Marion Mahony Griffin (February 14, 1871 – August 10, 1961) was an American architect and artist. She was one of the first licensed female architects in the world, and is considered an original member of the Prairie School. Her work in the United States developed and expanded the American Prairie School. Her work in India and Australia reflected Prairie School ideals of indigenous landscape and materials in the newly formed democracies. The scholar Deborah Wood has stated that Griffin "did the drawings people think when they think Frank Lloyd Wright (one of her collaborating architects)." During her career, she produced some of the best architectural drawing in America and was instrumental in envisioning the design plans for then new capital city of Australia, Canberra.
Marion Mahony Griffin
Mahony Griffin in Sydney, 1930
14 February 1871
|Died||August 10, 1961 (aged 90)|
|Alma mater||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Known for||Prairie School|
|Spouse(s)||Walter Burley Griffin (m. 1911)|
Her family moved to nearby Winnetka in 1880 after the Great Chicago Fire. In her memoir, Mahoney vividly describes her mother carrying her as an infant in a clothes basket, as they escape from the fire. Growing up in Winnetka, she became fascinated by the quickly disappearing landscape as suburban homes filled the area. She was influenced by her first cousin, architect Dwight Perkins, and decided to further her education. She graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) in 1894. She was the second woman to do so, after Sophia Hayden, the designer of the Woman's building at the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. Though highly talented, she sometimes struggled with her place in both society and the field. She was unsure of her ability to complete the thesis required for her bachelor's degree, but her professor, Constant-Désiré Despradelle, pushed her forward.
After graduation, Mahony returned to Chicago, where she became the first woman to be licensed to practice architecture in Illinois. She worked in her cousin's architecture firm, which was located in Steinway Hall at 64 E. Van Buren in downtown Chicago. The space was shared with many other architects, including Robert C. Spencer, Myron Hunt, Webster Tomlinson, Irving Pond and Allen Bartlitt Pond, Adamo Boari, Birch Long and Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1895, Mahony, the first employee hired by Frank Lloyd Wright, went to work designing buildings, furniture, stained glass windows and decorative panels. Her beautiful watercolor renderings of buildings and landscapes became known as a staple of Wright's style, though she was never given credit by the famous architect. Over a century later she would be known as one of the greatest delineators of the architecture field, but during her life her talent was seen as only an extension of the work done by male architects. She was associated with Wright's studio for almost fifteen years and was an important contributor to his reputation, particularly for the influential Wasmuth Portfolio, for which Mahony created more than half of the numerous renderings. Architectural writer Reyner Banham called her the "greatest architectural delineator of her generation." Her rendering of the K. C. DeRhodes House in South Bend, Indiana, was praised by Wright upon its completion and by many critics.
Wright understated the contributions of others of the Prairie School, Mahony included. A clear understanding of Marion Mahony's contribution to the architecture of the Oak Park Studio comes from Wright's son, John Lloyd Wright, who says that William Drummond, Francis Barry Byrne, Walter Burley Griffin, Albert Chase McArthur, Marion Mahony, Isabel Roberts and George Willis were the draftsmen—the five men and two women who each made valuable contributions to Prairie style architecture for which Wright became famous. During this time Mahony designed the Gerald Mahony Residence (1907) in Elkhart, Indiana for her brother and sister-in-law.
When Wright eloped to Europe with Mamah Borthwick Cheney in 1909, he offered the Studio's work to Mahony but she declined. After Wright had gone, Hermann V. von Holst, who had taken on Wright's commissions, hired Mahony with the stipulation that she would have control of design. In this capacity, Mahony was the architect for a number of commissions Wright had abandoned. Two examples were the first (unbuilt) design for Henry Ford's Dearborn mansion, Fair Lane and the Amberg House in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Mahony recommended Walter Burley Griffin to von Holst to develop landscaping for the area surrounding the three houses commissioned from Wright in Decatur, Illinois. Griffin was a fellow architect, a fellow ex-employee of Wright, and a leading member of the Prairie School of architecture. Mahony and Griffin worked on the Decatur project before their marriage; afterwards, Mahony worked in Griffin's practice. A Walter Burley Griffin/Marion Mahony designed development that is home to an outstanding collection of Prairie School dwellings, Rock Crest – Rock Glen in Mason City, Iowa, is seen as their most dramatic American design development of the decade. It is the largest collection of Prairie Style homes surrounding a natural setting.
