Mariano Rivera (born November 29, 1969) is a Panamanian-American former professional baseball pitcher who played 19 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees, from 1995 to 2013. Nicknamed "Mo" and "Sandman", he spent most of his career as a relief pitcher and served as the Yankees' closer for 17 seasons. A thirteen-time All-Star and five-time World Series champion, he is MLB's career leader in saves (652) and games finished (952). Rivera won five American League (AL) Rolaids Relief Man Awards and three Delivery Man of the Year Awards, and he finished in the top three in voting for the AL Cy Young Award four times. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in its class of 2019 in his first year of eligibility, and was the first player ever to be elected unanimously by the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA).
Raised in the modest Panamanian fishing village of Puerto Caimito, Rivera was an amateur player until signed by the Yankees organization in 1990. He debuted in the major leagues in 1995 as a starting pitcher, before permanently converting to a relief pitcher late in his rookie year. After a breakthrough season in 1996 as a setup man, he became the Yankees' closer in 1997. In the following seasons, he established himself as one of baseball's top relievers, leading the major leagues in saves in 1999, 2001, and 2004. Rivera primarily threw a sharp-moving, mid-90s mile-per-hour cut fastball that frequently broke hitters' bats and earned a reputation as one of the league's toughest pitches to hit. With his presence at the end of games, signaled by his foreboding entrance song "Enter Sandman", Rivera was a key contributor to the Yankees' success in the late 1990s and early 2000s. An accomplished postseason performer, he was named the 1999 World Series Most Valuable Player (MVP) and the 2003 AL Championship Series MVP, and he holds several postseason records, including lowest earned run average (ERA) (0.70) and most saves (42).
Rivera is regarded within baseball as one of the most dominant relievers in major league history. Pitching with a longevity and consistency uncommon to the closer role, he saved at least 25 games in 15 consecutive seasons and posted an ERA under 2.00 in 11 seasons, both of which are records. His career 2.21 ERA and 1.00 WHIP are the lowest in the live-ball era among qualified pitchers. Fellow players credit him with popularizing the cut fastball across the major leagues. Along with his signature pitch, Rivera was known for his precise control, smooth pitching motion, and for his composure and reserved demeanor on the field. In 2013, the Yankees retired his uniform number 42; he was the last major league player to wear the number full-time, following its league-wide retirement in honor of Jackie Robinson. A devout Christian, Rivera has been involved in philanthropic causes and the religious community through the Mariano Rivera Foundation.
Rivera pitching for the Yankees in 2007
|Born: November 29, 1969|
Panama City, Panama
|May 23, 1995, for the New York Yankees|
|Last MLB appearance|
|September 26, 2013, for the New York Yankees|
|Earned run average||2.21|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Incoming Member of the National|
|Baseball Hall of Fame|
|Vote||100% (first ballot)|
Mariano Rivera was born in Panama City, Panama, on November 29, 1969, to Mariano Rivera Palacios and Delia Jiron. The couple's second child, Rivera has one older sister, Delia, and two younger brothers, Alvaro and Giraldo. Supported by Mariano Sr.'s job as captain of a fishing boat, the family lived in Puerto Caimito, a Panamanian fishing village that Rivera described as "poor". As a young man, Rivera played soccer and baseball with his friends on the beach during low tide. Soccer was his favorite sport, and Pelé his favorite athlete. For baseball games, they substituted cardboard milk cartons for gloves and tree branches for bats, and they fashioned balls by taping wads of shredded fishing nets. Rivera used this makeshift equipment until his father bought him his first leather glove when he was 12 years old. Speaking about his youth, Rivera said that although he stayed out of trouble, he "was hanging with the wrong people".
