Marl

Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt. The dominant carbonate mineral in most marls is calcite, but other carbonate minerals such as aragonite, dolomite, and siderite may be present. Marl was originally an old term loosely applied to a variety of materials, most of which occur as loose, earthy deposits consisting chiefly of an intimate mixture of clay and calcium carbonate, formed under freshwater conditions; specifically an earthy substance containing 35–65% clay and 65–35% carbonate.[1] It also describes a habit of coralline red alga.[2] The term is today often used to describe indurated marine deposits and lacustrine (lake) sediments which more accurately should be named 'marlstone'. Marlstone is an indurated (resists crumbling or powdering) rock of about the same composition as marl, more correctly called an earthy or impure argillaceous limestone. It has a blocky subconchoidal fracture, and is less fissile than shale. The term 'marl' is widely used in English-language geology, while the terms Mergel and Seekreide (German for "lake chalk") are used in European references.

Marl vs clay & lime EN
Scheme of the transitional lithotypes from mud (or mudstone) to lime (or limestone), illustrating the definition of marl (marlstone) as a mix of calcium carbonate and clay

The lower stratigraphic units of the chalk cliffs of Dover consist of a sequence of glauconitic marls followed by rhythmically banded limestone and marl layers. Upper Cretaceous cyclic sequences in Germany and marl–opal-rich Tortonian-Messinian strata in the Sorbas basin related to multiple sea drawdown have been correlated with Milankovitch orbital forcing.[3]

Marl as lacustrine sediment is common in post-glacial lake-bed sediments, often found underlying peat bogs. It has been used as a soil conditioner and acid soil neutralizing agent.

Piece of marl
Marl
Scala dei Turchi panorama
Scala dei Turchi coastal marl formation, southern Sicily

Historical Use

Marl was often used in the construction of sod houses, especially in north central Kansas where limestone is a common sedimentary rock.[4]

Types used in agriculture

Marl was extensively mined in Central New Jersey as a soil conditioner in the 1800s. In 1863, the most common marl was blue marl. While the specific composition and properties of the marl varied depending on what layer it was found in, blue marl was generally composed of 38.70% silicic acid and sand, 30.67% oxide of iron, 13.91% carbonate of lime, 11.22% water, 4.47% potash, 1.21% magnesia, 1.14% phosphoric acid, and 0.31% sulphuric acid.[5]

Marl was in high demand for farms. An example of the amount of marl mined comes from a report from 1880, from Marlboro, Monmouth County, New Jersey, which reported the following tons of marl sold during the year:[6]

  • OC Herbert Marl Pit – 9961 tons
  • Uriah Smock Marl Pit – 4750 tons
  • CM Conover Marl Pit – 760 tons

In the Centennial Exhibition report in 1877, marl is described in many different forms[7] and came from 69 marl pits in and around New Jersey. The report identified a number of agricultural marls types, including clay marl, blue marl, red marl, high bank marl, shell layer marl, under shell layer marl, sand marl, green marl, gray marl, and clayey marl.[8]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Pettijohn (1957), p. 410.
  2. ^ Steneck, R. S. (1986). "The Ecology of Coralline Algal Crusts: Convergent Patterns and Adaptative Strategies". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 17: 273–303. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.17.110186.001421. JSTOR 2096997.
  3. ^ Krijgsman, W. (2001). "Astrochronology for the Messinian Sorbas basin (SE Spain) and orbital (precessional) forcing for evaporite cyclicity" (PDF). Sedimentary Geology. 140: 43. Bibcode:2001SedG..140...43K. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(00)00171-8.
  4. ^ Cameron, Roderick (1951). Pioneer Days in Kansas. Belleville, Kansas: Cameron Book Company. p. 29.
  5. ^ Annual Report of the State Geologist for... 1887. pp. 193–.
  6. ^ Geological Survey of New Jersey (1880). Annual Report of the State Geologist. p. 184. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
  7. ^ University of Wisconsin. Agricultural Experiment Station; Wisconsin. Agricultural Experiment Station, Madison (1896). Annual Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Wisconsin. 13. Democrat Printing Company, state printers. p. 295. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
  8. ^ New Jersey. State Centennial Board (1877). Report of the New Jersey Commissioners on the Centennial Exhibition. Naar, Day, & Naar, printers. p. 203. Retrieved 2017-01-06.

Bibliography

  • Pettijohn, F. J. (1957). Sedimentary Rocks (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 551748.

Further reading

  • Schurrenberger, D., Russell, J. and Kerry Kelts. 2003. Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components. Journal of Paleolimnology 29: 141–154.

External links

Around the Way Girl

"Around the Way Girl" is a hit single by LL Cool J from his 1990 album Mama Said Knock You Out.