Mahony and Griffin married in 1911, a partnership that lasted 26 years. Mahony's watercolor perspectives of Griffins's design for Canberra, the new Australian capital, were instrumental in securing first prize in the international competition for the plan of the city. In 1914 the couple moved to Australia to oversee the building of Canberra. Mahony managed the Sydney office and was responsible for the design of their private commissions. In Australia, Mahony and Griffin were introduced to Anthroposophy and the ideas of Rudolf Steiner which they embraced enthusiastically, and in Sydney they joined the Anthroposophy Society. In Australia, they pioneered the Knitlock construction method, inexactly emulated by Wright in his California textile block houses of the 1920s.
Later the Griffins practiced in India and, in less than a year, Mahony oversaw the design of over one hundred Prairie School influenced buildings there. Walter Griffin died in India in 1937 of peritonitis following a cholecystectomy. Mahony then completed their work and returned to Australia. Mahony and Griffin spread the Prairie Style to two continents, far from its origins. She credited Louis Sullivan as the impetus for the Prairie School philosophy. She thought Wright's habit of taking credit for the movement explained its early death, in the United States.
Marion Mahony Griffin died in Chicago, aged 90. She was in her late 60's when she returned to the United States and afterward was largely retired from her architectural career. "The one time she addressed the Illinois Society of Architects, she made no mention of her work, instead lectured the crowd on anthroposophy, a philosophy of spiritual knowledge developed by Rudolf Steiner."
She is buried in Graceland Cemetery, Irving Park Road and Clark Street, Chicago, with other noted architects: David Adler, Louis Sullivan, Daniel H. Burnham, Bruce Goff, William Holabird, Howard Van Doren Shaw and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
In 2015, the beach at Jarvis Avenue in Rogers Park, Chicago was named in Mahony Griffin's honor. When she returned to the United States in 1939, after her husband's death, she lived near the beach. The Australian Counsel General, Roger Price, attended the beach's dedication for the woman who was instrumental in the design the Australian capital.
In the United States there are a few surviving works attributed to Mahony. There is a small mural in George B. Armstrong elementary school in Chicago attributed to Mahony, and several homes in Decatur.
The Australian Institute of Architects, NSW Chapter, honors her work with an annual award, the Marion Mahony Griffin Prize, for a distinctive body of work by a female architect for architectural education, journalism, research, theory, professional practice or built architectural work..
The Australian Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional body for architects in Australia.
The Australian Institute of Architects is the peak body for the Australian architectural profession, representing almost 11,000 members, and works to improve the Australian built environment by promoting quality, responsible, sustainable design.Avondale Heights, Victoria
Avondale Heights is a suburb 12 km north-west of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its local government area is the City of Moonee Valley. At the 2016 Census, Avondale Heights had a population of 11,633.Avondale Heights is located on a plateau bounded by a large bend of the Maribyrnong River to the east, south, and west, and to the north by Buckley Street.
The suburb derives its name from the Avondale Estate. Originally known as Maribyrnong West, when the Council undertook to change the name, postal authorities drew attention to the existence of Avondale in Queensland. The suburb was therefore called Avondale Heights to distinguish it from the Queensland town.
Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin prepared plans for part of the area: Milleara Estate in the north (also known as City View) in the 1920s. One objective of their design was to remake suburbia and society. They did this through creating internal gardens where communities could both physical and socially bind together. They imagined children's playgrounds, social centres, nature reserves and links with an intricate system of pedestrian ways. Interviewed in Melbourne in 1913, Griffin spoke of internal reserves as;
'…favourite playgrounds. Here all the children from the different houses can play together, where their mothers can see them, and where they are safe from the motor traffic in the streets.' The streets are designed in a curvilinear way typical of the Griffin's design, often following the topography of the land.