Rivera attended Escuela Victoriano Chacón for elementary school and La Escuela Secundaria Pedro Pablo Sanchez for his secondary education, but he dropped out in ninth grade. At age 16, he began to learn the fishing trade by working on a commercial boat captained by his father, catching sardines. Rivera, who worked six-day weeks, year round, called the job "extremely hard" and was more interested in becoming a mechanic. Two incidents on his father's boat further validated his doubts about fishing as a career. In 1988, Rivera's uncle Miguel was lashed by an unsecured rope that shot off a hydraulic mechanism, and a month later he died from his injuries. About a year later, at age 19, Rivera was forced to abandon his father's ship after it began capsizing due to a malfunctioning water pump and an overweight load of fish. After three years of learning the trade, Rivera quit. He continued to play sports during his teenage years but eventually quit soccer after a series of ankle and knee injuries around age 17. Consequently, he shifted his attention to baseball but considered it just a hobby rather than a potential profession.
At age 18, Rivera joined the Panamá Oeste Vaqueros, a local amateur baseball team, as a utility player. Scout Herb Raybourn watched him play shortstop in a 1988 baseball tournament but did not project him to be a major leaguer. A year later, Panamá Oeste's pitcher performed so poorly in a playoff game that Rivera was asked to replace him, and despite no experience at the position, he pitched well. Teammates Claudino Hernández and Emilio Gáez consequently contacted Chico Heron, a scout for the New York Yankees. Two weeks after his pitching debut, Rivera was invited to a Yankees tryout camp run by Heron in Panama City. Raybourn, who had returned to Panama to scout as the Yankees' director of Latin American operations, received a tip about Rivera. Raybourn was surprised to hear he had switched positions but decided to watch him throw. Although Rivera had no formal pitching training, weighed just 155 pounds (70 kg), and threw only 85–87 miles per hour (137–140 kilometers per hour), Raybourn was impressed by his athleticism and smooth, effortless pitching motion. Viewing Rivera as a raw talent, Raybourn signed the amateur free agent to a contract with the Yankees organization on February 17, 1990; the contract included a signing bonus of US$2,500 ($4,794 today), according to Major League Baseball (MLB) records.
After signing his contract, Rivera—who spoke no English and had never left home—flew to the United States and reported to the Gulf Coast League (GCL) Yankees, a Rookie level minor league affiliate of the New York Yankees. Feeling lonely and homesick, he wrote home to his parents often, as they did not have access to telephones in Puerto Caimito. At that point in his career, scouts considered Rivera to be a "fringe prospect" at best, but he made progress with a strong 1990 season for the GCL Yankees. Pitching mostly in relief, he allowed only 24 baserunners and one earned run in 52 innings pitched—a 0.17 earned run average (ERA). The team permitted Rivera to start the season's final game in order for him to accumulate enough innings pitched to qualify for the league's ERA title (which carried a $500 bonus); his subsequent seven-inning no-hitter "put him on the map with the organization", according to manager Glenn Sherlock. In the offseason, Rivera returned to Panama, where a tip from him to Raybourn led to the Yankees signing a promising local 16-year-old player, Rivera's cousin Rubén. In 1991, Mariano was promoted to the Class A level Greensboro Hornets of the South Atlantic League, where he started 15 of the 29 games in which he pitched. Despite a 4–9 win–loss record, he recorded a 2.75 ERA in 114 2⁄3 innings pitched and struck out 123 batters while walking 36 batters. New York Yankees manager Buck Showalter took notice of Rivera's strong strikeout-to-walk ratio, calling it "impressive in any league" and saying, "This guy is going to make it."
In 1992, Rivera was promoted to the Class A-Advanced level Fort Lauderdale Yankees of the Florida State League (FSL) but missed the first third of the season with elbow stiffness. He started ten games for Fort Lauderdale, compiling a 5–3 win–loss record and a 2.28 ERA, while walking only five batters in 59 1⁄3 innings pitched. Ultimately, Rivera was sidelined again after suffering damage to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) in his right elbow. The injury was attributed to him snapping his wrist during his throwing motion in an attempt to improve the movement on his slider pitch. Rivera underwent surgery on August 27, 1992, to repair the damage, leading to concerns that he would be out through the 1993 season. Contrary to popular belief, the operation was not Tommy John surgery; Rivera's surgeon, Dr. Frank Jobe, determined that ligament replacement was not necessary and instead repaired the frayed UCL. Rivera's rehabilitation coincided with MLB's 1992 expansion draft to fill the rosters for two expansion teams, the Florida Marlins and Colorado Rockies. He was left unprotected by the Yankees but was not drafted.
