as the 19th President of Peru between 1843 and 1844, officially as the President of the Government Junta and Grand Marshal of Peru.
Nieto was born in Ilo - Moquegua in 1803, to a Spanish-Peruvian noble family bearing the title of "Counts of Alastaya", who were also of local noble blood directly descended from the Inca Huayna Capac by marriage of his daughter Catalina Sisa Occllo to the Conquistador Pedro Ladron de Guevara, who is a direct ascendant of the family. As an aristocratic youth, he quickly became disenchanted with Spanish rule and took the cause for Peruvian independence at the age of 18. Being one of the few nobles at the time that participated directly in the wars of independence, he is a unique member of the "forefathers of the nation" pantheon in Perú.
During his military and political career he was called "the soldier/quixote of the law" for having a reputation of defending the constitution against all odds and siding with the rule of law, which clearly separated him from his peers. He is historically Peru's most remarkable military strategist and victorious figure, his military achievements made him a General by the age of 29 and Grand Marshal of Peru by the age of 39, something never repeated again in Peruvian history. He is also credited with participating and being victorious in the last recorded "personal combat" in the Battle of Tarqui, with the Venezuelan comandant José María Camacaro, assuming the challenge of deciding the fate of a battle in a single one-on-one combat.
In his final years, he led, with Ramón Castilla by his side, the overthrow of the "Supreme Dictator" Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco, assuming the presidency of Peru after being elected by the provisional Government Junta (provisional congress) charged with the re-establishment of constitutional order. He died soon after in office, on February 17, 1844. Castilla succeeded him by election of the Junta.Eloy G. Ureta
Eloy Gaspar Ureta Montehermoso (December 12, 1892 – October 10, 1965) was a Peruvian army officer who led the Peruvian Armed Forces to victory in the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War of 1941. Ureta was born in Chiclayo, a city in northern Peru, and from 1909 to 1913 studied in the Chorrillos Military School. After taking studies in the Escuela Superior de Guerra (Superior School of War), he was sent to Europe for further military education. He ran in the presidential election of 1945, but was defeated by José Bustamante y Rivero. In 1946, Ureta was awarded the title of Grand Marshal of Peru.Field marshal
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank. Examples of the different uses of the rank include Austria-Hungary, Prussia, Germany, India and Sri Lanka for an extraordinary achievement; Spain and Mexico for a divisional command (Spanish: mariscal de campo); and France, Portugal and Brazil for a brigade command (French: maréchal de camp, Portuguese: marechal de campo).
The origin of the term dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses (from Old German Marh-scalc = "horse-servant"), from the time of the early Frankish kings. The exact wording of the titles used by field marshals varies: examples include "marshal" and "field marshal general". The air force equivalent in Commonwealth and many Middle Eastern air forces is marshal of the air force (not to be confused with air marshal). Navies, which usually do not use the nomenclature employed by armies or air forces, use titles such as "fleet admiral," "grand admiral" or "admiral of the fleet" for the equivalent rank. The traditional attribute distinguishing a field marshal is a baton. The baton nowadays is purely ornamental, and as such may be richly decorated. That said, it is not necessary for the insignia to be a baton (Such is the case in Russia post-1991 and the former Soviet Union, which use a jewelled star referred to as a Marshal's star).Fort of Santa Catalina, Lima
The Fort of Santa Catalina (Spanish: Fuerte de Santa Catalina) in Lima, Peru, is a Neoclassical style building that partly survives and it is in a good condition, and it is one of the few examples representative of the military colonial architecture that still exists in Peru. It dates to the 1800s decade and was built on a land called "Huerta de los Llanos" and "Huerta Perdida" or that of the "Cuero", which belonged to the Monasteries of Santa Catalina de Siena and de la Concepción respectively. The property is registered as property of the Peruvian State in the Margesí of National Heritages: Asiento 12, Foja 37, Volume I of the Book of Properties of Lima having, at present, a total area of 25,250 square meters. The Liman traditionalist Ricardo Palma, in one of his tradiciones peruanas, affirms that during the Viceroy Gabriel de Avilés's government the factory of the Barracks of Santa Catalina was started for a artillery barracks, under the direction of the then colonel, and later Viceroy, Don Joaquín de la Pezuela. Final statement this island is full of trash litter and don't go to itGuillermo Miller
William Miller (2 December 1795–31 October 1861) known throughout Latin America as Guillermo Miller, was an English-born soldier who participated in several South American revolutions, and then became a diplomat.List of state leaders in the 19th century
State leaders in the 18th century – State leaders: 1901–1950 – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 19th century (1801–1900) AD, such as the heads of state and heads of government.
These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 19th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.Marshal
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for elevated offices, such as in military rank and civilian law enforcement.Óscar R. Benavides
Óscar Raymundo Benavides Larrea (March 15, 1876 – July 2, 1945) was a prominent Peruvian field marshal, diplomat, and politician who served as the 45th (1914 - 1915) and 49th (1933 - 1939) President of Peru.
He is also the accredited with the quote: "For my friends everything, for my enemies the law".