There is only one main road - Military Road which runs from Canning Street and Maribyrnong Road, then becoming Milleara Road. There are about 40 shops at the Canning Street end (including Raglan street) and 20 at the other end, near the St Martin De Porres Primary School.Beverly Garlick
Beverly Garlick (born 1944) is an Australian architect. In 2005, Garlick won the Marion Mahony Griffin Prize from the Royal Australian Institute of Architects.Garlick completed a bachelor of architecture degree at the University of Melbourne. In 1984, Garlick won the RAIA New South Wales Merit Award for the Petersham College of TAFE in Leichhardt, New South Wales, the first woman to win the award in the non-residential category.Capitol Theatre, Melbourne
The Capitol Theatre is a single screen cinema located on Swanston Street in Melbourne, Australia (opposite the Melbourne Town Hall). The theatre, part of the Capitol House building, was opened in 1924, and is renowned for its geometric plaster ceiling. The theatre was renovated in the 1960s to reduce its size and convert the stalls area into a shopping arcade.
After a period of inactivity in the early 1990s, the Capitol Theatre was purchased in May 1999 by Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University). It is currently used for university lectures and cultural events such as film and comedy festivals.Caroline Pidcock
Caroline Pidcock is an award winning Australian architect and a prominent advocate for sustainable development, based in Sydney, New South Wales.Castlecrag, New South Wales
Castlecrag is a suburb on the lower North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 8 kilometres north of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Willoughby.
Castlecrag is a suburb of historical significance that is bounded to the north, east and south by Middle Harbour and to the west by Eastern Valley Way. Castlecrag shares its postcode, 2068, with the surrounding suburbs of Willoughby, Middle Cove and North Willoughby.Como Orchards Summer Colony One-Room Cottage
Como Orchards Club, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1909 and located near Darby, Montana, was part of a land development scheme (Como Orchards) inspired by the western railroad expansion.
By 1909 three rail lines ran to Missoula, Montana, and when the Northern Pacific Railway connected a spur south to the Bitterroot Valley, transportation of people and products became increasingly easy. The establishment of the Bitter Root irrigation district and construction of the Lake Como Dam and the Big Ditch Canal, both financed by the Chicago investor W. I Moody and supervised by F. D. Nichols, enabled promoters to attract new investors (particularly college professors from the University of Chicago and intellectuals) with hopes of establishing a huge apple-growing industry in the valley.
Wright was asked to design the master plan, clubhouse, land office building, and cottages, while Marion Mahony Griffin and William Eugene Drummond supervised the project. At least fifty-three cottages were originally planned around the clubhouse (which had a two-story lounge and a large dining room with vast, open porches and three large stone fireplaces) but only twelve were constructed. The small frame structures had stone fireplaces but were built cheaply as seasonal, camp-like housing, with no central heat and pine blocks instead of foundations. The two-bedroom cottages had no kitchen space, while the three-bedroom versions had a kitchen and a porch.
Unpredictable weather and enormous shipping problems caused the project to fail. Wright lost money when the bank foreclosed in 1916. While several cottages stood until the late 1930s, others were gradually torn down. The clubhouse was altered, whitewashed, and used to house workers and store hog feed. In 1945 the boards were taken to build a barn. Now only the abandoned land office building and one three-bedroom cottage remain.Duncan House, Castlecrag
Duncan House is an heritage-listed residence located at 8 The Barbette, Castlecrag, City of Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin. It is also known as Duncan House Number 2. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.Eaglemont, Victoria
Eaglemont is an established suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 10 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Banyule. At the 2016 Census, Eaglemont had a population of 3,873.
Formerly known as Mount Eagle, Eaglemont is a picturesque enclave situated between Ivanhoe East and Heidelberg. The heritage-laden garden suburb was designed by Walter Burley Griffin, playing home to many of Australia's most famous artists at the Heidelberg School of Art.
Walking distance to first class private schools, the Yarra River, parks, walking trails, shopping centers and a public golf course, the median house prices in Eaglemont remain amongst the highest in Melbourne, with the market for properties notoriously tough to break and few properties up for sale.Fishwick House
The Fishwick House is an heritage-listed private residence located at 15 The Citadel, Castlecrag, City of Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin and built during 1929. It is also known as The Fishwick House and Fyshwick House. The property is privately owned. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 15 December 2006.Griffith, New South Wales
is a major regional city in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area that is located in the north-western part of the Riverina region of New South Wales, known commonly as the food bowl of Australia. It is also the seat of the City of Griffith local government area. Like the Australian capital, Canberra, and the nearby town of Leeton, Griffith was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin. Griffith was named after Arthur Hill Griffith, the first New South Wales Minister of Public Works. Griffith was proclaimed a city in 1987, and had a population of 19,540 in 2015.It can be accessed by road from Sydney and Canberra via the Hume Highway and the Burley Griffin Way and from Melbourne, Victoria, via the Newell Highway and either by using the Kidman Way or the Irrigation Way. Griffith can be accessed from other places like Adelaide, Orange, New South Wales, and Bathurst through the Mid-Western Highway and the Rankins Springs road from Rankins Springs and the Kidman Way from Goolgowi.Helen Lochhead
Professor Helen Lochhead is an Australian architect, urbanist and Dean of the Faculty of Built Environment at UNSW Sydney.James Weirick
Professor James Weirick is an Australian academic who is the Director of the Master of Urban Development and Design (MUDD) program at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia.
