Mark Stanhope

Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, GCB, OBE, ADC, DL (born 26 March 1952) is a retired Royal Navy officer. After serving as a submarine commander, he commanded a frigate and then commanded an aircraft carrier on operational patrol off Sierra Leone. He went on to be Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Transformation and then Commander-in-Chief Fleet. He served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval staff, the professional head of the Royal Navy, from July 2009 to April 2013. In this role he advised the British Government on the deployment of naval forces during operations around Libya. He was succeeded by Admiral Sir George Zambellas in April 2013.

Sir Mark Stanhope
General Walter L. Sharp walks with Sea Lord Admiral, Sir Mark Stanhope
Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope (left) with General Walter L. Sharp
Born26 March 1952 (age 67)
Hammersmith, London
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Service/branchRoyal Navy
Years of service1970–2013
RankAdmiral
Commands heldFirst Sea Lord
Commander-in-Chief Fleet
HMS Illustrious
HMS London
HMS Splendid
HMS Orpheus
Battles/warsSierra Leone Civil War
Libyan Civil War
AwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Officer of the Order of the British Empire
Officer of the Legion of Merit (United States)

Early life

Born the son of Frederick William Stanhope and Shiela Mary Hattemore (née Cutler), Stanhope was educated at the London Nautical School, Worthing High School for Boys (since 1974 first Worthing Sixth-Form College and more recently Worthing College), and then St Peter's College, Oxford, where he gained a Master of Arts in physics.[1]

Naval career

HMS Illustrious 1
The aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious which Stanhope commanded during an operational deployment off Sierra Leone
US Navy 120126-N-WL435-305 First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff of the Royal Navy Adm. Sir Mark Stanhope, left, and Chief of Naval Operation
Stanhope on board the submarine HMS Astute

Stanhope joined the Royal Navy in 1970, was confirmed in the rank of sub-lieutenant on 1 September 1972,[2] and was promoted to full lieutenant on 1 May 1977.[3] Promoted to lieutenant commander on 16 October 1982,[4] he commanded the submarine HMS Orpheus from 1982 to 1984.[1] After receiving promotion to commander on 30 June 1986,[5] he commanded the submarine HMS Splendid from 1987 to 1988.[1] He became a teaching officer on the Submarine Command Course in 1989.[1]

Promoted to captain on 30 June 1991,[6] Stanhope then went on to command the frigate HMS London from 1991 to 1992 before becoming Captain, Submarine Sea Training in 1993.[1] He was appointed Deputy Principal staff Officer to the Chief of the Defence staff at the Ministry of Defence in 1994 and then attended the Royal College of Defence Studies in 1997.[1] He commanded the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious from 1998 to 2000 during which time that ship was deployed on operational patrol off Sierra Leone.[7] Promoted to rear admiral, he became Director of Operational Management at NATO Regional Command North in 2000 and was seconded to the Cabinet Office in 2002 before being promoted to vice admiral and becoming Deputy Commander-in-Chief Fleet in July 2002.[8]

Promoted to full admiral on 10 July 2004,[9] Stanhope became Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Transformation at NATO that year.[1] In November 2007 he became Commander-in-Chief Fleet[8] and took the honorary position of Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom.[1]

Stanhope succeeded Admiral Sir Jonathon Band as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval staff in July 2009.[10][11] In June 2011, during operations around Libya, he warned that the fleet would only be able to sustain operations for around 90 days after which the Government would have to rebalance priorities.[12] On 24 June 2011 The Daily Telegraph confirmed that Stanhope, in common with the Chief of the Air staff and the Chief of the General staff, would lose his position on the Defence Board, the highest non-ministerial Ministry of Defence committee, which makes decisions on all aspect of military policy.[13] He was succeeded as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval staff by Admiral Sir George Zambellas in April 2013.[14]