The song is a rap about LL searching for a girl who is streetwise to form a relationship with. The entire song describes the exact features of what he is looking for in this particular girl. The chorus repeats the line "I need an around the way girl".The song samples Mary Jane Girls' "All Night Long", Keni Burke's "Risin' to the Top", and The Honey Drippers' "Impeach the President", which is used as the main instrumental element of the song. This song is an early example of the high pitched sample rap.

The song later appeared on LL Cool J's 1996 greatest hits album, All World: Greatest Hits.

"Around the Way Girl" peaked at #9 on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming LL Cool J's first top 10 single. It was also a hit on the R&B and dance music charts, where it peaked at #5 and #7, respectively. The RIAA certified "Around the Way Girl" Gold on January 15, 1991 for sales of over 500,000 copies.

Bundesautobahn 52

Bundesautobahn 52 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 52, short form Autobahn 52, abbreviated as BAB 52 or A 52) is an autobahn in western Germany. It starts at the Dutch-German border near the community of Niederkrüchten, district of Viersen. From Elmpt it runs northeast.

Its westernmost part serves as an important commuter route into Düsseldorf. The autobahn becomes Bundesstraße 7 shortly before the Rheinkniebrücke, which leads into the Düsseldorf city centre. Traffic of the A 52 is routed through the Düsseldorf city centre on the B 8 and B 1 secondary roads up to Düsseldorf-Mörsenbroich, where the A 52 becomes a road of its own again.

The autobahn has three parts:

Dutch-German border - Niederkrüchten-Elmpt - Mönchengladbach - Düsseldorf-Heerdt

Düsseldorf-Mörsenbroich - Dreieck Essen-Ost

Gladbeck - Gelsenkirchen - Marl-NordA new connection from the Dutch border to Elmpt opened in May 2009. An extension connecting the interchange Essen-Ost with the interchange Gladbeck has been proposed for several years, but has not been built yet, due to the need for several kilometers of tunnels below densely populated areas.

Chalk Group

The Chalk Group (often just called the Chalk) is the lithostratigraphic unit (a certain number of rock strata) which contains the Late Cretaceous limestone succession in southern and eastern England. The same or similar rock sequences occur across the wider northwest European chalk 'province'. It is characterised by thick deposits of chalk, a soft porous white limestone, deposited in a marine environment.

Chalk is a limestone that consists of coccolith biomicrite. A biomicrite is a limestone composed of fossil debris ("bio") and calcium carbonate mud ("micrite"). Most of the fossil debris in chalk consists of the microscopic plates, which are called coccoliths, of microscopic green algae known as coccolithophores. In addition to the coccoliths, the fossil debris includes a variable, but minor, percentage of the fragments of foraminifera, ostracods and mollusks. The coccolithophores lived in the upper part of the water column. When they died, the microscopic calcium carbonate plates, which formed their shells settled downward through the ocean water and accumulated on the ocean bottom to form a thick layer of calcareous ooze, which eventually became the Chalk Group.

The Chalk Group usually shows few signs of bedding, other than lines of flint nodules which become common in the upper part. Nodules of the mineral pyrite also occur and are usually oxidized to brown iron oxide on exposed surfaces.

Well-known outcrops include the White Cliffs of Dover, Beachy Head, the southern coastal cliffs of the Isle of Wight and the quarries and motorway cuttings at Blue Bell Hill, Kent, (which has been classified as a Site of Special Scientific Interest) and at the Stokenchurch Gap on the Oxfordshire/Buckinghamshire border where the M40 motorway cuts through the Aston Rowant National Nature Reserve.

Glauconite

Glauconite is an iron potassium phyllosilicate (mica group) mineral of characteristic green color which is very friable and has very low weathering resistance.

It crystallizes with a monoclinic geometry. Its name is derived from the Greek glaucos (γλαυκος) meaning 'blue', referring to the common blue-green color of the mineral; its sheen (mica glimmer) and blue-green color presumably relating to the sea's surface. Its color ranges from olive green, black green to bluish green, and yellowish on exposed surfaces due to oxidation. In the Mohs scale it has hardness of 2. The relative specific gravity range is 2.4 - 2.95. It is normally found in dark green rounded brittle pellets, and with the dimension of a sand grain size. It can be confused with chlorite (also of green color) or with a clay mineral. Glauconite has the chemical formula – (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2.

Glauconite particles are one of the main components of greensand, glauconitic silstone and glauconitic sandstone. Glauconite has been called a marl in an old and broad sense of that word. Thus references to "greensand marl" sometimes refer specifically to glauconite. The Glauconitic Marl formation is named after it, and there is a Glauconitic Sandstone formation in the Mannville Group of Western Canada.

