Marshal of Italy

Marshal of Italy (Italian: Maresciallo d'Italia) was a rank in the Royal Italian Army (Regio Esercito). Originally created in 1924 by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini for the purpose of honoring Generals Luigi Cadorna and Armando Diaz, the rank was granted to several other general officers from 1926 to 1943. The rank was the highest in the Italian Army prior to the creation of the rank of First Marshal of the Empire in 1938. The rank of Marshal of Italy was abolished in 1946 with the creation of the Republic of Italy. The equivalent Royal Navy (Regia Marina) rank was Grand Admiral (Grande Ammiraglio), while the equivalent Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) rank was Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), all of them abolished for the Armed Forces of the Republic of Italy.[1]

Marshal of Italy
Rank insignia of maresciallo d'Italia of the Italian Army (1940)
Marshal of Italy sleeve rank insignia (1933-1945)
Country Kingdom of Italy
RankFive-star
NATO rankOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formation4 November 1924
Abolished18 January 1947
Next higher rankFirst Marshal of the Empire

Lists of the Marshals of Italy

Name Date of promotion Defence branch
Luigi Cadorna
Luigi Cadorna
(1850–1928)
4 November 1924 Royal Italian Army
Armando Diaz
Armando Diaz
(1861–1928)
4 November 1924 Royal Italian Army
Paolo Thaon di Revel
Paolo Thaon di Revel
(1859–1948)
4 November 1924 Royal Italian Navy
HRH The Duke of Aosta
HRH The Duke of Aosta
(1869–1931)
25 June 1926 Royal Italian Army
Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
(1871–1956)
25 June 1926 Royal Italian Army
Enrico Caviglia
Enrico Caviglia
(1862–1945)
25 June 1926 Royal Italian Army
Gaetano Giardino
Gaetano Giardino
(1864–1935)
25 June 1926 Royal Italian Army
Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi
Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi
(1856–1941)
25 June 1926 Royal Italian Army
Italo Balbo
Italo Balbo
(1896–1940)
13 August 1933 Royal Italian Air Force
Emilio De Bono
Emilio De Bono
(1866–1944)
16 November 1935 Royal Italian Army
Rodolfo Graziani
Rodolfo Graziani
(1882–1955)
9 May 1936 Royal Italian Army
Ugo Cavallero
Ugo Cavallero
(1880–1943)
1 July 1942 Royal Italian Army
Ettore Bastico
Ettore Bastico
(1876–1972)
12 August 1942 Royal Italian Army
HRH The Prince of Piedmont
HRH The Prince of Piedmont
(1904–1983)
29 October 1942 Royal Italian Army
Giovanni Messe
Giovanni Messe
(1883–1968)
12 May 1943 Royal Italian Army

Gallery

ENR-Maresciallo d'Italia

Social Republic

1945-47

See also

References

  1. ^ Page Archived 2007-12-23 at the Wayback Machine of the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) home site - www.esercito.difesa.it.
1928 in Italy

Events during the year 1928 in Italy.

Armando Diaz

Armando Diaz, 1st Duke of the Victory, (5 December 1861 – 28 February 1928) was an Italian general and a Marshal of Italy. He is mostly known for his role as Chief of Staff of the Regio Esercito during World War I since November 1917. He managed to stop the Austro-Hungarian advance along the Piave River in the Battle of Monte Grappa, and in June 1918 led the Italian forces to a major victory in the Battle of the Piave River. A few months later, he achieved a decisive victory in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which ended the war on the Italian Front. He is celebrated as one of the greatest generals of World War I.

Battle of Amba Aradam

The Battle of Amba Aradam (also known as the Battle of Enderta) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. This battle consisted of attacks and counterattacks by Italian forces under Marshal of Italy Pietro Badoglio and Ethiopian forces under Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu. This battle was primarily fought in the area around Amba Aradam which included most of Enderta Province.

Battle of Shire

The Battle of Shire (Italian: Battaglia dello Shirè) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. This battle consisted of attacks and counterattacks by Italian forces under Marshal of Italy Pietro Badoglio and Ethiopian forces under Ras Imru Haile Selassie. This battle was primarily fought in the Shire area of Ethiopia.

