Марк Матвеевич Антокольский
|Born||October 21, 1843|
|Died||June 26, 1902 (aged 58)|
|Education||Member Academy of Arts (1871)|
Professor by rank (1880)
Full Member Academy of Arts (1893)
|Alma mater||Imperial Academy of Arts|
Mordukh Matysovich Antokolsky was born in Vilnius (Antokol city district), Lithuania (at the time part of the Russian Empire). He studied in the Imperial Academy of Arts (1862–68) at St. Petersburg. He first began with Jewish themes, statues: "Jewish Tailor", "Nathan The Wise", "Inquisition's Attack against Jews", "The Talmudic Debate".
From 1868–1870, Mark Antokolsky lived in Berlin. His statue of Ivan the Terrible (1870) was purchased for the Hermitage by Emperor Alexander II of Russia. The latter approved his work and awarded the sculptor the title of Academic. Antokolsky believed that sculpture was a social and humane ideal. In order to improve his failing health, he moved to the Italian resorts in 1871 and settled in Paris six years later.
Every year Antokolsky would come back to his native town of Vilnius during his summer holidays. Namely here he created his first significant work, high relief "A Jewish Tailor", during his summer holidays of 1864.
The work of the young sculptor provoked debate in the Academy in Petersburg. On 28 October 1864, the Council of the Academy decided to award Antokolski with the Small Silver Medal for the "Tailor" by the majority of votes.
While in Vilnius the following year, Antokolski created another high relief - "A Stingy Man," which is sometimes referred to as "A Stingy Jew Counting his Coins". The artist was born into a poor family and saw how his father's financial situation improved. The sculpture might have reflected Antokolski's feelings towards his native town of Vilnius, and firstly to his father. This work as well as the first sculpture was positively evaluated by Vasily Stasov who saw "the features of the simple truth, the things that, previously, nobody dared to think about in sculpture" in the works of the artist. In 1865, the high relief "Stingy Man" was awarded the Grand Silver Medal of the Academy. In later years the sculptor continued working on Jewish themes, which developed into complex, yet unfinished compositions: "Talmud Dispute" (1866–1868) and "Inquisition Attacks the Jews" (1868–1869). The "Inquisition" was M. Antokolski's last work on the Jewish topic in his student years.
According to the review of the Art Academy, Antokolsky was granted personal name of honorary citizen "for wonderful knowledge of art" on 7 April 1870. This fact was also entered into an archival record. Moreover, an inscription remained that Morduchas was excluded from the revision register of Antakalnis Jewish community as a person awarded the name of an honorary citizen.
In 1871 Antokolsky started his first "Russian" sculpture, "Ivan the Terrible", which made an enormous impression on all valuators and connoisseurs of art. When Emperor Alexander II saw the sculpture he asked to make its bronze copy and allocated the sculptor advance payment of 4,000 roubles. Pavel Tretyakov ordered a marble copy for his gallery. The funds received enabled the artist to resolve his personal problems. In 1871 (in Vilnius) Antokolski met Jelena (Gene), daughter of a rich Vilnius merchant Judelis Giršovičius Apatovas. The two married on 6 September 1872.
Antokolsky used 4,000 rubles for the "Ivan the Terrible" to buy half of a big house in Vilnius, the other part of which had previously belonged to his wife. In 1876, upon his regular visits to Vilnius, Antokolsky rebuilt the house. After 1876, Antokolsky was a rare visitor to his native town due to illnesses, work, and exhibitions in Paris and Italy, which took almost all of his time. However, the artist did not break his links with Jewish life. Concern over his nation urged Antokolsky to return to his work "Inquisition Attacks the Jews", started 30 years before in Vilnius.
In Rome, Antokolsky completed the statue of Peter the Great for Peterhof Palace in 1872, with its copies for Taganrog and Archangelsk. In 1878 Antokolski exhibited most of his works at the Paris Universal exposition, and received the Grand Prize. In 1880, the personal exhibition of the artist was held in Saint Petersburg, and he was given the rank of professor. Antokolsky left for Paris the same year, and stayed in the French capital until the end of his life, apart from periods on Lake Maggiore, in northern Italy. He realised here the following works: "Spinoza" (1881), "Mephistopheles" (1884), "Yaroslav the Wise" (1889), "Nestor the Chronicler" (1889) and "Yermak Timofeevich" (1891). Several of his small-size sculptures are in the European Art collection of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
He had also planned a monument to Catherine II in Vilnius. However, with the chronic stomach disease getting more severe, the artist suddenly died on 9 July (27 June according to the old calendar) in Frankfurt (Germany). The last work was completed by I. Ginzburg after the sculptor's death. The monument has not survived.
Antokolski was buried in St. Petersburg. The train with a special carriage went via Vilnius where he was waited for. Antokolski was buried on 18 (6 according to the old calendar) July 1902 in the Jewish part of Preobrazhenskoye Cemetery in St. Petersburg. His grave and tombstone can still be found there, not far from the entrance gate, but were not well maintained and cared for at least up to 1990s.