Family

In 1975 Stanhope married Janet Anne Flynn; they have one daughter.[1] Lady Stanhope was the Director of Resources at Devon County Council for four years.[15]

Awards and decorations

Order of the Bath UK ribbon

Order of the Bath UK ribbon

Order of the British Empire (Military) Ribbon
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon
Us legion of merit officer rib

Order of the British Empire (Military) Ribbon
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon
Us legion of merit officer rib
Order of the Bath UK ribbon Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) 2010
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) 2004
Order of the British Empire (Military) Ribbon Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) 1989
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal 2002
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal 2012
Us legion of merit officer rib Officer of the Legion of Merit (United States)

Stanhope was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1989 New Year Honours list.[16] He was appointed be a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 2004 New Year Honours.[17] He was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of that order in the 2010 Birthday Honours.[18]

Stanhope is an Honorary Fellow of St. Peter's College, Oxford, a Deputy Lieutenant of Devon, a Freeman of the City of London, The President of the Marine Society & Sea Cadets and a Liveryman of the Upholders' Company as well as a Younger Brother of Trinity House.[1] He reports his interests in Who's Who as family life, reading and sailing.[1]

Stanhope was also awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Science from Plymouth University in 2012.[19]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "STANHOPE, Adm. Sir Mark". Who's Who 2013. A & C Black. December 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  2. ^ "No. 46398". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 November 1974. p. 10996.
  3. ^ "No. 47227". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 May 1977. p. 6963.
  4. ^ "No. 49136". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 October 1982. p. 13231.
  5. ^ "No. 50617". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 August 1986. p. 10285.
  6. ^ "No. 52591". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 July 1991. p. 10085.
  7. ^ "UK Forces Deployed in Sierra Leone". Britain's small wars. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  8. ^ a b "Senior Royal Navy Appointments" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  9. ^ "No. 57359". The London Gazette (Supplement). 20 July 2004. p. 9027.
  10. ^ "Admiral Sir Trevor Soar takes up Navy fleet position". The Portsmouth News. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  11. ^ Ministry of Defence (21 July 2009). "New First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval staff takes command" (Press release). Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  12. ^ "Prolonged Libya effort unsustainable, warns Navy chief". 13 June 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  13. ^ "Top military chiefs "sidelined" after Afghanistan row". The Daily Telegraph. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  14. ^ "New senior military officers appointed". gov.uk. HM Government. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  15. ^ "Jan Stanhope". Devon & Cornwall Police Authority. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  16. ^ "No. 51578". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1988. p. 5.
  17. ^ "No. 57155". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 2003. p. 2.
  18. ^ "No. 59446". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 June 2010. p. 2.
  19. ^ "Honorary Doctorate". Plymouth University. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Jonathon Band
Deputy Commander-in-Chief Fleet
2002–2004
Succeeded by
Sir Timothy McClement
Preceded by
Sir Ian Forbes
Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Transformation
2004–2007
Succeeded by
Luciano Zappata
Preceded by
Sir James Burnell-Nugent
Commander-in-Chief Fleet
2007–2009
Succeeded by
Sir Trevor Soar
Preceded by
Sir Jonathon Band
First Sea Lord
2009–2013
Succeeded by
Sir George Zambellas
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir James Burnell-Nugent
Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom
2007–2009
Succeeded by
Sir Trevor Soar
Aircraft carrier

An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft. Typically, it is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft, helicopters, and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is currently not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is often the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or even strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third party countries, reduce the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore significantly increase the time of availability on the combat zone.