During Rivera's rehabilitation, he played catch with former Yankees pitchers Whitey Ford and Ron Guidry, and faced batting practice from his first minor-league pitching coach, former pitcher Hoyt Wilhelm. Once reactivated, Rivera returned to the Class A level Hornets for an abbreviated 1993 season in which he was kept on a limited pitch count. Hornets shortstop Derek Jeter, who would later be Rivera's teammate in the major leagues, kept track of his number of pitches during games. In ten starts, Rivera pitched 39 1⁄3 innings and walked 15 batters, while recording a 2.06 ERA. Witnessing him recover, the Hornets' official scorer Ogi Overman was not optimistic about Rivera's future, saying, "I thought [he] was on a one-way trip to nowhere."
In 1994, Rivera was promoted from the Class A-Advanced level Tampa Yankees of the FSL to the Double-A level Albany-Colonie Yankees of the Eastern League, and then to the Triple-A level Columbus Clippers of the International League. He finished the year with a 10–2 record in 22 starts, although he struggled for Columbus, recording a 5.81 ERA in six starts. At the start of the 1995 season, he was ranked the ninth-best prospect in the Yankees organization by sports magazine Baseball America; by contrast, the publication ranked Rivera's highly touted cousin Rubén as the second-best prospect in baseball. Mariano's pitching repertoire primarily consisted of fastballs at the time, although he threw a slider and changeup as secondary pitches. He began the 1995 season with Columbus, pitching to a 1–1 record and 1.50 ERA in four starts.
After being called up to the major leagues on May 16, 1995, Rivera made his debut for the New York Yankees on May 23 against the California Angels. Starting in place of injured pitcher Jimmy Key, Rivera allowed five earned runs in 3 1⁄3 innings pitched in a 10–0 loss. He struggled through his first four major league starts, posting a 10.20 ERA, and as a result, he was demoted to Columbus on June 11. As a 25-year-old rookie just three years removed from major arm surgery, Rivera did not have a guaranteed spot in the Yankee organization. Management considered trading him to the Detroit Tigers for starter David Wells. While recovering from a sore shoulder in the minor leagues, Rivera pitched a no-hit shutout in a rain-shortened five-inning start. Reports from the game indicated that his pitches had reached 95–96 mph (153–154 km/h), about 6 mph (9.7 km/h) faster than his previous average velocity; Rivera attributes his inexplicable improvement to God. Yankees general manager Gene Michael was skeptical of the reports until verifying that Columbus' radar gun was not faulty and that another team's scout had taken the same measurements. Afterwards, he ended any trade negotiations involving Rivera. On July 4, in his first start back in the major leagues, Rivera pitched eight scoreless innings against the Chicago White Sox, allowing just two hits while striking out 11 batters. In five subsequent starts, he was unable to match his success from that game. After a brief demotion to Columbus in August, Rivera made one last start in the major leagues in September before he was moved to the Yankees' bullpen. Overall, he finished his first major league season with a 5–3 record and a 5.51 ERA in ten starts and nine relief outings. His performance in the 1995 American League Division Series, in which he pitched 5 1⁄3 scoreless innings of relief, convinced Yankees management to keep him and convert him to a relief pitcher the following season.
In 1996, Rivera served primarily as a setup pitcher, typically pitching in the seventh and eighth innings of games before closer John Wetteland pitched in the ninth. Their effectiveness as a tandem helped the Yankees win 70 of 73 games that season when leading after six innings. Over a stretch of games between April 19 and May 21, Rivera pitched 26 consecutive scoreless innings, including 15 consecutive hitless innings. During the streak, he recorded his first career save in a May 17 game against the Angels. Rivera finished the regular season with a 2.09 ERA in 107 2⁄3 innings pitched and set a Yankees single-season record for strikeouts by a reliever (130). Baseball-Reference.com calculated his value to the Yankees that year to be 5.0 wins above replacement (WAR), a figure no reliever has surpassed in a single season since. In the postseason, he allowed just one earned run in 14 1⁄3 innings pitched, helping the Yankees advance to and win the 1996 World Series against the Atlanta Braves. It was the franchise's first World Series championship since 1978. In MLB's annual awards voting by the BBWAA, Rivera finished in twelfth place for the American League (AL) Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award and third for the AL Cy Young Award, which is given to the league's best pitcher. Commentator and former player Tim McCarver wrote that the Yankees "revolutionized baseball" that year with Rivera, "a middle reliever who should have been on the All-Star team and who was a legitimate MVP candidate."
