Marlboro (cigarette)

Marlboro (US: /ˈmɑːrlˌbʌroʊ/,[1][2] UK: /ˈmɑːrlbərə, ˈmɔːl-/)[3] is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA (a branch of Altria) within the United States, and by Philip Morris International (now separate from Altria) outside the United States. Richmond, Virginia, is the location of the largest Marlboro cigarette manufacturing plant. Marlboro is the global best-selling cigarette brand since 1972.[4] As of 2017, Marlboro had 40% market share in the United States, more than the next 7 competing brands combined.[5]

Marlboro
Marlboro Logo
Product typeCigarette
OwnerPhilip Morris USA in the U.S., Philip Morris International outside of the U.S.
Produced byPhilip Morris USA in the U.S., Philip Morris International outside of the U.S.
CountryUnited States
Introduced1920
MarketsSee Markets
Tagline"Mild As May", "Come to where the flavor is. Come to Marlboro country", "You get a lot to like with a Marlboro"

History

Marlboro4wiki2
Marlboro cigarettes in a pack
Marlboroultralights
A cigarette and a pack of Marlboro Silver Pack (previously called Ultra Lights until the light name was banned as deceitful)

Philip Morris opened a New York subsidiary in 1902 to sell many of its cigarette brands. The mark "Marlboro" was registered in the United States in 1908 although no cigarette was marketed under this name until 1923. In 1924, the brand was launched. They are first marketed as "America's luxury cigarette" and were mainly sold in hotels and resorts.[6]

Around the 1930s, it was starting to be advertised as a women's cigarette, based on the slogan "Mild As May". The name was taken from a street in London where Philip Morris's British factory was located.[7] However, as early as 1885, a brand called "Marlborough" was already being marketed as a "ladies' favorite" by Philip Morris & Co.[8]

In the 1930s, advertising for the cigarette was primarily based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market.[9] To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips".[10]

Shortly before World War II, the brand's sales stagnated at less than 1% of tobacco sales in the US and was briefly withdrawn from the market. After the war, Camel, Lucky Strike, and Chesterfield were the only common cigarettes.

After scientists published a major study linking smoking to lung cancer in the 1950s, Philip Morris repositioned Marlboro as a men's cigarette in order to fit a market niche of men who were concerned about lung cancer. At the time, filtered cigarettes were considered safer than unfiltered cigarettes, but had been until that time only marketed to women. Men at the time indicated that while they would consider switching to a filtered cigarette, they were concerned about being seen smoking a cigarette marketed to women.[10]

The red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The emblem is placed on top of the pack and has the popular Latin expression Veni, vidi, vici ("I came; I saw; I conquered"), authored by Julius Caesar. The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett. The proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, weightlifters, war correspondents, construction workers, etc. The cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they eventually gave the green light.[10]

Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand. This convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy,[10] later known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven.

Part of Marlboro's rise in market share was its ability to produce “milder, more aromatic, sweeter, and less harsh” cigarettes by adding ammonia to the tobacco. Further usage of diammonium phosphate allowed Marlboro to free base the nicotine in tobacco, allowing for a more efficient delivery. Marlboro kept this process secret for many years, as freebasing is the same process used to produce crack cocaine from normal cocaine. Some experts have called the product that Marlboro sold "crack tobacco."[11]

In the late 1960s, Marlboro "Longhorn 100's" were introduced. Although colour-coded with gold, they were full flavor cigarettes, not lights.[12] In 1972, Marlboro became the best-selling brand of tobacco in the world.[13][14]

In order to comply with a 2006 court ruling in United States v. Philip Morris USA, Inc., et al.,[15] Philip Morris (and all other cigarette companies) is now prevented from using words such as "Lights", "Ultra-Lights", "Medium", "Mild", or any similar designation that yields a false impression that they are safer than regular full flavour cigarettes. Thus Marlboro and other cigarette companies must use only color-coding instead; for example, Marlboro Lights are now called Marlboro Gold Pack.

Philip Morris responded to the popularity of Pall Mall, the number three brand, by pushing Marlboro Special Blends, a lower-priced cigarette.[16]

Marlboro red Old pack
Marlboro cigarette pack with a health warning

In 2013, Philip Morris International introduced "Marlboro 2.0". The pack design was changed; the dark red was replaced with a lighter red, the "Marlboro" and Philip Morris logo became ribbed and transparent, and around 2017 a special "SmartSEAL" was introduced to keep the stored cigarettes fresh for a longer period of time.[4][17] The Marlboro 2.0 packs are mainly available in Europe and some parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but not in the United States, Canada, Australia (due to plain packaging), and New Zealand.