There is no single definition of an "aircraft carrier", and modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, and sometimes as distinct types of naval aviation-capable ships. Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, RN, former First Sea Lord (head) of the Royal Navy, has said, "To put it simply, countries that aspire to strategic international influence have aircraft carriers." Henry Kissinger, while United States Secretary of State, also said: "An aircraft carrier is 100,000 tons of diplomacy".As of August 2019, there are 41 active aircraft carriers in the world operated by thirteen navies. The United States Navy has 11 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers—carrying around 80 fighter jets each—the largest carriers in the world; the total combined deckspace is over twice that of all other nations combined. As well as the aircraft carrier fleet, the U.S. Navy has nine amphibious assault ships used primarily for helicopters, although these also carry up to 20 vertical or short take-off and landing (V/STOL) fighter jets and are similar in size to medium-sized fleet carriers. China, France, India, Russia, and the UK each operate a single large/medium-size carrier, with capacity from 30 to 60 fighter jets. Italy operates two light fleet carriers and Spain operates one. Helicopter carriers are operated by Japan (4), France (3), Australia (2), Egypt (2), Brazil (1), South Korea (1), and Thailand (1). Future aircraft carriers are under construction or in planning by Brazil, China, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Allied Command Transformation

Allied Command Transformation (ACT) is a military command of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), formed in 2003 after restructuring.

It was intended to lead military transformation of alliance forces and capabilities, using new concepts such as the NATO Response Force and new doctrines in order to improve the alliance's military effectiveness. Since France rejoined the NATO Military Command Structure in mid-2009, a significant change took place where the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT) became a French officer. The first French Officer to serve as SACT was French Air Force General, Stephane Abrial (2009–2012).

Commander-in-Chief Fleet

The Commander-in-Chief Fleet (CINCFLEET) was the Admiral responsible for the operation, resourcing and training of the ships, submarines and aircraft, and personnel, of the British Royal Navy from 1971 until April 2012. The post was subordinate to the First Sea Lord, the professional head of the Naval Service. In April 2012, the role was downgraded from admiral to three-star vice admiral. The replacement post was re-designated Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff.

George Darby

Vice Admiral George Darby (c.1720 – 1790) was a Royal Navy officer. He commanded HMS Norwich at the capture of Martinique in 1762 during the Seven Years' War. He went on to command the Channel Fleet during the American Revolutionary War and later in that war served as First Naval Lord when he commanded the force that relieved Gibraltar from its siege by the Spanish in April 1781.

George Zambellas

Admiral Sir George Michael Zambellas, (born 4 April 1958) is a retired Royal Navy officer. He was the First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from April 2013 until he handed over duties to Admiral Sir Philip Jones in April 2016.

In his early career he served as a helicopter pilot with 814 Naval Air Squadron, 829 Naval Air Squadron and then 815 Naval Air Squadron. As captain of HMS Chatham he was deployed as part of Operation Palliser off Sierra Leone, for which he received the Distinguished Service Cross in 2001. He went on to be Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff in early 2012.

HMS Astute (S119)

HMS Astute is an operational nuclear-powered submarine in the Royal Navy, the lead ship of her class. Astute is the second submarine of the Royal Navy to be named after the characteristic of shrewdness and discernment—the first was the World War II-era Amphion-class Astute. She was the largest attack submarine in Royal Navy history when commissioned.

HMS London (F95)

HMS London was a Type 22 frigate of the Royal Navy, originally named Bloodhound but renamed London at the request of the Lord Mayor of London.

She was flagship of the Royal Navy task force during the First Gulf War in 1991.

She was decommissioned on 14 January 1999 and sold to the Romanian Navy on 14 January 2003, being commissioned as Regina Maria on 21 April 2005 after Queen Marie of Romania, wife of King Ferdinand I of Romania. Before the sale the Sea Wolf and Exocet missile systems were removed, and the only armament the ship had when delivered was two 30mm BMARC cannons and two three-tube ASW torpedo launchers. The Romanian Navy had a 76mm Oto-Melera gun system fitted forward where the Exocets had been mounted, but no missile systems, or additional weapons have been fitted. There has since been some controversy over the price at which Romania purchased the ship.

HMS Splendid (S106)

HMS Splendid was a Royal Navy nuclear-powered fleet submarine of the Swiftsure class. From her launch in 1979 she took part in many conflicts involving British forces around the globe and was decommissioned in 2004.