Yankees management chose not to re-sign Wetteland in the offseason, opting instead to replace him with Rivera as the team's closer. In April 1997, MLB retired the uniform number 42 league-wide to honor Jackie Robinson for breaking the baseball color line, although Rivera was among a dozen players allowed to continue wearing the number per a grandfather clause. Rivera's transition from setup man to closer in 1997 was not seamless; he blew three of his first six save opportunities and indicated that he was initially uncomfortable in the role. With reassurance from manager Joe Torre, Rivera settled into the ninth-inning role, and he earned his first All-Star selection with 27 saves and a 1.96 ERA at the midseason break. In the 1997 All-Star Game, he pitched a perfect ninth inning to collect his first save in an All-Star Game. That summer, he added a cut fastball to his pitching repertoire after accidentally discovering how to throw the pitch. Rivera finished the regular season with 43 saves in 52 opportunities and a 1.88 ERA. His first year as closer ended with a blown save in Game 4 of the 1997 AL Division Series against the Cleveland Indians; with the Yankees four outs from advancing to the next round of the postseason, Rivera allowed a game-tying home run to Sandy Alomar Jr. The Yankees eventually lost that game and the next, eliminating them from the postseason.
After spending two weeks on the disabled list with a groin strain during the opening month of the 1998 season, Rivera continued to establish himself as one of the major leagues' best closers. Moreover, he became the central figure of a Yankees bullpen that, supported by middle relievers Jeff Nelson and Mike Stanton, contributed to the team's late-1990s dynasty. That year, Rivera made the cutter one of his primary pitches, and it quickly became his signature, earning a reputation for breaking hitters' bats with its sharp lateral movement. He saved 36 games in 41 opportunities and had a 1.91 ERA in the regular season. In the 1998 postseason, he pitched 13 1⁄3 scoreless innings and saved six games, three of which came in the 1998 World Series against the San Diego Padres. Rivera's save in Game 4 of the series clinched the Yankees' championship, capping off a season in which they won an MLB-record 125 games combined in the regular season and the postseason. By season's end, Rivera had allowed only two earned runs in 35 career postseason innings pitched—a 0.51 ERA—and by passing 30 innings pitched, he qualified for the major league record for lowest postseason career ERA; it is a record he still holds after 141 innings pitched.
In 1999, Rivera was selected for the All-Star team for a second time with 23 saves and a 2.29 ERA in the first half of the season. That summer, the Yankee Stadium scoreboard production staff began playing the song "Enter Sandman" by heavy metal band Metallica as Rivera's entrance music. Staff members selected the song after witnessing in the previous year's World Series how enthusiastically San Diego fans reacted to closer Trevor Hoffman entering games accompanied by AC/DC's "Hells Bells". Although Rivera was indifferent about his entrance music, "Enter Sandman" soon became as much a part of his identity as a closer as his cutter. After recording three blown saves and a 7.84 ERA in July, he allowed just one earned run over his last 30 appearances. He ended the season with a 1.83 ERA and 45 saves in 49 opportunities, his first time leading the major leagues in saves. He received his first AL Rolaids Relief Man Award, an annual award for the league's best closer based on their statistics. In the 1999 World Series against the Braves, Rivera recorded a win and two saves, the second of which clinched the Yankees' championship title, his third overall. For his performance against Atlanta, he received the World Series MVP Award. Rivera finished 1999 by pitching 43 consecutive scoreless innings in the regular season and postseason combined, and he placed third in voting for the AL Cy Young Award. After the season, he revealed tentative plans to retire and become a minister after playing four more seasons, though he backed off these plans the following year.