Commanders of World War II

The Commanders of World War II were for the most part career officers. They were forced to adapt to new technologies and forged the direction of modern warfare. Some political leaders, particularly those of the principal dictatorships involved in the conflict, Adolf Hitler (Germany), Benito Mussolini (Italy) and Emperor Hirohito (Japan), acted as supreme military commanders as well as dictators for their respective countries or empires.

Enrico Caviglia

Enrico Caviglia (4 May 1862 – 22 March 1945) was a distinguished officer in the Italian Army. Victorious on the bloody battlefields of the Great War, he rose in time to the highest rank in his country, Marshal of Italy; he was also a Senator of the kingdom.

Ettore Bastico

Ettore Bastico (9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II. In addition to being a general of the Royal Italian Army, he was also a senator and governor. He held high commands during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War (Ethiopia), the Spanish Civil War, and the North African Campaign.

First marshal of the empire

First Marshal of the Empire (Italian: Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero) was a military rank established by the Italian parliament on March 30, 1938. The highest rank in the Italian military, it was only granted to King Victor Emmanuel III and Duce Benito Mussolini. The rank was abolished following World War II.

Mussolini's decision to create for himself and the King a new military rank created a crisis between himself and Victor Emmanuel III. For the first time in the history of the House of Savoy, the Prime Minister of Italy bore a rank equal with that of the head of the royal house giving him a mortgage on the high command of the Italian armed forces, a power of the King under the provisions of Statuto Albertino.

Gaetano Giardino

Gaetano Giardino (24 January 1864 – 21 November 1935) was an Italian soldier that rose to the rank of Marshal of Italy during World War I.

Grand admiral

Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it. It is best known for its use in Germany as Großadmiral. A comparable rank in modern navies is that of fleet admiral.

Italian Co-belligerent Army

The Italian Co-belligerent Army (Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano), Army of the South (Esercito del Sud), or Italian Liberation Corps (Corpo Italiano di Liberazione) were names applied to various division sets of the now former Royal Italian Army during the period when it fought alongside the Allies during World War II from October 1943 onwards. During the same period, the pro-allied Italian Royal Navy and Italian Royal Air Force were known as the Italian Co-belligerent Navy and Italian Co-belligerent Air Force respectively.

From September 1943, pro-Axis Italian forces became the National Republican Army of the newly formed Italian Social Republic.

The Italian Co-belligerent Army was the result of the Allied armistice with Italy on 8 September 1943; King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister in July 1943 following the Allied invasion of Southern Italy, and nominated Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia) Pietro Badoglio instead, who later aligned Italy with the Allies to fight the Social Republic's forces and its German allies in Northern Italy.

The Italian Co-belligerent Army fielded between 200,000 and 260,000 troops in the Italian Campaign, of whom 20,000 (later augmented to 50,000) were combat troops and between 150,000 and 190,000 were auxiliary and support troops. On the whole, the Italian Co-Belligerent Army made up 1/8 of the fighting force and 1/4 of the entire force of 15th Army Group of the Allied Forces.

Italian Co-belligerent Navy

The Italian Co-Belligerent Navy (Marina Cobelligerante Italiana), or Navy of the South (Marina del Sud) or Royal Navy (Regia Marina), was the navy of the Italian royalist forces fighting on the side of the Allies in southern Italy after the Allied armistice with Italy in September 1943. The Italian seamen fighting for this navy no longer fought for Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Their allegiance was to King Victor Emmanuel and Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia) Pietro Badoglio, the men who ousted Mussolini.

The Italian Navy played an important role once the armistice was signed. Altogether, eight cruisers, thirty-three destroyers, thirty-nine submarines, twelve motor torpedo boats, twenty escorts, and three mine-layers joined the Italian Co-Belligerent Navy. The two modern Littorio-class battleships were detained by the Allies in Egyptian waters, while the three older battleships were allowed to serve as training ships. There were additionally four squadrons of seaplanes from the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica).

Luigi Cadorna

Marshal of Italy Luigi Cadorna, (4 September 1850 – 21 December 1928) was an Italian General and Marshal of Italy, most famous for being the Chief of Staff of the Italian Army during the first part of World War I.