Henry Leach

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Conyers Leach, (18 November 1923 – 26 April 2011) was a Royal Navy officer who, as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff during the early 1980s, was instrumental in convincing British prime minister Margaret Thatcher that retaking the Falkland Islands from Argentina was feasible. On account of the determination he showed in the matter, journalist and political commentator Andrew Marr described him as Thatcher's "knight in shining gold braid".

Henry Priestman (Royal Navy officer)

Captain Henry Priestman (ca. 1647 - 20 August 1712) was a Royal Navy officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1695 to 1698.

James Burnell-Nugent

Admiral Sir James Michael Burnell-Nugent, (born 20 November 1949) is a retired Royal Navy officer who served as Commander-in-Chief Fleet from 2005 to 2007.

John Chicheley

Rear Admiral Sir John Chicheley (c. 1640 – 20 March 1691) was a Royal Navy officer. He commanded a squadron at the Battle of Schooneveld in June 1673 and the Battle of Texel in August 1673 during the Franco-Dutch War. He went on to be Commissioner of the Ordnance and then Senior Naval Lord. He was also a Member of Parliament.

Jonathon Band

Admiral Sir Jonathon Band (born 2 February 1950) is a retired Royal Navy officer who was the First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from 2006 to 2009. Before serving as First Sea Lord he was Commander-in-Chief Fleet. Since becoming First Sea Lord, Band had been a firm advocate of the creation of new ships to meet new threats and maintain the status of the Royal Navy as one of the world's leading naval forces.

London Nautical School

The London Nautical School is a foundation school for boys and a coeducational sixth form, located in the Blackfriars area of the London Borough of Lambeth, England. The school is celebrated its 100 years of existence in 2015. In May 2015 the school received a Good judgement from Ofsted.

The school retains a strong nautical and maritime tradition with boys and girls experiencing a range of water sports. A large number of pupils are involved with the sea cadets and some continue into both the Royal and Merchant Navy.

The school is renowned for its strong sporting pedigree, especially in football with a large number of former pupils becoming professionals in the UK and in Europe, and four achieving international caps for England schoolboy representative teams in recent years. In addition others have achieved international recognition in Athletics, Swimming, and Boxing.

A very high percentage of pupils embark on sports related degrees after leaving school in the UK and with scholarships to USA universities.

Robert Man

Admiral Robert Man (died 1783) was a Royal Navy officer. He commanded the third-rate HMS Lancaster at the Siege of Louisbourg in June 1758 during the French and Indian War. He went on to become commander-in-chief of the Leeward Islands Station, then Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and finally First Naval Lord.

Tony Radakin

Admiral Anthony David Radakin, (born 10 November 1965) is a senior Royal Navy officer. He has served as First Sea Lord, the professional head of the Naval Service, since June 2019. He was Chief of Staff, Joint Forces Command from 2016 to 2018, and the Second Sea Lord and Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff from 2018 to 2019.

Trevor Soar

Admiral Sir Trevor Alan Soar, (born 21 March 1957) is a retired Royal Navy officer who served as Commander-in-Chief Fleet from 2009 to 2012.

Vere Beauclerk, 1st Baron Vere

Admiral Vere Beauclerk, 1st Baron Vere (14 July 1699 – 21 October 1781), known as Lord Vere Beauclerk until 1750, was a Royal Navy officer, British peer and politician who sat in the House of Commons for 24 years from 1726 to 1750. After serving various ships in the Mediterranean and then commanding the third-rate HMS Hampton Court, he joined the Board of Admiralty, ultimately serving as Senior Naval Lord.

Worthing College

Worthing College is a further education college.

The College is situated in Broadwater, in the town of Worthing on the south coast of England.

Senior Naval Lords (1689–1771)
First Naval Lords (1771–1904)
First Sea Lords (1904–present)

Languages

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