In the offseason, Rivera lost his salary arbitration case, in which he requested an annual salary of $9.25 million, but arbitrators awarded him $7.25 million per year, which was at the time the highest arbitration award in baseball history. In the 2000 season, Rivera was selected as an All-Star for the third time. On July 8, he saved two games, each played in a different ballpark, as part of a day-night doubleheader against the New York Mets at Shea Stadium and Yankee Stadium. He ended the season with 36 saves in 41 opportunities and a 2.85 ERA. In the postseason, Rivera saved six games, allowed three earned runs in 15 2⁄3 innings pitched, and broke two major league records: he eclipsed Dennis Eckersley's record for postseason saves with the 16th of his career; he also broke Whitey Ford's record for consecutive scoreless innings pitched in postseason play, a streak that ended shortly thereafter at 33 1⁄3 innings. In the 2000 World Series against the Mets, Rivera clinched a championship for his team for the third consecutive year. It was his fourth World Series title overall. By this point, he had established a reputation as an exceptional postseason performer—journalist Jack Curry called him the "infallible weapon" and "the greatest reason the Yankees [were] three-time champions".
With Rivera's contract set to expire after 2001, the Yankees signed him to a four-year, $39.99 million deal prior to the season, marking the first long-term contract of his career. In 2001, he was selected for the All-Star team for a third consecutive year. His final numbers included a 2.34 ERA, a closer career-high 80 2⁄3 innings pitched, and an MLB-leading 50 saves in 57 opportunities—his second time leading the league. His saves total that year surpassed Dave Righetti's 46 saves in 1986 for the most by a Yankee pitcher in a single season, and made him just the sixth MLB pitcher to reach 50 saves in a single season. Rivera's performance earned him his second AL Rolaids Relief Man Award. Despite having what sportswriters deemed an "aura of invincibility" in the postseason, Rivera failed to close out the decisive Game 7 of the 2001 World Series against the Arizona Diamondbacks. In one of his most infamous moments, he blew a save in the bottom of the ninth inning, in part due to his own throwing error, and he lost the Series later in the inning by allowing Luis Gonzalez's bloop single with the bases loaded to score the winning run. It was the first and only loss of Rivera's postseason career, and it snapped his record streak of 23 consecutive postseason saves converted.
On May 9, 2002, Rivera recorded his 225th career save, surpassing Dave Righetti as the Yankees' franchise leader in saves. Over the next few months of the season, injuries limited his playing time. He was first placed on the disabled list in June due to a groin strain, though his first-half numbers, which included a 1.47 ERA and 21 saves, earned him an All-Star selection. In a game on July 14, Rivera endured one of his worst outings, allowing six earned runs, including a walk-off grand slam. One week later, he was placed on the disabled list with a shoulder strain. Rivera was activated on August 8 after receiving a cortisone shot but returned to the disabled list after a recurrence of shoulder tightness. For the season, Rivera recorded a 2.74 ERA and 28 saves in 32 opportunities in just 46 innings pitched.
To placate the Yankees' concerns about his durability, Rivera followed a strength and conditioning program in the offseason, instead of throwing. Torre said that he would try to reduce Rivera's workload during the 2003 season to minimize the injury risk to his closer. However, Rivera suffered a groin injury before the season began, causing him to miss the first month. After returning on April 30, he pitched well in the season's first half, saving 16 games in 17 opportunities. His save on June 12 against the St. Louis Cardinals secured the 300th career win for starter Roger Clemens. Rivera slumped early in the second half; over one stretch, he blew five of eleven save opportunities, but he rebounded to convert his final 15 of the season. He finished the 2003 regular season with a new career best in ERA (1.66), along with 40 saves in 46 opportunities. In the 2003 AL Championship Series against the arch-rival Boston Red Sox, Rivera had one of the most memorable postseason performances of his career; in the decisive Game 7, he entered in the ninth inning with the score tied 5–5 and pitched three scoreless innings, his longest outing since 1996. He became the winning pitcher after Aaron Boone hit an eleventh-inning walk-off home run that clinched the Yankees' series victory and advanced them to the 2003 World Series. Rivera celebrated by running to the pitcher's mound and collapsing in joy to thank God, as Boone rounded the bases and was met by his teammates at home plate. Rivera was named the AL Championship Series MVP for recording two saves and a win in the series. The Yankees lost the World Series to the Florida Marlins; Rivera saved five games and allowed only one earned run in 16 innings pitched that postseason.
