The historical neighbourhood dates from the 18th century, when local nobleman Eustachy Potocki married Maria Kątska and received the parcel of land as part of Kątska's dowry. He established a jurydyka and named the town Maryenstadt after his wife, adding the German suffix stadt to please the Saxon king of Poland. After World War II, the spelling "Mariensztat" was adopted, which has the same pronunciation in Polish as Marienstadt has in German.
The neighbourhood was razed to the ground during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, with only a few burnt out shells of buildings remaining. Reconstruction work began in 1948, involving a complete redesign of the street plan and architectural appearance of the area. Mariensztat became a model housing project under Poland's new communist and socialist authorities, and was the first part of the city to be completed in their ongoing reconstruction of Warsaw. The neighbourhood was featured in a 1953 film Adventure in Marienstadt.
Mariensztat is one of the smallest districts of Warsaw. Currently, almost all the housing was built in 1948-1949. Architects Zygmunt Stępiński and Józef Sigalin designed the post war buildings so as to evoke in a loose way the small-town buildings of 18th century Praga. The façades of some homes were partially maintained.
This was the first Warsaw housing estate built after World War II on a spot completely destroyed in the Warsaw Uprising. Much of the rebuild, built with bricks from demolition in Warsaw. The Mariensztacki Hotel is one of Warsaw's oldest public bars.
The etymology of the name comes from the German language word Marienstadt, which means "city of Mary". As Mariensztat was owned by Eustace and Maria Potocki. The name comes from the name of the owner.
Media related to Mariensztat at Wikimedia CommonsAndrzej Bogucki
Andrzej Bogucki (11 November 1904 – 29 July 1978) was a Polish television, stage and film actor, as well as operetta singer and songwriter, sometimes referred to as "The Polish Chevalier".Bogucki and his wife Janina née Godlewska (8 March 1908 – 19 June 1992) are known for helping and hiding the Polish Jewish pianist Władysław Szpilman during the Nazi occupation of Poland. Szpilman's life inspired the 2002 film The Pianist, and both Bogucki and his wife were portrayed in the film.Although he lived in Warsaw for most of his life, Bogucki also worked in several other cities. He lived in Warsaw's Mariensztat neighborhood from 1947 until the end of his life, and he is buried in the Powązki Cemetery in the western part of Warsaw.Bogucki was awarded the Order of Polonia Restituta for his career and actions during World War II. In 1978 the Yad Vashem institute awarded him and his wife the Righteous Among The Nations award, an award given to non-Jewish people who helped Jews during the Nazi persecution.Barbara Zbrożyna
Barbara Zbrożyna (1923–1995) was a Polish sculptor, author of figural sculptures, monuments, portraits, religious and sepulchral sculptures. Her style evolved from realism through the synthetic simplifications, expressive and metaphoric deformation, to abstraction. She was also a painter, drawer and poet. Awarded for achievements in arts by Solidarność (1984, 1989), awarded the Prize of Brat Albert Chmielowski (1986) and Prize of Polcul Foundation (1991).Bus transport in Warsaw
Bus transport in Warsaw was introduced in 1920. Since 1994, services have been operated by Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego. ZTM's fleet consists of 1787 vehicles, which cover 288 lines.
In 1921, three lines were opened. From November 1939 the regular liquidation of the rolling stock began, only one car survived the war. Bus transport appeared again in April 1945. The first night bus appeared on the streets of Warsaw in 1963. On March 11, 1994, the Warsaw transport was reorganized.
In November 1994, the first German low-floor Neoplan N4020 was put into operation. 1999 was marked by modern and low-floor Solaris Urbino 15 buses. In 2002, MAN buses joined the Solarises.Military history of the Warsaw Uprising
The Warsaw Uprising began with simultaneous coordinated attacks at 17:00 hours on August 1, 1944 (W-hour). The uprising was intended to last a few days until Soviet forces arrived; however, this never happened, and the Polish forces had to fight almost without any outside assistance. Initially the battle raged throughout most of Warsaw, but after a short time it became confined to districts in the West of the town. The key factor in the battle was the massive imbalance of weapons between the two sides. The German side was extremely well equipped whilst the Polish side had, initially, barely enough ammunition for a few days. The policy of one bullet, one German allowed the Polish fighters to sustain the uprising for many weeks at the cost of their own lives. Some areas fought for a full 63 days before an agreed capitulation took place. The losses on the Polish side amounted to 18,000 soldiers killed, 25,000 wounded and over 250,000 civilians killed; those on the German side amounted to over 17,000 soldiers killed and 9,000 wounded.
Although Stalingrad had already shown the level of danger which a city can pose to armies which fight within it and the importance of local support to armies, the Warsaw uprising was probably the first demonstration that in an urban terrain, a vastly under-equipped force supported by the civilian population can hold its own against far better equipped professional soldiers— though at the cost of vast sacrifices on the part of the city's residents.Pancer Viaduct
The Pancer Viaduct was a viaduct in Warsaw joining Castle Square to the Kierbedzia Bridge. It was built in 1846, and demolished in 1944 and was replaced by the Route WZ thoroughfare.