In 2015, Philip Morris announced they would introduce a "Firm Filter" to their Marlboro Red, Gold, Silver Blue, Ice Blast and White Menthol variants. Philip Morris managing director for the United Kingdom and Ireland, Martin Inkster, said that the Firm Filter technique was added to "offer quality you can feel, and it is a cleaner way to stub out your cigarette".[18]

Advertising

In the 1920s, advertising for the cigarette was primarily based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market.[9] To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips".[10]

The red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett. The proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, weightlifters, war correspondents, construction workers, etc. The cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they eventually gave the green light.[10]

Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand. This convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy,[10] later known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven.

Over the years, Philip Morris has made many billboard, poster and magazine adverts.[19][20][21]

Philip Morris also made various sports-related billboards, stickers and other memorabilia throughout the years, mainly promoting the Marlboro brand via its McLaren and Ferrari teams partnerships in places like Russia and Monaco.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Through licensees, Philip Morris sells various merchandising products, such as lighters, ashtrays, sunglasses and other accessories, which are sometimes given away to the target group as part of marketing promotions. In 1983, the campaign "Marlboro Adventure Team Adventure Camp" was launched, for which the participants had to apply, there was a collection of clothing and accessories.

Sport sponsorship

Formula One

BRM P180
BRM P180: Marlboro's motorsport sponsorship started with the BRM Formula One team in 1972
Emerson Fittipaldi McLaren M23 1974 Britain
Marlboro colours first appeared on a McLaren in the 1974 season. This is Emerson Fittipaldi driving the McLaren M23 at the 1974 British Grand Prix
Michael Schumacher 2001 Canada
The Marlboro sponsored Ferrari of Michael Schumacher in 2001

Marlboro is well known for its association with motor racing. This started in 1972 with the sponsorship of Formula One team BRM, who took one win at the 1972 Monaco Grand Prix. In 1973 and 1974, the cigarette giant backed Frank Williams Racing Cars team, whose cars were registered as Iso-Marlboro.

In 1974, Marlboro became famously associated with the McLaren team, which brought it its first Constructors' Championship and its drivers title for Emerson Fittipaldi. The team was successful through to 1978, with another world champion in James Hunt in 1976. Following that, the partnership went through a dry patch until Ron Dennis's Project Four Organization took over the team in 1981. Marlboro-sponsored McLaren dominated F1 for much of the 1980s and early 1990s, with Niki Lauda, Alain Prost and Ayrton Senna between them winning the Drivers' Championship all but one year from 1984 to 1991. After the departure in 1993 of Ayrton Senna, who died in an accident the following year, Marlboro McLaren did not win a race for three years. Marlboro ended their sponsorship of the team in 1996, which ended the famous red and white McLaren livery. After the end of the 1996 season, McLaren was sponsored by West from 1997 onwards.

Over the years, McLaren had to alter the Marlboro livery to comply with regional anti-tobacco sponsorship laws which were in place in countries like France, the United Kingdom and later Germany. The Marlboro logo was replaced by a chevron in 1974, with a barcode in 1984 and 1985 and from 1987 to 1992 or with "McLaren" in 1986 and from 1991 to 1993 and 1994 to 1996. At the 1986 Portuguese Grand Prix, Keke Rosberg's car was painted yellow and white rather than red and white, to advertise Marlboro Lights.

Marlboro also sponsored Scuderia Ferrari's drivers since 1973 (the brand appeared only on helmets and suits) but only in 1984 became a minor sponsor on Ferrari's single-seaters. Until then, Enzo Ferrari allowed only technical suppliers brands to appear on his team cars. In 1993, Marlboro began to take over as the primary sponsor, and in 1997 became title sponsor as the team was officially named "Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro".

Marlboro-Ferrari
Prominent Marlboro branding on Ferrari Formula One car and team at the 2006 Bahrain Grand Prix.

Over the years, Ferrari, just like McLaren, had to alter the Marlboro livery in various ways to comply with regional anti-tobacco sponsoring laws which were in place in countries like France, the United Kingdom and later Germany. The Marlboro logo was removed completely or replaced with a white space from 2000 to 2004 (The Ferrari cars had white spaces over Marlboro occasionally in 1998 and 1999), changed to a "bar code" from 1994 to 1999 and in 2005 and 2006, or the text was removed while keeping the chevron with the driver's name (1993) and in the team member clothing, the Marlboro logo became a white square with a red stripe above with the driver's written name from the 1980s until 1996. The team used a special livery for the 2001 Italian Grand Prix in remembrance of the September 11 attacks in the United States; both cars ran without any sponsorship livery and sported matte black nose-cones. In the 2005 Bahrain Grand Prix the cars sported black nosecones as a sign of mourning for Pope John Paul II.