Harrana

Harrana, named after Qasr Kharana, an archeological Umayyad desert palace in the area, is part of the Jordan eastern plateau some 60 kilometers southeast of Amman city.

The area is largely uninhabited except for seasonal bedouin sheep and camel herders who bring their livestock to the area during December through April.

Harrana's climate, much like the other parts of the country, is influenced by the moderate Mediterranean climate from the west, the very hot Sahara's climate from the east, and the cold European climate from the north.

Though arid, the area is rich in animal life. Birds, owls, rodents, rabbits, foxes, occasional wolves and hyenas, snakes, and lizards are some of the animals that take refuge in Harrana. A variety of flowering plants bloom during late winter–early spring months including mustard plants, oriental popies, and wild irisis. Cistanche tubulosa, or the desert broomrape, is also another beautiful resident in Harrana blooming towards the end of spring and beginning of summer.

Harrana is significant for its fossil deposits preserved in gigantic limestone concretions that date back to the latest Maastrichtian some 66–67 million years ago, a period notably close to the end-Cretaceous extinction events when many groups of animals such as dinosaurs and as much as 65–70% of all marine animal species became extinct. Mosasaur specimens along with their remarkably well preserved scale imprints have been discovered from late Maastrichtian deposits of the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of Harrana

The best preserved and complete specimens of the extinct teleostean fish genus Saurocephalus and the most complete mosasaur Carinodens remains come from the latest Maastrichtian of Harrana.

Jingling Baby

"Jingling Baby" is the final single released from LL Cool J's third album, Walking with a Panther. It was released on January 8, 1990 for Def Jam Recordings and was produced by LL Cool J and Dwayne Simon. The single version was remixed by Marley Marl. "Jingling Baby" peaked at #32 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs. It was backed by remixed versions of "Illegal Search", a track from LL Cool J's fourth album, Mama Said Knock You Out.

Juice Crew

The Juice Crew was a Hip Hop collective made up largely of Queensbridge (New York, US)–based artists in the mid–to–late 1980s. Founded by producer Marley Marl and radio DJ Mr. Magic, and housed by Tyrone Williams' record label Cold Chillin' Records, the Juice Crew helped introduce New School artists Big Daddy Kane, Biz Markie, Roxanne Shanté and Kool G Rap. The crew produced many answer records and engaged with numerous "beefs" – primarily with rival radio jock Kool DJ Red Alert and the South Bronx's Boogie Down Productions, as well as the "posse cut", "The Symphony".

Karsten Braasch

Karsten Braasch (born 14 July 1967) is a German former professional tennis player. His highest ATP singles ranking was World No. 38, which he reached in June 1994. His career-high in doubles was World No. 36, achieved in November 1997. He was well-noted for his service motion and his habit of smoking during changeovers.

Braasch competed in a "Battle of the Sexes" contest against the Williams sisters (Venus and Serena) at the 1998 Australian Open when he was ranked 203. Braasch was described by one journalist as "a man whose training regime centred around a pack of cigarettes and more than a couple bottles of ice cold lager". He nonetheless defeated both sisters, playing a single set against each, beating Serena 6–1 and Venus 6–2. Braasch was thirty years old at the time, while Venus and Serena were seventeen and sixteen, respectively.

Mama Said Knock You Out

Mama Said Knock You Out is the fourth studio album by American rapper LL Cool J. It was produced mostly by Marley Marl and recorded at his "House of Hits" home studio in Chestnut Ridge and at Chung King House of Metal in New York City. After the disappointing reception of LL Cool's 1989 album Walking with a Panther, Mama Said Knock You Out was released by Def Jam Recordings in 1990 to commercial and critical success.

Mama Said Knock You Out (song)

"Mama Said Knock You Out" is a hit single by LL Cool J from his album of the same name. The song famously begins with the line "Don't call it a comeback/I've been here for years." Before "Mama Said Knock You Out" was released, many people felt that LL Cool J's career was waning; his grandmother, who still believed in his talent, told him to "knock out" all his critics. The song was produced by Marley Marl with help from DJ Bobcat along with LL. The single reached number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100, was certified Gold by the RIAA, and won the Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance. The song takes various shots at Kool Moe Dee.

The song was featured in the films The Hard Way (which LL Cool J also appeared), Gladiator, Encino Man, Bébé's Kids, Kangaroo Jack: G'Day U.S.A.!, Big Mommas: Like Father, Like Son, Happy Feet Two, Fist Fight, The House and Deadpool 2.

