Marmaris

Marmaris (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈmaɾmaɾis]) is a port city and tourist resort on the Mediterranean coast, located in Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, along the shoreline of the Turkish Riviera.

Marmaris' main source of income is tourism. It is located between two intersecting sets of mountains by the sea, though following a construction boom in the 1980s, little is left of the sleepy fishing village that Marmaris was until the late 20th century. In 2010, the city's population was 30,957,[3] and peaks at around 300,000 to 400,000 people during the tourist season.

It is also a centre for sailing and diving, possessing two major and several smaller marinas. It is a popular wintering location for hundreds of cruising boaters, being also served by the nearby Dalaman Airport.

Marmaris
1. Distant view of Marmaris; 2. Beaches of Marmaris; 3. Wooden yachts; 4. Marmaris center; 5. Beaches of Marmaris; 6. Dolphinarium in Marmaris; 7. Marina of Marmaris; 8. Hotel Mares; 9. Marmaris Castle.
1. Distant view of Marmaris; 2. Beaches of Marmaris; 3. Wooden yachts; 4. Marmaris center; 5. Beaches of Marmaris; 6. Dolphinarium in Marmaris; 7. Marina of Marmaris; 8. Hotel Mares; 9. Marmaris Castle.
Marmaris is located in Turkey
Marmaris
Marmaris
Location of Marmaris
Coordinates: 36°51′N 28°16′E / 36.850°N 28.267°ECoordinates: 36°51′N 28°16′E / 36.850°N 28.267°E
Country Turkey
RegionAegean
ProvinceMuğla
Government
 • MayorMuhammet Ali Acar (CHP)
Area
 • District878.09 km2 (339.03 sq mi)
Elevation
7 m (23 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
34,047
 • District
83,081
 • District density95/km2 (250/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
48700
Area code(s)(0090)+ 252
Vehicle registration48
Websitewww.marmaris.bel.tr
www.marmaris.gov.tr

Climate

Marmaris has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) characterised by a hot dry summers and mild rainy winters. Showers and rain are very unlikely between May and October.

Summers are hot and dry, and temperatures are especially high during the heatwaves in July and August. October is still warm and bright, though with spells of rain, and many tourists prefer to visit in the early autumn, especially in September, because the temperatures are not as hot.

Winters are mild and wet. Winter is the rainy season, with major precipitation falling after November. The annual rainfall can reach to 1,232.7 millimetres (48.531 in); the rainfall is concentrated during scattered days in winter falling in heavy cloudbursts which cause flash floods sometimes in flood prone areas.[4]

History

Marmaris by Piri Reis
Historical map of Marmaris by Piri Reis

Although it is not certain when Marmaris was founded, in the 6th century BC the site was known as Physkos (Ancient Greek: Φύσκος or Φοῦσκα), also Latinized as Physcus, and was in a part of Caria that belonged to Rhodes, contained a magnificent harbour and a grove sacred to Leto.[6][7]

According to the historian Herodotus, there had been a castle on the site since 3000 BC. In 334 BC, Caria was invaded by Alexander the Great and the castle of Physkos was besieged. The 600 inhabitants of the town realised that they had no chance against the invading army and burned their valuables in the castle before escaping to the hills with their women and children. The invaders, well aware of the strategic value of the castle, repaired the destroyed sections to house a few hundred soldiers before the main army returned home.

The city became known as Marmaris during the period of the Beylik of Menteşe; the name derives from the Turkish word mermer, Greek màrmaron (marble) in reference to the rich deposits of marble in the region, and the prominent role of the city's port in the marble trade.

In the mid-fifteenth century, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror conquered and united the various tribes and kingdoms of Anatolia and the Balkans, and acquired Constantinople. The Knights of St. John, based in Rhodes had fought the Ottoman Turks for many years; they also withstood the onslaughts of Mehmed II. When sultan Suleiman the Magnificent set out for the conquest of Rhodes, Marmaris served as a base for the Ottoman Navy and Marmaris Castle was rebuilt from scratch in 1522.

Lord Nelson and his entire fleet sheltered in the harbour of Marmaris in 1798, en route to Egypt to defeat Napoleon's armada during the Mediterranean campaign.

The 1957 Fethiye earthquakes almost completely destroyed the city. Only the Marmaris Castle and the historic buildings surrounding the fortress were left undamaged.

Since 1979, renovation work has been continuing at the castle. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture, the castle was converted into a museum. There are seven galleries. The largest is used as an exhibition hall, the courtyard is decorated with seasonal flowers. Built at the same time as the castle in the bazaar, there is also a small Ottoman caravanserai built by Suleiman's mother Ayşe Hafsa Sultan.