In September 2005, Ferrari signed an extension of their sponsorship arrangement with Marlboro until 2011. This agreement came at a time when tobacco sponsorship had become wholly illegal in the European Union, and other major F1 teams ended their relationships with tobacco companies. In reporting the deal, F1 Racing magazine judged it to be a "black day" for the sport, putting non-tobacco funded teams at a disadvantage and discouraging other brands from entering a sport still associated with tobacco. The magazine estimated that in the period between 2005 and 2011, Ferrari received $1 billion from the agreement. Depending on the venue of races and the particular national laws, the Marlboro branding became largely subliminal in most countries.

In mid-2006, special "racing editions" of Marlboro Red were sold in the UK, with a Ferrari-inspired design, although the Ferrari name and badge were not used. In April 2008, Marlboro displayed explicit on-car branding on Ferrari for the last time, then permanently replaced with a variety of barcodes in place of it. Since then, there were calls from leading health officials, the European Commissioner for Health and influential doctors for a review of the subliminal advertising contract Marlboro has with Advertising Guerrilla and Ferrari, due to the implications of influencing the purchase of cigarettes with possible subliminal advertising, as no tobacco products can be promoted in sporting events in Europe by law.[32] The Ferrari team claimed the barcode was part of the car design, not an advertising message.[33]

The controversial barcode design was removed by Ferrari for the start of the Spanish Grand Prix in the 2010 season, but the barcode remained on drivers' team gear.[34] In January 2011, the Scuderia Ferrari presented a new logo for its racing team. This logo is considered by a specialised F1-website[35] as a subliminal advertisement for Marlboro, evocating the top-left corner design of a Marlboro cigarettes pack.

In June 2011, Ferrari extended its collaboration with Marlboro through to the end of 2015, despite cigarette advertising being banned in the sport.[36] The deal has been subsequently renewed for three more years, through 2018.[37] In February 2018, Philip Morris renewed their partnership deal with Ferrari until the end of 2021. While the logo, which has been in place since 2011, has been removed on this year's car, it is speculated that Ferrari will put Philip Morris' non-tobacco brand iQOS instead, bypassing currently in-place laws that prohibit specific advertising of tobacco products.[38][39][40][41]

Marlboro had provided financial support to many racing drivers, the most illustrious of whom are Alain Prost, Ayrton Senna and Mika Häkkinen. From 1970 until the mid-1990s, the logos of the cigaretiers could be present on the combinations of the drivers if they were not present on the cars. Marlboro has also sponsored many grand prix races up until 2005.[42][43][44]

Marlboro also sponsored a multitude of other, smaller teams in Formula One. It was the main sponsor of Alfa Romeo F1 Team between 1980 and 1983, although unable to match up to its pre-war and 1950s heyday, the team only achieving one pole position, one fastest lap and four podium finishes. In 1984 the Italian clothing brand Benetton took over Alfa Romeo's livery sponsorship, which they held until the withdrawal of Alfa Romeo from Formula One at the end of 1985. The Marlboro logo was replaced with a barcode at certain races, due to tobacco or alcohol sponsorship bans in place.

Marlboro sponsored the BMS Scuderia Italia team from 1988 until 1992, when Chesterfield became their main sponsor. The livery was very similar to the Ferrari and Alfa Romeo ones. The Marlboro logo was displayed on the front and side of the cars and on the drivers helmets. In some races where explicit tobacco sponsoring was forbidden, the Marlboro logo was removed.[45][46][47][48]

Marlboro sponsored the Arrows F1 (by the time known as "Footwork") team in 1994. While Ruffles, a potato chips brand sponsored the car, Marlboro sponsored the drivers helmets.[49][50]

Marlboro sponsored the EuroBrun team in 1988. The ER188, driven by Oscar Larrauri, Stefano Modena and Gregor Foitek, featured the Marlboro logo on the helmets of the drivers, as well as the Marlboro logo and name on the side of the cars.[51][52]

Marlboro sponsored the Fittipaldi Automotive team in 1981. The Marlboro logo was displayed on the helmets of the drivers.[53][54]

Marlboro sponsored the Forti F1 team in 1995 and 1996. The logo was displayed on the top side of the car, as well as on the helmets of the drivers.[55][56][57]

Marlboro sponsored the Merzario team from 1977 until the team's collapse in 1979. The Marlboro logo's were displayed on the front, side and on the drivers helmets.[58][59][60]

Marlboro sponsored the Minardi team in 1995. The Marlboro logo was displayed on the front and side of the cars and on the drivers helmets. In some races where explicit tobacco sponsoring was forbidden, the Marlboro logo was replaced with a barcode.[61][62]