Marl, Lower Saxony

Marl is a municipality in the district of Diepholz, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Marl, North Rhine-Westphalia

Marl is a town and a municipality in the district of Recklinghausen, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated near the Wesel-Datteln Canal, approx. 10 km north-west of Recklinghausen. It has about 90,000 people.

Marl-Chemiepark Power Station

Marl-Chemiepark Power Station is an ensemble of three thermal power stations. One of these power stations has a 300 meters tall, another a 241 meters tall chimney.

The 300 meters chimney was demolished in 1995, using a special excavator.

Marl Creek Provincial Park

Marl Creek Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, located on the Trans-Canada Highway 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Golden in the Rocky Mountain Trench.

Marley Marl

Marlon Williams (born September 30, 1962), better known by his stage name Marley Marl, is an American DJ, record producer, rapper and record label founder, primarily operating in hip hop music. Marlon grew up in Queensbridge housing projects located in Queens New York. He is credited with influencing a number of hip hop icons such as RZA, DJ Premier, and Pete Rock. He was also featured on Eric B. & Rakim's "Paid In Full" from their debut album which was also recorded in his studio. As a producer, one notable project was LL Cool J's Mama Said Knock You Out. Marley Marl became interested in music, by performing in local talent shows, during the early days of rap music. He caught his big break in 1984, with artist Roxanne Shante's hit Roxanne's Revenge. Marley Marl is also responsible for starting the musical band Juice Crew alongside DJ Mr. Magic.

Mercia Mudstone Group

Lower & Middle Keuper Marl, Keuper Waterstones and Upper & Lower Keuper Saliferous Beds redirect here.The Mercia Mudstone Group is an early Triassic lithostratigraphic group (a sequence of rock strata) which is widespread in Britain, especially in the English Midlands – the name is derived from the ancient kingdom of Mercia which corresponds to that area. It is frequently encountered in older literature as the Keuper Marl or Keuper Marl Series.The Mercia Mudstone Group is now divided into five formations recognised and mappable across its entire outcrop and subcrop. The formations are a mix of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones and halites. Historically this sequence of rocks has been subdivided in different ways with different names in each of the basinal areas in which it is found. Increasing knowledge of the sequences and the more recent development of seamless electronic mapping by the British Geological Survey (BGS) necessitated a reappraisal of these divisions. A report published by BGS in 2008 recommended the abandonment of previous divisions and naming schemes in favour of a simpler approach which, having now been adopted, is set out below.

Blue Anchor Formation

Branscombe Mudstone Formation

Arden Sandstone Formation

Sidmouth Mudstone Formation

Tarporley Siltstone FormationClearly, older schemes will remain in maps and literature well into the future, providing a source of potential confusion. An example might be the Arden Sandstone Formation which previously enjoyed lower status as a member and also higher status as a group.

Pink Cookies In a Plastic Bag Getting Crushed by Buildings

"Pink Cookies in a Plastic Bag Getting Crushed by Buildings" is a single from LL Cool J's fifth album, 14 Shots to the Dome. It was released on June 1, 1993, along with "Back Seat (of My Jeep)". The original version was produced by Marley Marl; however the more popular remix was produced by Marley Marl and Easy Mo Bee. The song reached #96 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #34 on Hot R&B Songs.Thirty different hip-hop artists are mentioned in the song's lyrics:

I'll take 30 electric chairs, and put 'em in a classroom, 30 MCs, and set 'em free from their doom.

The title of the song came to the artist at random and is not, despite popular thought, a reference to sex:

http://hiphopwired.com/548518/ll-cool-j-explains-meaning-pink-cookies-plastic-bag-drink-champs/

The music video (directed by Brett Ratner) for the song was made in May 1993.

River Sid

The River Sid is a minor river in East Devon. It flows for 6.5 miles (10.5 km) southwards from a source in Crowpits Covert (OSGB36 Grid reference SY138963) at a height of 206 metres above sea level. The source is at the head of a goyle or small ravine.

The underlying geology is impermeable silty mudstones and sandstones of the Triassic Keuper marl, overlain with permeable Greensand and clay-with-flints. The junction between the Greensand and Keuper Marl forms a spring line.

The river flows through Sidbury and Sidford to Sidmouth and is fed by springs flowing from East Hill and water from the Roncombe Stream, the Snod Brook and the Woolbrook. In Sidmouth the river outflows at the Ham through a shingle bar.The Sid Vale Association, the first Civic Society in Britain (founded in 1846) is based in the Sid Vale.

Vapors (song)

"Vapors" is a song co-written and performed by American hip hop musician Biz Markie, issued as the fifth single from his debut studio album Goin' Off. The song peaked at #80 on the Billboard R&B chart in 1988.

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