Archaeology

In 2018, archaeologists discovered the tomb of the ancient Greek boxer Diagoras near the city of Marmaris. They announced that a pyramid-shaped structure was the mausoleum of the Greek boxer. The following words inscribed in the mausoleum: “I will be vigilant at the very top so as to ensure that no coward can come and destroy this grave,”[8] Until 1970, the structure was believed to be the grave of a saint and was visited by locals seeking answers to their prayers, but upon discovery that it was not a holy site, the structure was looted.[9]

Natural history

Nimara Cave 08
Interior of Nimara Cave on Heaven Island

Nimara Cave is a cave on Heaven Island near Marmaris.[10] Since ancient times, the cave was used as a place of worship. According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, human presence in the cave (as well as the old city of Physkos, today called Marmaris), dates back to 3000 BC. However, excavations carried out by the Municipality of Marmaris in 2007 extended this period to almost 12,000 years back.[11] The research conducted in the cave has revealed the existence of a cult of Mother Goddess Leto, believed to be the mother of God Apollo and Goddess Artemis, in the ancient city of Physkos. The cave is located at the highest point of Heaven Island and was used as a place of worship by the ancient residents of the town of Nimara. The worshipping took place around the main rock that exists even today. This main rock is surrounded by stone altars in a semi-circle raised at about 30 cm from the ground. Offerings to the Mother Goddess Leto were placed on these elevated stones. The offerings were made in the form of cremations, glass beads, terracotta, and sculptures of Leto. The cave was also in use during the Roman period. Nimara Cave has been declared a protected area in 1999. It shelters trogloxene butterflies, identical to those living in Fethiye's Butterfly Valley (Turkish: Kelebekler Vadisi).[4]

The Marmaris peninsula is the westernmost habitat for Tulipa armena, which normally grows in Eastern Turkey, Iran, and Transcaucasia at much higher altitudes.[12] The plants may have been introduced during the Ottoman period.

Sports

The Final Four matches of the 2013 Men's European Volleyball League were held at the Amiral Orhan Aydın Sports Hall in Marmaris from July 13 to 14, 2013.[13]

The Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey (Turkish: Cumhurbaşkanlığı Bisiklet Turu) is a professional road bicycle racing stage race held each spring.

Being an almost perfect setting for sailing, every year in late October Marmaris hosts an annual regatta attracting international as well as Turkish boats and crews.

Marmaris has much to offer for outdoor sports lovers. Visitors may do variety of great outsports in Marmaris such as going on 4WD drives, jeep safari, quad & buggy safari, bike rides, forest rides on mountain bikes, sailing catamaran trips, jet-ski rides, canoeing, rafting, climbing, diving, paintball, horseback riding, mountain hikes, hang gliding, karting and more.[14][15]

From 2018, Marmaris is scheduled to host a round of the FIA World Rally Championship.

Gallery

Panoramic view of the coastline of Marmaris, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean.
Panoramic view of the coastline of Marmaris, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean.
Marmaris harbor (aerial view), Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean

Marmaris harbour

Marmaris harbour, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean-2

Marmaris harbour

Marmaris harbour, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean-3

View of Netsel Marina

Marmaris, delfinarium - 20 września 2011 r.

Dolphinarium in Marmaris

1MarmarisHafen (13)

View of Netsel Marina and Marmaris town

Marmaris, deptak przy nabrzeżu - 21 wrzesnia 2011 r.

Marmaris Waterfront

2MarmarisStadt (13)

Marmaris Waterfront and Castle

Marmaris, centrum - 1.10.2011 r.

Marmaris center

Marmaris, Stare Miasto - 22 września 2011 r.

Marmaris, Old Town

Marmaris, Stare Miasto - 22.09.2011 r.

Marmaris, a street in the Old Town

Marmaris, hotel Mares - 1 X 2011 r.SDC12214

Hotel Mares, Marmaris

Mermaid statue in the port of Marmaris, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean

Mermaid statue at the port of Marmaris

Streets of Marmaris, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean-3

Streets of Marmaris

Marmaris, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean

National holiday decorations in Marmaris

Streets of Marmaris, Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean

Streets of Marmaris

International relations

Twin towns/Sister cities

Marmaris is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ "Marmarismarmaris.com Marmaris". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Climate of Marmaris". Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  5. ^ "Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü: Marmaris En Yüksek Sıcaklık (°C)". Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  6. ^ Strabo, Geography, xiv; Stadiasmus Maris Magni § 245; Ptol., Geography 5.2.11.
  7. ^  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Physcus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  8. ^ Turkish locals stunned to find out sacred tomb belongs to ancient Greek boxer
  9. ^ Turkish locals stunned to find out sacred tomb belongs to ancient Greek boxer
  10. ^ "Marmaris Heaven Island". Archived from the original on 28 November 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  11. ^ "Nimara Cave, Marmaris". Archived from the original on 28 November 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  12. ^ Anna Pavord, The Tulip (London, Bloomsbury 1999) 289
  13. ^ "CEV Avrupa Ligi eşleşmeleri bell oldu". Hürriyet Spor (in Turkish). 2013-07-09. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
  14. ^ "Marmaris Travel Guide". Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  15. ^ "Guide Marmaris Marmaris Airport Transfer Rent A Car Marmaris". Marmaris. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  16. ^ "MARTAB: "Kardeş şehir Fürth'de Marmaris Meydanı"". Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  17. ^ Belediyesi, Marmaris. "Marmaris Belediyesi Resmi Web Sitesi". www.marmaris.bel.tr. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  18. ^ "MARTAB: "Marmaris - Ordu kardeş şehir"". Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  19. ^ "Municipality of Ashkelon: "ערים תאומות לאשקלון "". Archived from the original on 2014-12-20. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
  20. ^ "Дзержинский О городе" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2019-06-04.

External links

2010 Tour of Turkey

The 2010 Tour of Turkey was the 46th edition of professional road bicycle racing Tour of Turkey.

2018 Rally Turkey

The 2018 Rally Turkey (formally known as the Marmaris Rally Turkey 2018) was a motor racing event for rally cars that was held over four days between 13 and 16 September 2018. It marked the return and the eleventh running of Rally Turkey, last held in 2010. The event was the tenth round of the 2018 FIA World Rally Championship and its support series, the WRC-2 and WRC-3 championships. It was also the fifth and the last round of the Junior WRC championship. The event was based in Marmaris in Muğla and consists of seventeen special stages totalling 312.44 km (194.14 mi) in competitive kilometres.Coming into the event, Sébastien Loeb and Daniel Elena were the reigning rally winning crew, but they chose not to participate in this year's event. Ott Tänak and Martin Järveoja were the rally winners. Their team, Toyota Gazoo Racing WRT, were the manufacturers' winners. The Škoda Motorsport II crew of Jan Kopecký and Pavel Dresler won in the World Rally Championship-2 in a Škoda Fabia R5, while the Swedish crew of Emil Bergkvist and Joakim Sjöberg won in the World Rally Championship-3 and Junior World Rally Championship.

After five rounds' battle, Emil Bergkvist and Johan Johansson became the drivers' and co-drivers' champion of 2018 Junior World Rally Championship respectively.

Aksaz Naval Base

Aksaz Naval Base (Turkish: Aksaz Deniz Üssü) is a base of the Turkish Navy on the south-east coast of the Aegean Sea in Marmaris, Muğla. In addition to the military buildings, the base houses apartment-like barracks and social facilities stretched over 8,000 acres (32 km2) of land. Six helicopters are also stationed at Aksaz.

Amos (ancient city)

Amos (Ancient Greek: Ἄμος, possibly from ἄμμος "sandy") was a settlement (dēmē) of ancient Caria, located near the modern town of Turunç, Turkey.

Arap Islet

Arap Islet (Turkish: Arap Adası) is an uninhabited island of Turkey. According to Turkish Atlas it is situated on the borderline of Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Administratively it is a part of Marmaris ilçe (district) of Muğla Province at 36°39′5″N 28°8′48″E. It is very close to the mainland (Anatolia). The channel between the mainland and the island is quite shallow; no more than 6 metres (20 ft). Its surface area is about 0.025 square kilometres (0.0097 sq mi).

Armutalan

Armutalan is a town in Marmaris district of Muğla Province, Turkey. Although an independent municipality it is merged to Marmaris to the southeast. At 36°51′N 28°14′E, the distance to Muğla is 49 kilometres (30 mi) . The population is of Armutalan is 17365 as of 2011. Up to recent times Armutalan was a small settlement. Being very close to Marmaris, an important touristic center, it flourished and was made a seat of township in 1987.

Karaca Island

Karaca Island (Turkish: Karaca Ada) is an Aegean island of Turkey.