It was designed by Felix Pancer and constructed with seven arched vaults made of brick, supported by six pillars and two abutments.
Initially, New Congress Street (ulica Nowy Zjazd) allowed travel from Castle Square to Dobra Street along the viaduct. The street had the shape of the letter "J", reaching the Vistula, and then turning back sharply and steeply towards Dobra Street. After the construction of the Alexander Bridge (commonly called the Kierbedzia Bridge) in 1864, New Congress Street running over the Pancer Viaduct became the main artery leading from the left-bank of Warsaw to Praga on the right-bank.
Tram tracks were on the viaduct from the very beginning. Initially it was a horse-drawn tram line belonging to the railway, which was built to connect the Praga broad gauge line to the standard gauge of the Warsaw-Vienna line. This became the nucleus of the tram network in Warsaw. The original plans for the Kierbedzia Bridge included a rail line to perform this function but the rail part of this plan was abandoned.
The viaduct was blown up after the Warsaw Uprising. Retreating German troops blew up the penultimate pillar, causing two adjacent spans to collapse.
After the war, there were plans to rebuild the viaduct, but they were abandoned because the significant increase in pedestrian and automobile traffic would have been dangerous for Castle Square and the Old Town. Under the intersection of Krakowskie Przedmieście and Miodowa Street a tunnel was built for the Trasa WZ which resulted in the need to reduce the road. The Pancera Viaduct was demolished, and a road was built from the tunnel to the Śląsko-Dąbrowski Bridge (which replaced the demolished Kierbedzia Bridge) on new embankments and viaducts.
The only surviving part of the viaduct is a plaque commemorating its construction. It can be found in Castle Square, next to fragments of previous versions of Sigismund's Column. It includes an inscription in Russian and Polish.Powiśle, Warsaw
Powiśle (literally near-the-Vistula) is a neighbourhood in Warsaw's borough of Śródmieście (city centre). It is located between the Vistula river and its escarpment. Historically it is composed of three neighbourhoods: the Powiśle proper, Mariensztat to the north (just below the Warsaw's Old Town) and Solec to the south.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the area became populated mostly with the poor of Warsaw. Little changed in the 19th century when the neighbourhood became slightly industrialized. It retained its character of an area of poverty until its almost complete destruction during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. It was inhabited by the unemployed and craftsmen of all types, factory and port workers, smiths, coalers, sand vendors, fishermen and prostitutes. As such it was similar in character to London Docklands.
After the war, the area became partially rebuilt and the area of Mariensztat became the first neighbourhood of Warsaw to be reconstructed. Currently there are plans to turn the area into the Warsaw University campus, a notion that was already started by the construction of the Warsaw University Library and several faculties there.Praga
Praga is a district of Warsaw, Poland. It is located on the east bank of the river Vistula. First mentioned in 1432, until 1791 it formed a separate town with its own city charter.Stanisław Masłowski
Stanisław Stefan Zygmunt Masłowski (1853–1926), born Stanislaw Stefan Zygmunt Ludgard Masłowski (3 December 1853 in Włodawa, – 31 May 1926 in Warsaw) was a Polish painter of realistic style, the author of watercolor landscapes.Tchorek plaques
Tchorek plaques are a common design of memorial plaque in Warsaw, Poland, used to commemorate places where battles or executions took place during the German occupation of the city during World War II. They are based on an original design by sculptor Karol Tchorek from 1949.
These plaques were installed at various locations in Warsaw from the 1950s until the end of the communist era in Poland, and are one of the most characteristic elements of the landscape of the capital. Many of the original plaques no longer exist, having been removed or destroyed during the ongoing modernisation and expansion of the city and its transport network. However, in 2013 there were still more than 160 Tchorek plaques within the administrative borders of Warsaw.Warsaw
Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (listen); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Once described as the 'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was later awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat. A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to even greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins.Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style". It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe.
The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry. The Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt, London and Paris, Warsaw is also one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union.The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, and the Zachęta National Gallery of Art. The picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces, churches and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.Śródmieście, Warsaw
Śródmieście ([ɕrudˈmʲeɕt͡ɕe] meaning "city centre", "downtown") is the central borough (dzielnica) of the city of Warsaw. The best known neighborhoods in the borough are the Old Town (Stare Miasto) and New Town (Nowe Miasto).
The area is home to the most important national and municipal institutions, many businesses, higher education establishments (e.g. University of Warsaw, Warsaw University of Technology and Medical Academy) and theatres. It is also home to most of the tourist attractions in Warsaw, including the tallest building in Warsaw (231 m),the narrowest street (5.3 m), the oldest university (est. 1809), the oldest public park (opened 1727), the oldest secular monument (1644) and the oldest historical building (13th century).
The name is also colloquially used for Warszawa Śródmieście railway station.