Marlboro sponsored the Onyx Grand Prix team in 1989 and 1990. The Marlboro logo was displayed on the front and side of the cars and on the drivers helmets. In some races where explicit tobacco sponsoring was forbidden, the Marlboro logo was replaced with a barcode, but the Chevron logo was retained.[63][64]

Marlboro sponsored Team Rebaque in 1979. The Marlboro logo was displayed on the front and side of the cars and on the drivers helmets. In some races where explicit tobacco sponsoring was forbidden, the Marlboro logo was removed.[65][66][67][68]

Marlboro sponsored the Rial Racing team in 1988 and 1989. The Marlboro logo was displayed on the front and side of the cars and on the drivers helmets. In some races where explicit tobacco sponsoring was forbidden, the Marlboro logo was replaced with a barcode.[69][70][71]

Marlboro sponsored the Spirit Racing team in 1983 and 1984. The Marlboro logo was displayed on the front and side of the cars and on the drivers helmets.[72][73]

GP2

From 2005 to 2007, GP2 Series team ART Grand Prix was sponsored by Marlboro. The Marlboro logo's were prominently shown on the car in the 2005 and 2006 seasons, but in 2007 the team only sponsored the brand on the rear wing.[74][75][76] In countries where the sponsoring of tobacco was forbidden, the Marlboro logos were replaced with a barcode.[77]

Grand Prix motorcycle racing

Wayne Rainey
Wayne Rainey on a Yamaha YZR500 in 1990.

Marlboro entered the Grand Prix motorcycle racing in the seventies as personal sponsor of riders like Giacomo Agostini, Angel Nieto and Jarno Saarinen. In 1976, Marlboro backed Agostini's team, who raced MV Agusta bikes with little factory support.

Since 1983, the cigarette brand sponsored the Yamaha 500 cc works team, which was managed by Agostini until 1989 and then by Kenny Roberts until 1996. During that period, the Japanese bikes won six World Championships and, as a result of their sponsorship, Marlboro decals on race replica bikes became one of the most popular decal kits that were available.

In the 1990s, Marlboro's livery also appeared on other bikes, especially the Hondas entered by Team Pileri (from 1992 to 1995), Pons Racing (in 1993)[78] and Erv Kanemoto's team (in 1997 and 1998) who achieved the 1997 250 cc World Championship with Max Biaggi.

The Yamaha works team was again associated with Marlboro between 1999 and 2002.

Marlboro sponsored the Ducati Corse MotoGP team from 2003. Casey Stoner took his first MotoGP title in 2007. As of the 2009 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season they were only allowed to brand the bikes at one round, in Qatar at the Losail International Circuit, using the barcode in other races. The controversial barcode design was then removed by Ducati for the start of the French motorcycle Grand Prix in the 2010 season. In January 2011 the Ducati Team presented a new logo which was regarded as a subliminal advertisement for Marlboro, evocating the top-left corner design of a Marlboro cigarettes pack, similar to the one used by Ferrari.

In January 2018, it was speculated that Ducati would carry sponsorship by Philip Morris' non-tobacco brand iQOS instead, bypassing currently in-place laws that prohibit specific advertising of tobacco products.[79]

Superbike World Championship

Marlboro sponsored the Yamaha Dealer Team from its inaugural season in 1988 to 1990.[80][81][82][83]

CART/IndyCar

Penske PC-22 Emerson Fittipaldi 1993
Penske PC-22 driven by Emerson Fittipaldi in 1993.

Marlboro sponsorship in IndyCar dates back to 1986 when the livery appeared on the Emerson Fittipaldi's car entered by Patrick Racing. In 1990 Penske Racing hired Fittipaldi and started a 20 years-long association with Marlboro and its distinctive red and white livery. However, in the 2007 season Marlboro logos were replaced with 'Team Penske' but the team retained the color scheme as Philip Morris USA was still Penske's main sponsor. 2009 was the last year of the Penske-Marlboro association.[84]

24 Hours of Le Mans

Since their start in Formula One, Marlboro has also sponsored numerous teams and races, from Joest Racing in Group C in 1983 to Toyota at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1999 (despite a tobacco ban in France).

Masters of Formula 3

Marlboro sponsored the Marlboro Masters Formula Three race in Zandvoort.

World Rally Championship

Marlboro has a long history in rallying sponsorship, including the factory World Rally Championship teams of Lancia (between 1972 and 1974), Mitsubishi (from 1999 to 2002), and Peugeot (from 2003 to 2005). The cigarette brand appeared on helmets and suits of some of the best rally drivers, being personal sponsor of Markku Alén, Timo Salonen, Juha Kankkunen, Miki Biasion and others. Between 1987 and 1992, Marlboro backed Carlos Sainz, appearing on his cars (Ford Sierra in 1987–88 and then Toyota Celica since 1989). In 1993 the cigarette brand started an association with Belgian rally driver Freddy Loix, who was racing for Opel in the Belgian rally championship. Between 1996 and 1998 Loix raced with Toyota Team Belgium in the WRC, carrying the Marlboro livery on his car. In 1999 he moved to Mitsubishi Ralliart works team, with the iconic livery remaining on successive Lancer Evolutions until the marque's temporary WRC withdrawal at the end of 2002.