Karaca island is named after the village facing the island. At 36°57′39″N 28°11′46″E it is administratively a part of Marmaris ilçe (district) of Muğla Province. . It is situated in the Gulf of Gökova and about 400 metres (1,300 ft) to mainland (Anatolia). Famous Sedir Island is to the north of Karaca Island. Its area is 381×103 square metres (4.10×106 sq ft).The island belongs to a Turkish family. Recently, the owners put the island on the market. But the island is an archaeological site and there are serious objections against this sale.

List of populated places in Muğla Province

Below is the list of populated places in Muğla Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district.

Marinas in Turkey

Marinas in Turkey refer to Turkey's ports of call for international and local yachtsmen equipped with modern services routinely expected in recreational boating industry, and they are presently found either in or near Istanbul or İzmir, the two largest port cities of the country whose economies are focused on tourism in the Aegean Sea or the Mediterranean Sea, with a particular concentration in southwest Anatolia.

The country's increasing popularity in nautical tourism is advantaged by its coastline and a past noted for the seafaring literature, some of whose references are part of everyday culture, as is the case for the Blue Cruise, and the search for the Golden Fleece. It is noteworthy to recall that, apart from the larger installations listed below, there are also numerous points of stop and supply which offer the advantages inherent to smaller enterprises, sometimes in a family environment, at the same time as putting the geography of the Turkish coasts to good use.

Since recent years, these installations offer the modern infrastructure and facilities that are considered as requirements with increasing rapidity and sophistication, catering a whole range of services. Sizable investments by non-Turkish investors have been made in some of the marina installations below and prominent Turkish private sector groups view marinas as an attractive investment that also enhances their prestige, and thus have built or acquired one to include in their overall portfolio.

While it has two well-integrated marinas (in Girne/Kyrenia and Gazimağusa/Famagusta), particular emphasis on the Marinas in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus need to be put on a number of points in relation to its state of isolation susceptible to evolve in line with the Foreign relations of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and on which political haggling between Turkey and the European Union continues.

Marmaris Belediye GSK

Marmaris Belediye GSK is a Turkish sports club based in Marmaris, Muğla. The team's name mostly referred incorrectly as Marmaris Belediyespor due to the common usage about names of football teams in Turkey.

Marmaris Castle

Marmaris Castle is located in Muğla province, Turkey. The castle was reconstructed by Süleyman the Magnificent during his expedition against Rhodes.

The Marmaris Castle is one of the few castles in Turkey that also possesses a museum.

According to Greek historian Herodotus, the first city walls in Marmaris were constructed in 3,000 BC, although the only written source about the construction of the castle by the renowned Ottoman traveler, Evliya Çelebi, in his work Seyahatname.

Çelebi, who visited Muğla and its vicinity in the 17th century, says Sultan Süleyman ordered the construction of the castle before his expedition to Rhodes and that the castle served as a military base during the expedition.

An important part of the castle was destroyed during World War I by a French warship. Until 1979, locals of Marmaris inhabited the castle, which is known to include 18 residences, a fountain and a cistern.

The castle was registered as a monumental structure in 1983 and opened as a museum in 1991.

Marmaris Dam

The Marmaris Dam is a concrete-face rock-fill dam on the Kocaalan Creek located 10 km (6 mi) north of Marmaris in Muğla Province, Turkey. Constructed between 1998 and 2005, the development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works as a build-operate-transfer project. The primary purpose of the dam is municipal water supply and it provides Marmaris with 22,390,000 m3 (18,152 acre⋅ft) of water annually.

Marmaris Lycian salamander

The Marmaris Lycian salamander or Marmaris salamander, Lyciasalamandra flavimembris, is a species of salamander in the family Salamandridae. It is endemic to Turkey and is found along the southwestern Anatolian coast between Marmaris and Ula. It was first described as subspecies of Mertensiella luschani, now Lyciasalamandra luschani.

Marmaris National Park

Marmaris National Park (Turkish: Marmaris Milli Parkı)), established on March 8, 1996, is a national park in southwestern Turkey. The national park is located in Köyceğiz and Marmaris of districts Muğla Province.It covers an area of 292,016 ha (721,590 acres).

Muğla Province

Muğla Province (Turkish: Muğla ili, pronounced [muːɫa iˈli]) is a province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about 20 km (12 mi) inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz, Marmaris and Fethiye, are on the coast in Muğla.

Nimara Cave

Nimara Cave is a cave on Heaven Island, near the city of Marmaris, Turkey.

The space in the cave reaches heights between 3 and 5 meters and has a width of 5 meters. The filling material has been used to create and protect the space within the cave.

State road D.400 (Turkey)

D-400 is an east–west state road in southern Turkey. The 2,057-kilometre (1,278 mi) road starts at Datça in the southwest corner of the Anatolian peninsula. The road ends at the Iranian border at Esendere.