Abramtsevo (Russian: Абра́мцево) is an estate located north of Moscow, in the proximity of Khotkovo, that became a center for the Slavophile movement and artistic activity in the 19th century. The estate is located in the selo of the same name, in Sergiyevo-Posadsky District of Moscow Oblast.Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk (Russian: Арха́нгельск, IPA: [ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk]), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea. The city spreads for over 40 kilometers (25 mi) along the banks of the river and numerous islands of its delta. Arkhangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval and early modern Russia until 1703. A 1,133-kilometer-long (704 mi) railway runs from Arkhangelsk to Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl, and air travel is served by the Talagi Airport and a smaller Vaskovo Airport. As of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 348,783, down from 356,051 recorded in the 2002 Census, and further down from 415,921 recorded in the 1989 Census.Boris Schatz
Boris Schatz (Hebrew: בוריס שץ; 23 December 1866 – 23 March 1932) was a Lithuanian Jewish artist and sculptor who settled in Palestine. Schatz, who became known as the "father of Israeli art," founded the Bezalel School in Jerusalem. After Schatz died, part of his art collection, including a famous self portrait by Dutch Master Jozef Israels, given to him by the artist, eventually became the nucleus of the Israel Museum.Girl with Peaches
Girl with Peaches (Russian: Девочка с персиками, Devochka s Persikami) is an 1887 painting by the Russian painter Valentin Serov.It is considered to be one of Serov's greatest works and one of his most famous. Serov's friend and biographer, Russian art historian Igor Grabar acclaimed it as "the masterpiece of Russian painting". According to the book 1000 Drawings of Genius, although the style of the painting (and Serov's early style in general) "has much in common with the French Impressionists, [Serov] did not become acquainted with their work until after he had painted [it]".Isaac Itkind
Isaac Yakovlevich Itkind [app. 1871, Smarhon' (Smorgonie), near Vilnius, Russian Empire, present-day Belarus - February 14, 1969, Alma-Ata (present-day Almaty, Kazakhstan)] was a distinguished Russian and Soviet sculptor from Lithuanian Jewish origin. A self-taught primitivist and a rabbi, only at age of 39 did he start his studies in art in Vilno (now Vilnius), and at age of 42 years, his studies in sculpture with famous Russian sculptor Sergei Volnukhin at the School of Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow. Itkind's favorite style was wooden sculptures of people. The uniqueness of Itkind's creativity was in his genius to “see a soul in the wooden slob” as he often relayed to his creations. "To Isaac Itkind it is important that his sculptures should think and should stimulate thought". Famous artist, Mark Chagall, a personal friend of Itkind, once said: “ Itkind is the Van Gogh of sculpture”.After the Soviet revolution, the tragic events of the Great Purge threw Itkind's life into oblivion - and his masterpieces followed for decades. He was falsely declared dead in 1937. Itkind's long and unique life – full of tragic events – nourished his genius creativity. (Honored Artist of the Kazakh SSR (1968), member of the Union of Artists of the USSR).Isaak Asknaziy
Isaak L'vovich Asknaziy (Russian: Исаак Львович Аскназий; 16 January 1856, Drissa — 1902, Moscow) was a Jewish Russian painter in the Academic style, known primarily for his historical and Biblical scenes.Konstantin Korovin
Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin (Russian: Константи́н Алексе́евич Коро́вин, first name often spelled Constantin; 5 December [O.S. 23 November] 1861 – 11 September 1939) was a leading Russian Impressionist painter.List of Jews born in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union
This List of Jews contains individuals who, in accordance with Wikipedia's verifiability and no original research policies, have been identified as Jews by reliable sources.The following is a list of Jews born in the territory of the former Russian Empire. It is geographically defined, so it also includes people born after the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1922 and its successor the Soviet Union in 1991.