Marlboro also sponsored the cars of Emirati rally driver Mohammed bin Sulayem[85] and has sponsored a number of rallies including the Safari Rally (between 1982 and 1990), the Rally Argentina, the Rally of Lebanon,[86] the Jordan Rally,[87] and the UAE Desert Challenge.[88]

Australian touring car racing

Marlboro also sponsored the Holden Dealer Team from 1974 through to 1984. The Marlboro branding gave rise to some of Australia's most prominently recognizable lauda cars such as the L34 and A9X Torana, as well as the famous VK Group C "Big Banger" Commodore of Peter Brock and Larry Perkins Bathurst winning fame.

IMSA SportsCar

Marlboro sponsored the Italo-American IMSA SportsCar Le Mans GT team Risi Competizione since 2004 but Risi Competizione opting to invisible the Marlboro logo due to the team respecting Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement regulations and also ban of cigarette advertising in sports.

Badminton

Marlboro sponsored the Thomas and Uber Cup from 1984 to 1990, as well as the Sudirman Cup from 1991 to 1995 and 2001 to 2013.[89][90][91][92]

Products

2013 Marlboro Ice Blast open
A Japanese pack of Marlboro Ice Blast. This mentholated cigarette also contains a menthol capsule in the filter that can be cracked open by the smoker.

Phillip Morris markets cigarettes,[93] snus,[93] and Heatsticks under the Marlboro brand.[94]

International cigarette varieties

Philip Morris International organized Marlboro products into three divisions – Flavor line, which are original red/full flavor cigarettes, Gold line are former lights and Fresh line comprises flavored cigarettes.[95][96][97][98][99]

Marlboro in Canada

Philip Morris sold the Canadian rights to the "Marlboro" name to Imperial Tobacco Canada in 1932. After the brand's successful American relaunch in the 1950s – which later became well known to Canadians through exposure to the brand's international sponsorships and advertising – Philip Morris tried several legal manoeuvres in attempting to reacquire the Canadian rights, to no avail. Imperial Tobacco continues to sell a line of cigarettes under the Marlboro name in Canada, albeit with very different packaging from that of the Philip Morris product. Philip Morris retains the rights to the "rooftop" trade dress and other elements of Marlboro's branding which were developed after the 1932 sale, and has historically used that trade dress in Canada in combination with the names "Matador" or occasionally "Maverick" for a line of Virginia blend cigarettes.[100][101]

In 2006, Philip Morris International's Canadian affiliate Rothmans, Benson & Hedges introduced a new product with the "rooftop" trade dress, and marked as being the "World Famous Imported Blend", but not bearing any actual brand name. This led to a legal challenge from Imperial, contending that the new packaging created customer confusion by merely suggesting the Marlboro brand, thereby infringing on Imperial's Canadian trademark rights. Canada's Federal Court of Appeal ruled in favour of Imperial in June 2012. The judgment noted that Canadian regulations which (in most cases) prohibit the public display of tobacco products at retail locations – i.e., customers must ask for a brand by name – exacerbated the situation, as there were now two products that customers might be referring to when asking for "Marlboro".[100] Though PMI is expected to appeal, shortly after the ruling it began using the brand name "Rooftop" on packaging for the previously unbranded cigarettes.[101]

See also

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External links

1974 Formula One season

The 1974 Formula One season was the 28th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1974 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1974 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, contested concurrently over a fifteen-race series which commenced on 13 January and ended on 6 October. The season also included three non-championship races.

Defending champion Jackie Stewart did not drive in 1974, having announced his retirement at the end of the previous season.

Emerson Fittipaldi and Clay Regazzoni went into the last race of the World Championship level on points, but Regazzoni dropped down the field with handling problems, so Fittipaldi's fourth place gave him the championship. This was also the first title for McLaren and the first of many titles for a team sponsored by the Marlboro cigarette brand. Fittipaldi, Ronnie Peterson and Carlos Reutemann each won three races, Jody Scheckter and Niki Lauda two each, Regazzoni and Denny Hulme, who retired at the end of the season, one each. Graham Hill ran a new team of Lolas, the larger-than-life Hesketh team entered its own car after running James Hunt in a March, and Americans Roger Penske and Parnelli Jones entered their own cars late in the season. Chris Amon's own car, like the Token and the Trojan, was not a success. Two F1 drivers died over the course of the season, Peter Revson in a practice session accident at the South African GP in March, then Austrian newcomer Helmuth Koinigg at the US GP in October.