Professor Weirick is well known as a world authority on Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, the architects who won the international competition to design the masterplan for Australia's capital, Canberra.
Prior to joining UNSW in 1991, Weirick was Head of Landscape Architecture at RMIT University (1988–91). He held academic positions at RMIT from 1987-1993. He was a Lecturer in Landscape Architecture at Canberra College of Advanced Education (1982–1986). He has had various consultancies in Sydney, Melbourne and Canberra. Weirick holds a Master of Landscape Architecture from Harvard University.List of beaches in Chicago
The beaches in Chicago are an extensive network of waterfront recreational areas operated by the Chicago Park District. The Chicago metropolitan waterfront includes parts of the Lake Michigan shores as well as parts of the banks of the Chicago, Des Plaines, Calumet, Fox, and DuPage Rivers and their tributaries. The waterfront also includes the Illinois and Michigan Canal and the Sanitary and Ship Canal. Historically, the waterfront has been used for commerce, industry, and leisure. Leisure, such as fishing, swimming, hunting, walking and boating, was much more prevalent throughout the river sections of the waterfront system early in the 19th century before industrial uses altered the landscape. By midcentury, much leisure shifted to Lake Michigan as a result of industrial influence. The first City of Chicago Public Beach opened in Lincoln Park in 1895. Today, the entire 28 miles (45 km) Chicago lakefront shoreline is man-made, and primarily used as parkland. There are twenty-four beaches in Chicago along the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan.Typically, Chicago beaches take the name of the east-west street that runs perpendicular to the lake at each beach's location.Lois Gottlieb
Lois Davidson Gottlieb (November 13, 1926) is an American architect best known for residential design. She was born in San Francisco, California and later attended Stanford University from 1944 to 1947, and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts Degree. She was a graduate student at Harvard University's School of Design from 1949 to 1950.She began her career working for Charles Warren Callister in Tiburon, California.
She was an apprentice to Frank Lloyd Wright as a part of the Taliesin Fellowship in Scottsdale, Arizona in 1948-1949, where Wright's winter home and the western counterpart to Taliesin East in Spring Green, Wisconsin was located. She is one of the six women in architecture featured in the Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation movie "A Woman is a Fellow Here". The other women featured included Marion Mahony Griffin, Eleanore Pettersen, Jane Duncombe, Isabel Roberts, and Read Weber.