D-400 runs through the cities of Marmaris, Fethiye, Antalya, Alanya, Mersin, Adana, Gaziantep, Şanlıurfa, and Hakkâri and links to Road 16 in Iran. Between Nizip and Cizre, D-400 is part of the European route E90.

Yediadalar

Yediadalar ("Seven Islands") is the name of a group of small islands of Turkey. They are Aegean islands in the Gökova bay. Administratevly , they are a part of Marmaris ilçe (district) of Muğla Province at 36°52′N 28°02′E. They are uninhabited.

Although they are called seven islands there are actually five small islands and two islets. The Göllü island is situated about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) north of the others. The names of the other four islands which lie in parallel to coast line from north east to south west are; Küçük, Zeytinli, Uzun and Martılı . Each island is situated about 250 metres (820 ft) apart from the next one. The smallest island is Küçük ("little") as the name implies. Even the bigger islands are not bigger than 0.1 square kilometres (0.039 sq mi). Their distance to the coast is less than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)

İçmeler

İçmeler is a popular Turkish holiday resort situated 8 kilometres from Marmaris. It is also a municipality of its own. İçmeler bay is located on the Datcha peninsula. The town is surrounded on three sides by pine forests. Hiking on the mountains provides fantastic views of the region and is very popular.

Pronounced in English approximately like /eech-mell-er/, the town has developed rapidly over the last 15 years, accommodation and other tourist facilities mushrooming across the formerly sleepy fishermen's and sponge divers' village. As a side to the increasing tourism, this village in the Turkish Riviera is seeing an increasing amount of watersports facilities, such as; scuba diving, waterskiing and many others.

The town developed on the back of tourist seeking a quieter alternative to the overdeveloped Marmaris, many who return annually.

Nightlife is rather scarce in İçmeler. Restaurants and pubs usually feature live music, shows and acts until around midnight. After this time, the only entertainment available is generally the nightclubs. Many tourists enjoy the variation in entertainment, starting in the restaurants in the early evening, moving onto the pubs and mini-discos until midnight and then followed by the nightclubs anywhere up to 4am.

Directly across the bay from İçmeler is the busy port of Marmaris, which also gives its name to the region. Marmara (historically merme) is the name for marble, which Turkey has in abundance.

Whilst loved by tourists for the shopping (especially fake designer brands and watches) Prices in İçmeler have increased in recent years however the resort continues to compare favourably with the neighbouring resort of Marmaris, and is especially favourable when compared to the Eurozone.

Climate data for Marmaris
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
24.0
(75.2)
28.4
(83.1)
31.0
(87.8)
36.0
(96.8)
42.2
(108.0)
43.1
(109.6)
42.6
(108.7)
40.7
(105.3)
39.0
(102.2)
31.6
(88.9)
22.2
(72.0)
43.1
(109.6)
Average high °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
15.3
(59.5)
17.6
(63.7)
20.9
(69.6)
25.9
(78.6)
31.4
(88.5)
34.5
(94.1)
34.3
(93.7)
30.8
(87.4)
25.9
(78.6)
20.4
(68.7)
16.4
(61.5)
24.0
(75.3)
Average low °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
7.0
(44.6)
8.6
(47.5)
11.5
(52.7)
15.6
(60.1)
20.1
(68.2)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
20.0
(68.0)
15.8
(60.4)
11.4
(52.5)
8.5
(47.3)
14.3
(57.8)
Record low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.4
(34.5)
8.0
(46.4)
12.5
(54.5)
16.8
(62.2)
16.7
(62.1)
12.8
(55.0)
5.5
(41.9)
1.4
(34.5)
−1.0
(30.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 230.7
(9.08)
170.0
(6.69)
120.8
(4.76)
61.1
(2.41)
27.8
(1.09)
15.3
(0.60)
23.4
(0.92)
7.9
(0.31)
24.5
(0.96)
80.9
(3.19)
180.4
(7.10)
289.9
(11.41)
1,232.7
(48.52)
Average rainy days 13.7 11.9 9.4 7.7 4.4 2.7 1.9 1.0 2.1 5.5 9.1 13.6 83
Mean monthly sunshine hours 127.1 137.2 192.2 222 285.2 324 344.1 328.6 273 217 144 111.6 2,706
Source: [5]
Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia
Settlements in Marmaris District, Muğla, Turkey
Municipalities:
Aegean Region
Black Sea Region
Central Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region
Marmara Region
Mediterranean Region, Turkey
Southeastern Anatolia Region

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