The 1974 season was the first in which teams had permanent racing numbers from race to race, after the system had been instituted in the middle of the previous season. The numbers were based on the teams' finishing positions in the 1973 Constructors' Championship. From this point, each team only changed numbers if they had the driver who had won the World Drivers' Championship - the winning driver taking the number 1 and his teammate the number 2, and the team that had previously had those numbers switching to the newly-vacated ones. (This made 1974 an anomaly, as there was no World Champion, since Jackie Stewart had retired. Ronnie Peterson took the number 1 as he was team leader at Constructors' Champions Lotus; when the situation arose again in 1992 and 1993, the number 0 was used). This system meant that, for example, Tyrrell - who never again won either title - maintained the numbers 3 and 4 right through until the system was changed in 1996.

Grandfather clause

A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy or grandfathering) is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases. Those exempt from the new rule are said to have grandfather rights or acquired rights, or to have been grandfathered in. Frequently, the exemption is limited; it may extend for a set time, or it may be lost under certain circumstances. For example, a "grandfathered power plant" might be exempt from new, more restrictive pollution laws, but the exception may be revoked and the new rules would apply if the plant were expanded. Often, such a provision is used as a compromise or out of practicality, to allow new rules to be enacted without upsetting a well-established logistical or political situation. This extends the idea of a rule not being retroactively applied.

The term originated in late nineteenth-century legislation and constitutional amendments passed by a number of U.S. Southern states, which created new requirements for literacy tests, payment of poll taxes, and/or residency and property restrictions to register to vote. States in some cases exempted those whose ancestors (grandfathers) had the right to vote before the Civil War, or as of a particular date, from such requirements. The intent and effect of such rules was to prevent poor and illiterate African-American former slaves and their descendants from voting, but without denying poor and illiterate whites the right to vote. Although these original grandfather clauses were eventually ruled unconstitutional, the terms grandfather clause and grandfather have been adapted to other uses.

John Sturges

John Eliot Sturges (; January 3, 1910 – August 18, 1992) was an American film director. His movies include Bad Day at Black Rock (1955), Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957), The Magnificent Seven (1960), The Great Escape (1963), and Ice Station Zebra (1968). In 2013, The Magnificent Seven was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". He was not related to director Preston Sturges.

Kai (artist)

Kaï (also known as Kaï Aspire) is an American artist. Guetta studied art in Europe, before becoming a street artist. His work has been exhibited in cities including Paris, Aspen, Miami, and Los Angeles, and focuses on anti-marketing themes. He has also worked with professional athletes and musical artists, partnering with them on group exhibitions.

Kay Kay Menon

Kay Kay Menon (born Krishna Kumar Menon, born c. 1966) is an Indian film, stage and television actor who works predominantly in Hindi cinema, and also in Gujarati, Tamil, Malayalam , Marathi and Telugu cinema. He has also won the award for best actor for the film Shoonya from Festival of Arab and Asian cinema.

Marlboro Man

The Marlboro Man is a figure used in tobacco advertising campaigns for Marlboro cigarettes. In the United States, where the campaign originated, it was used from 1954 to 1999. The Marlboro Man was first conceived by Leo Burnett in 1954. The images initially featured rugged men portrayed in a variety of roles but later primarily featured a rugged cowboy or cowboys, in picturesque wild terrain. The advertisements were originally conceived as a way to popularize filtered cigarettes, which at the time were considered feminine.

The Marlboro advertising campaign, created by Leo Burnett Worldwide, is said to be one of the most brilliant advertisement campaigns of all time. It transformed a feminine campaign, with the slogan "Mild as May", into one that was masculine, in a matter of months. The first models were a Navy Lieutenant and Andy Armstrong, the ad agency’s art supervisor. Other early models were sales promotion director of Philip Morris, Robert Larking, and others from the Leo Burnett ad agency, Lee Stanley and Owen Smith. A number of models who have portrayed the Marlboro Man have died of smoking-related diseases.Cowboys proved to be popular, which led to the "Marlboro Cowboy" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns. The slogan "Come to Marlboro Country" promised every ordinary man the prospect of transforming himself into, or at least associating himself with, a rugged and macho cowboy merely by lighting up this Philip Morris product. A satirical reference to the advertisement was made in the Rolling Stones's 1965 song Satisfaction: "When I'm watchin' my TV and a man comes on and tells me how white my shirts can be, but he can't be a man 'cause he doesn't smoke the same cigarettes as me".