Lungotevere Maresciallo Cadorna

Lungotevere Maresciallo Cadorna is a stretch of the Lungotevere, a boulevard that runs along the Tiber River in the Della Vittoria quarter of Rome, Italy. It links Piazzale Maresciallo Giardino to Piazza Lauro De Bosis.The Lungotevere was dedicated to the Marshal of Italy Luigi Cadorna, an Italian leader during World War I. It was established as per Governor resolution on March 8, 1937.

Lungotevere Maresciallo Diaz

The Lungotevere Maresciallo Diaz is the stretch of Lungotevere that links Piazza Lauro De Bosis to Piazzale di Ponte Milvio, in Rome (Italy), in the Quarter Della Vittoria.The Lungotevere is dedicated to the Marshal of Italy Armando Diaz, Chief of Staff during World War I and Minister of Defence in the first fascist cabinet; it was established as per Governor resolution on March 8, 1937.The Lungotevere lies in the area of the Foro Italico (formerly Foro Mussolini) and hosts the Foresteria Nord, an edifice designed by Costantino Costantini and built in 1933 in line with the Foresteria Sud; they were both conceived during the realisation of the Foro Italico; the two buildings served as guest quarters.

The boulevard reaches Ponte Milvio; it is the northeast section of the Lungotevere on the right bank of river Tiber.

March of the Iron Will

The March of the Iron Will (Marcia della ferrea volontà), or the Iron-Will Column (Colonna della ferrea volontà), was a Fascist propaganda event staged during the final days of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. The goal of the march was to capture the Ethiopian capital in a show of force.

From 26 April to 5 May 1936, an Italian "mechanized column" under the command of Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia) Pietro Badoglio advanced from the town of Dessie to take Addis Ababa. The march covered a distance of approximately 200 miles.

Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta

Prince Emanuele Filiberto, 2nd Duke of Aosta (Spanish: Manuel Filiberto; 13 January 1869 – 4 July 1931) was an Italian general and member of the House of Savoy. He was Prince of Asturias (Crown Prince of Spain) from 1870 to 1873, as the son of Amadeo I, and was also a cousin of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. Filiberto was also commander of the Italian Third Army during World War I, which earned him the title of the "Undefeated Duke". After the war he became a Marshal of Italy.

Rodolfo Graziani

Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (Italian pronunciation: [roˈdɔlfo ɡratˈtsjaːni]; 11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II. A dedicated fascist, he was a key figure in the Italian military during the reign of Victor Emmanuel III.

Graziani played an important role in the consolidation and expansion of Italy's empire during the 1920s and 1930s, first in Libya and then in Ethiopia. He became infamous even among the other colonial powers for harsh repressive measures, such as the use of concentration camps, that caused many civilian deaths, and for extreme measures taken against the native resistance such as the hanging of Omar Mukhtar. In February 1937, after an assassination attempt during a ceremony in Addis Ababa, Graziani authorized a period of brutal retribution now known as Yekatit 12. Shortly after Italy entered World War II he returned to Libya as the commander of troops in Italian North Africa but resigned after the 1940–41 British offensive routed his forces.

Following the 25 Luglio coup in 1943, he was the only Marshal of Italy who remained loyal to Mussolini and was named the Minister of Defence of the Italian Social Republic, commanding its army and returning to active service against the Allies for the rest of the war.

Graziani was never prosecuted by the United Nations War Crimes Commission; he was included on its list of Italians eligible to be prosecuted for war crimes, but Italy and Britain opposed post-war Ethiopian attempts to bring him to trial. In 1948, an Italian court sentenced him to 19 years' imprisonment for collaboration with the Nazis, but he was released after serving only four months.

Verbania

Verbania (Italian: [verˈbaːnja] (listen), Lombard: [ʋerˈbɑːnja], Piedmontese: [verˈbɑnja]) is the most populous comune (municipality) and the capital city of the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. It is situated on the shore of Lake Maggiore, about 91 km (57 mi) north-west of Milan and about 40 km (25 mi) from Locarno in Switzerland. It had a population of 30,827 at 1 January 2017.

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