She was a lecturer at Alameda State College in Hayward, California from 1962 to 1964, and at the University of California Extension in Riverside from 1966 to 1972.Her first solo project was the Val Goeschen house, a one-room unit with 576 square feet in Inverness, California.Mahony
Mahony may refer to :
Bertha Mahony (1882–1969), children’s literature publisher
Chris Mahony (born 1981) New Zealand rugby union player
Dennis Mahony (1821–1879), Irish-American journalist and politician
Eoghan Mahony, American television writer and producer
Francis Sylvester Mahony (1804–1866), also known as Father Prout, Irish humorist
Frank Mahony (public servant) (1915–2000), Australian public servant and Director-General of Security
Frank P. Mahony (1862–1916), Australian artist and member of the Dawn and Dusk Club
Harold Mahony (1867–1905), Irish tennis player
Jerry Mahony (born 1956), British auto racing driver
John Keefer Mahony (1911-1990), Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross
Junior Mahony, Irish hurler
Leo Halpin Mahony (born 1931), American architect
Louise Mahony, Irish camogie player
Marion Mahony Griffin (1871–1961), American architect and artist
Pauric Mahony (born 1992), Irish hurler
Philip Mahony (politician) (1897–1972), Irish politician
Philip Mahony (hurler) (born 1991), Irish hurler
Roger Mahony (born 1936), American cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
Tom Mahony, Irish hurler
William Mahony (Australian politician) (1877–1962)
William Mahony (Bishop) (1919-1994), Irish Bishop active in Africa
William Mahony (swimmer) (born 1949), Canadian swimmerRock Crest–Rock Glen Historic District
The Rock Crest–Rock Glen Historic District is a nationally recognized historic district located in Mason City, Iowa, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. At the time of its nomination it contained 10 resources, which included eight contributing buildings, one contributing site, and one non-contributing building. All of the buildings are houses designed in the Prairie School style, and are a part of a planned development. Joshua Melson, a local developer, bought the property along Willow Creek between 1902 and 1908. Initially there were only going to be 10 houses built, but the number grew to 16. While only half the houses planned were actually constructed, it is still the largest cluster of Prairie School houses in the country. The one non-contributing house is the 1959 McNider House, a Modern movement structure that was built where one of the planned houses was to be built, but never was. The architects who contributed to the district include Walter Burley Griffin, who provided the initial plan for the development; Barry Byrne, who took over from Griffin; Marion Mahony Griffin, a qualified architect who had worked in Frank Lloyd Wright's office, and who was Walter Griffin's wife; and Einar Broaten. Frank Lloyd Wright had a design that was never built here. The plans were used to build the Isabel Roberts House in River Forest, Illinois instead.The mill was built in 1870, and it was the second mill built in Mason City. When the Rock Crest–Rock Glen plans were finalized, the mill was dismantled and the stone foundations maintained to house a hydroelectric station for the development. The station was never built. Other plans included having them used as a pier support for a bridge across Willow Creek, and for a small summer house. Those plans also were never executed.Walter Burley Griffin
Walter Burley Griffin (November 24, 1876 – February 11, 1937) was an American architect and landscape architect. He is known for designing Canberra, Australia's capital city. He has been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, the carport and an innovative use of reinforced concrete.
Influenced by the Chicago-based Prairie School, Griffin developed a unique modern style. He worked in partnership with his wife Marion Mahony Griffin. In 28 years they designed over 350 buildings, landscape and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors, furniture and other household items.Wasmuth Portfolio
The Wasmuth portfolio (1910) is a two-volume folio of 100 lithographs of the work of the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959).
Titled Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright, it was published in Germany in 1911 by the Berlin publisher Ernst Wasmuth, with an accompanying monograph by Wright. It contained plans and perspectives (in linework only) of buildings from 1893–1909. It was the first publication of any of Wright's work to appear anywhere in the world, as Wright had not published any of his work in his twenty previous years of activity in the United States.
The portfolio is significant as a link between Wright's pioneering American architecture, and the first generation of modernist architects in Europe. Wright toured Europe for a year from October 1909 through October 1910, partly to support the publication of the portfolio, but also to experience first-hand a great deal of European architectural history.
Wright's early influence in northern Europe is unquestionable: Le Corbusier is known to have had and shared a copy, Czech architect Antonin Raymond and Austrian architects Rudolf Schindler and Richard Neutra all re-located to the United States in hopes of working for Wright, and one look at Willem Marinus Dudok's 1924 Hilversum Town Hall betrays its origins. At the time of the portfolio's publication, three major influential architects of the twentieth century (Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius) were all working essentially as apprentices in the atelier of Peter Behrens in Berlin, where it has been said that work stopped for the day when the portfolio arrived. If this story is true, it reveals the magnitude of the immediate impact of Wright's architecture in European circles, since Behrens could have conceivably received a copy of the Wasmuth portfolio merely days or weeks after its publication.
Wright would never admit that the exchange worked both ways, always claiming that he took nothing from his year in Europe, but the work of Wright scholar Anthony Alofsin suggests that Wright was heavily influenced by the work of the Vienna Secession. In turn, the Dutch De Stijl movement follows Wright's designs by just a few years. De Stijl's major contributors credit Wright with some influence.
Approximately half of the images in the Wasmuth Portfolio are believed to be reworking of renderings by the architect and one-time Wright assistant Marion Mahony Griffin, whose visual style has a lot to do with the publication's success.As of 2009, the Portfolio is in print as Drawings and Plans of Frank Lloyd Wright: The Early Period (1893–1909).