McLaren

McLaren Racing Limited is a British motor racing team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Woking, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but also competes in the Indianapolis 500 and has won the Canadian-American Challenge Cup (Can-Am). The team is the second oldest active Formula One team after Ferrari, where they compete as McLaren F1 Team. They are the second most successful team in Formula One history after Ferrari, having won 182 races, 12 Drivers' Championships and eight Constructors' Championships. The team is a wholly owned subsidiary of the McLaren Group.

Founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren, the team won its first Grand Prix at the 1968 Belgian Grand Prix, but their greatest initial success was in Can-Am, which they dominated from 1967 to 1971. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972 and Johnny Rutherford in 1974 and 1976. After Bruce McLaren died in a testing accident in 1970, Teddy Mayer took over and led the team to their first Formula One Constructors' Championship in 1974, with Emerson Fittipaldi and James Hunt winning the Drivers' Championship in 1974 and 1976 respectively. The year 1974 also marked the start of a long-standing sponsorship by Phillip Morris' Marlboro cigarette brand.

In 1981, McLaren merged with Ron Dennis' Project Four Racing; Dennis took over as team principal and shortly after organised a buyout of the original McLaren shareholders to take full control of the team. This began the team's most successful era: with Porsche and Honda engines, Niki Lauda, Alain Prost, and Ayrton Senna took between them seven Drivers' Championships and the team took six Constructors' Championships. The combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but later their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, the two winning every constructors' title between 1984 and 1994. However, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, and the team went three seasons without a win. With Mercedes-Benz engines, West sponsorship, and former Williams designer Adrian Newey, further championships came in 1998 and 1999 with driver Mika Häkkinen, and during the 2000s the team were consistent front-runners, driver Lewis Hamilton taking their latest title in 2008.

Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing over to long time McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh. However, at the end of 2013, after the team's worst season since 2004, Whitmarsh was ousted. McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix. In September 2017, McLaren announced they had agreed on an engine supply with Renault from 2018 to 2020.

Mokhtar Belmokhtar

Mokhtar Belmokhtar (; Arabic: مختار بلمختار‎; born 1 June 1972), also known as The One-Eyed, Nelson, The Uncatchable, is an Algerian leader of the group Al-Murabitoun, former military commander of Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb, smuggler and weapons dealer. He was twice convicted and sentenced to death in absentia under separate charges in Algerian courts: in 2007 for terrorism and in 2008 for murder. In 2004, he was sentenced to life imprisonment in Algeria for terrorist activities.Born in northern Algeria, Belmokhtar traveled to Afghanistan in 1991 to fight with the mujahadeen against the pro-Soviet government following the withdrawal of Soviet Union troops. There, he lost his left eye while mishandling explosives. He later joined the Islamist GIA fighting in the Algerian Civil War and following that became a commander in the Mali-based Islamist Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).

In December 2012, Belmokhtar announced he was leaving AQIM and headed his own organisation, dubbed the Al-Mulathameen ("Masked") Brigade (also known as the al-Mua'qi'oon Biddam ("Those who Sign with Blood" Brigade). In January 2013, the Brigade took more than 800 people hostage at the Tigantourine gas facility in Algeria. 39 hostages were executed and one Algerian killed before the facility was recaptured by Algerian forces, who killed 29 members of the Brigade. The Brigade was listed by the US State Department as a Foreign Terrorist Organization in December 2013.On 2 March 2013, the Chadian state television and the Chadian Army reported that Belmokhtar had been killed in a raid by Chadian troops against a terrorist base in Mali. However, two months later, Belmokhtar claimed responsibility for two suicide truck bomb attacks — on a French-owned uranium mine in Arlit, Niger, and a military base 150 miles away in Agadez.On 14 June 2015, Libya's government announced that Belmokhtar was killed in a U.S. airstrike inside Libya. U.S. officials confirmed the airstrike and that Belmokhtar was a target, but were unable to confirm that Belmokhtar was killed. In November 2016, Belmokhtar was targeted again in a French airstrike, conducted by French aircraft in southern Libya, based on intelligence from the United States. U.S. officials have been unable to confirm Belmokhtar's death.

Morley (cigarette)

Morley is a fictional brand of cigarettes that has appeared in various television shows, films, and video games that otherwise have no connection to each other. The iconic, fictional brand packaging resembles the original packaging of the Marlboro cigarette brand. The name "Morley" is a play on "Marleys", a nickname for Marlboro cigarettes. Morleys appear at least as far back as 1960, in Alfred Hitchcock's film Psycho. There is also a Morley Lights version, in a gold and white package (similar to Marlboro Lights), marked "Lights".The Morley packaging is sold to production companies by The Earl Hays Press, a century-old Hollywood prop packaging service.