A few years before The Holocaust, the Jewish population of the Soviet Union (excluding Western Ukraine and the Baltic states that were not part of the Soviet Union then) stood at over 5 million, most of whom were Ashkenazic as opposed to Sephardic, with some Karaite minorities. It is estimated that more than half died directly as a result of the Shoah. Many more emigrated to Israel, USA, Argentina, and Germany. Russia and Ukraine still have among the larger Jewish populations in the world today (440,000 in Russia; 300,000 in Ukraine).List of people from Vilnius
The following is a list of notable people from Lithuania's capital city of Vilnius (historically known by the names of Vilna/Wilna/Wilno). It includes both the people born there and people born elsewhere but otherwise connected to it.Mephistopheles
Mephistopheles (, German pronunciation: [mefɪˈstoːfɛlɛs]; also Mephistophilus, Mephostopheles, Mephistophilis, Mephisto, Mephastophilis, and other variants) is a demon featured in German folklore. He originally appeared in literature as the demon in the Faust legend, and he has since appeared in other works as a stock character (see: Mephistopheles in popular culture).Nino Cesarini
Antonio Cesarini (September 30, 1889 – October 25, 1943), better known by the diminutive name Nino, was a model for several artists, such as the photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow, painters Paul Hoecker and Umberto Brunelleschi and sculptor Francesco Jerace during his youth. In his adulthood he modelled for Vincenzo Gemito, who presented him as a prototype of homoerotic masculine beauty. He was also known for his relationship with baron Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen. His life was novelized by the French writer Roger Peyrefitte in his work The Exile of Capri (L'exilé de Capri) in 1959.Paper Brigade
The Paper Brigade was the name given to a group of residents of the Vilna Ghetto who hid a large cache of Jewish cultural items from YIVO (the Yiddish Scientific Institute), saving them from destruction or theft by Nazi Germany. Established in 1942 and led by Abraham Sutzkever and Shmerke Kaczerginski, the group smuggled books, paintings and sculptures past Nazi guards and hid them in various locations in and around the Ghetto. After the Ghetto's liquidation, surviving members of the group fled to join the Jewish partisans, eventually returning to Vilna following its liberation by Soviet forces. Recovered works were used to establish the Vilna Jewish Museum and then smuggled to the United States, where YIVO had re-established itself during the 1940s. Caches of hidden material continued to be discovered in Vilna into the early 1990s. Despite losses during both the Nazi and Soviet eras, 30–40 percent of the YIVO archive was preserved, which now represents "the largest collection of material about Jewish life in Eastern Europe that exists in the world".Pavel Antokolsky
Pavel Grigoryevich Antokolsky (Russian: Па́вел Григо́рьевич Антоко́льский, IPA: [ˈpavʲɪl ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɐntɐˈkolʲskʲɪj] (listen); 1 July 1896, St. Petersburg, Russia – 9 October 1978, Moscow, USSR) was a Russian poet and theatre director. His father was a nephew of sculptor Mark Antokolsky.
In the 1930s, Antokolsky worked as a director in the Vakhtangov Theatre in Moscow. During World War II, he ran a front theatre and was awarded a Stalin Prize for a long poem about the Germans killing his son. After the war, he managed a theatre in Tomsk. His poem, "All we who in his name..." was written in 1956, the year of Nikita Khrushchev's "secret speech" condemning Stalinism, and widely circulated among student groups in the 1950s.
Among other works, Pavel Antokolsky translated in Russian Le Dernier jour d'un condamne and Le roi s'amuse, by Victor Hugo.Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] (listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city).
Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May [O.S. 16 May] 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, which is about 625 km (388 miles) to the south-east.
Saint Petersburg is often considered Russia's cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg.Saint Sampson's Cathedral
St Sampson's Cathedral (Сампсониевский собор) is the oldest church in St. Petersburg. It stands on the northern outskirts of the city and gives its name to Sampsonievsky Avenue. Rumor has it that it was in St. Sampson's Cathedral that Catherine II of Russia secretly married Grigory Potemkin in 1774.The original wooden church was built in 1710 to honor Sampson the Hospitable. It was on the feast day of that saint that Peter the Great defeated Charles XII of Sweden in the Battle of Poltava. The existing church was built under Empress Anna to a design by Pietro Antonio Trezzini. It was consecrated in 1740. The tent-like belltower was built at a later date. The original church had only one dome; the four subsidiary domes were added in 1761.
The church was considerably renovated as part of the battle's bicentennial celebrations. A Rastrelliesque chapel was constructed on the grounds, and Peter I's address to his soldiers at Poltava was inscribed on the wall. It was at that time that the church was elevated to cathedral status. The parish was disbanded by the Soviets in the 1930s, and the building was converted into a warehouse. It was restored in the late 1970s and reopened in 2000 as a museum attached to St. Isaac's Cathedral.
The grave yard which surrounds the church has been filled for centuries. Some of the city's first foreign architects, including Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond and Domenico Trezzini, were buried there. The tomb of Artemy Volynsky and Pyotr Yeropkin (both executed exactly 31 years after the Poltava victory) is by Alexander Opekushin (1885). The statue of Peter the Great in front of the cathedral was designed by Mark Antokolsky. It was removed by the Soviets and restored in 2003 as part of the city's tercentenary celebrations.
On 5 February 2017 the cathedral was transferred from the state to the Russian Orthodox Church at a ceremony in the cathedral. During the ceremony, which started with Divine Liturgy, the director of the Museum Complex of St. Isaac's Cathedral, which managed St. Sampson's Cathedral, officially handed the keys of the cathedral to Archimandrite Seraphim, noting that it was "with a feeling of deep satisfaction". The Archimandrite called the transfer a historic day and said it was the beginning of a new page in the cathedral's history, and he thanked the museum complex for preserving the cathedral.Savva Mamontov
Savva Ivanovich Mamontov (Russian: Са́вва Ива́нович Ма́монтов, IPA: [ˈsavə ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ˈmaməntəf]; 3 October (15 October N.S.), Yalutorovsk – 6 April 1918, Moscow) was a Russian industrialist, merchant, entrepreneur and patron of the arts.Vyborgsky District, Saint Petersburg
Vyborgsky District (Russian: Выборгский район) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the 18 in Saint Petersburg, Russia.Yermak Monument
Yermak Monument in Novocherkassk (Russian: Памятник Ермаку в Новочеркасске) ― a sculptural work in honor of Yermak Timofeevich, a Cossack Ataman who began Russia's conquest of Siberia. The monument is considered to be an object of cultural heritage of federal importance.