Prince (cigarette)

Prince is a Danish brand of cigarettes owned by House of Prince, which until 2008 was a subsidiary of the Scandinavian Tobacco Company. Today, the company is owned by British American Tobacco.

Richard Hambleton

Richard Art Hambleton (June 23, 1952 – October 29, 2017) was a Canadian artist known for his work as a street artist. He was a surviving member of a group that emerged from the New York City art scene during the booming art market of the 1980s, which also included Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat.

Smoking in Finland

In Finland, the smoking figures are among the lowest in Europe. There are several factors that have influenced the decrease in the smoking prevalence, such as legislative actions, health promotion and national monitoring systems, policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption through public awareness campaigns, advertising bans and increased taxation. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the leading role in tobacco control in Finland, and one of their main aims is have a more effective ban on sale of tobacco products to children and young people and to prevent sale of illegal tobacco products. Among the key elements in the successful tobacco policy is the traditional collaboration between the health authorities and non-governmental organisations, and intensive health promotion.Smoking in Finland has reduced, the smoking rates among adults in Finland in 2009 stood at 18.6%, lower than the OECD average of 22.3%. In more recent study conducted in 2014 smoking rates for men was 17% and 14% for women. Despite the decreasing trend the health effects of tobacco smoking are considerable and smoking can still be considered as a public health issue since it is still a significant cause of avoidable premature death and illness.

Superman II

Superman II is a 1980 superhero film directed by Richard Lester and written by Mario Puzo and David and Leslie Newman, based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is a sequel to the 1978 film Superman and stars Gene Hackman, Christopher Reeve, Terence Stamp, Ned Beatty, Sarah Douglas, Margot Kidder, and Jack O'Halloran. The film was released in Australia and mainland Europe on December 4, 1980, and in other countries throughout 1981. Selected premiere engagements of Superman II were presented in Megasound, a high-impact surround sound system similar to Sensurround.

In 1977, it was decided to film both Superman (1978) and its sequel simultaneously, with principal photography beginning in March 1977 and ending in October 1978. Tensions arose between Richard Donner and the producers in which a decision was made to stop filming the sequel, of which 75 percent had already been completed, and finish the first film. Following the release of Superman in December 1978, Donner was controversially fired as director, and was replaced by Richard Lester. Several members of the cast and crew declined to return in the wake of Donner's firing. In order to be officially credited as the director, Lester re-shot most of the film with a new alternate opening and ending for which principal photography began in September 1979 and ended in March 1980.

The film received positive reviews from film critics who praised the performances from Reeve, Stamp and Hackman, the visual effects, and humor. It grossed $190 million against a production budget of $54 million. A sequel, Superman III, was released, for which Lester returned as director.

Toulo de Graffenried

Baron Emmanuel 'Toulo' de Graffenried (18 May 1914, Paris, France – 22 January 2007, Lonay, Switzerland) was a Swiss motor racing driver. He participated in 23 World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 13 May 1950, and scored a total of nine championship points. He also participated in numerous non-Championship Formula One races.De Graffenried began his racing career in 1936, driving his own Maserati voiturette. Some of his most memorable results came at his home track: the challenging, cobbled, street circuit at Bremgarten near Bern. He won the 1949 British Grand Prix, a year before the FIA World Championship began. In that inaugural year de Graffenried contested four of the season's seven races, with mixed results. He continued to drive in occasional races over the next six years, with his best finish being fourth place at the 1953 Belgian Grand Prix.Following his retirement from racing, de Graffenried managed his car dealership in Lausanne, featuring Alfa Romeo, Rolls-Royce and Ferrari automobiles. He also acted as stunt double for Kirk Douglas during the filming of The Racers. Later, he became a common figure at Formula One events during the 1970s and 1980s as the corporate ambassador for Phillip Morris' Marlboro cigarette brand.

In recognition of his win at the first British Grand Prix, de Graffenried made his last appearance at the wheel of a racing car during the 1998 celebrations of Silverstone's 50th anniversary at age 84.

United Artists Records

United Artists Records was a record label founded by Max E. Youngstein of United Artists in 1957 to issue movie soundtracks. The label expanded into other genres, such as easy listening, jazz, pop, and R&B.

Wayne McLaren

Wayne McLaren (September 12, 1940 – July 22, 1992) was an American stuntman, model, actor, and rodeo performer.

William Dougherty

William "Bill" Dougherty (April 6, 1932 – July 3, 2010) was an American businessman, lobbyist, and Democratic politician who was the 31st Lieutenant Governor of South Dakota from 1971 to 1975.

Égal (song)

"Égal" (also known as "Egal" and "Ça m'est égal" (French for "I Don't Care")) is a song by French singer Amanda Lear released in 1981 by Ariola Records as the single from her album Incognito.

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