Prior to the 2004 season, with a year remaining on his contract, Rivera signed a two-year extension worth $21 million, with an option for a third year. That season, Rivera surpassed 300 career saves and made his sixth All-Star team with 32 saves at the midseason break, then an AL record. His final numbers for the year included a 1.94 ERA and a career-high 53 saves in 57 opportunities; it was his third time leading the major leagues in saves. Along with winning a third AL Rolaids Relief Man Award, he placed third in the AL Cy Young Award voting. Following the Yankees' victory in the 2004 AL Division Series against the Minnesota Twins, Rivera returned home to Panama to mourn two relatives who had died in an accident in his swimming pool. Despite his status being in doubt for the 2004 AL Championship Series against the Red Sox, he returned to New York for Game 1 after attending the funeral in Panama earlier in the day. He recorded a save that night, as well as in Game 2. Although the Yankees led three-games-to-none in the series, Rivera blew saves in Games 4 and 5, and the Red Sox won both games in extra innings to avoid elimination. In Game 4, Boston's Dave Roberts pinch ran and stole second base against Rivera, eventually scoring on a single to tie the game. In Game 5, Rivera entered with a one-run lead with runners on base and allowed a sacrifice fly to tie the score. Although he allowed just one earned run in the 2004 postseason, he blew three of five save opportunities in the two series. Boston's comeback victories helped them become the first team in MLB history to win a best-of-seven series in which they trailed three-games-to-none.
Following a career high in appearances in 2004, Rivera did not throw during the offseason, unlike previous years. His 2005 season began on a low note. After missing time in spring training with elbow bursitis, he blew his first two save opportunities of the season against the Red Sox, marking four consecutive blown opportunities against Boston dating back to the previous postseason. Fans at Yankee Stadium booed Rivera, and baseball journalists speculated if his days as a dominant pitcher were over. He was subsequently cheered by Red Sox fans during pre-game introductions at Fenway Park the following week, in recognition of his struggles against the Red Sox. He responded to the ovation with a sense of humor by tipping his cap to the crowd.
Rivera rebounded in dominating fashion and finished 2005 with his greatest season to that point. He was selected to the All-Star team, converted 31 consecutive save opportunities, and completed the season with 43 saves in 47 opportunities. He set new career bests in many statistical categories, including ERA (1.38) and walks plus hits per inning pitched, or WHIP (0.87). Rivera limited opposing hitters to a batting average against of .177, then the best mark of his closer career. In addition to winning a fourth AL Rolaids Relief Man Award, he placed second in voting for the AL Cy Young Award behind starter Bartolo Colón, and ninth for the AL MVP Award—his best finishes in voting for both awards. During the postseason, MLB announced the Latino Legends Team, a fan-voted all-time roster of the greatest Latino players; Rivera was named the team's relief pitcher.
Rivera began 2006 with a 3.72 ERA and two losses in April, but his numbers improved in subsequent months. On June 6, he saved his 391st career game, passing Dennis Eckersley for the fourth-most saves in major league history. Rivera was selected to his third consecutive All-Star team with a 1.76 ERA and 19 saves entering the midseason break. He saved the AL's comeback victory in the 2006 All-Star Game for his third career All-Star save, tying him with Eckersley for the most ever. On July 16, Rivera achieved another milestone by becoming the fourth MLB pitcher to reach 400 saves. Although a throwing elbow strain sidelined Rivera for most of September, he finished the 2006 season with 34 saves in 37 opportunities and an ERA of 1.80—his fourth consecutive season with a sub-2.00 ERA. For a second consecutive year, fans voted him the Delivery Man of the Year.
With his contract set to expire after the 2007 season, Rivera sought an extension with the Yankees during spring training. Team management refused to negotiate near the start of the season, prompting him to respond that he would consider free agency at the end of the year. In April, Rivera blew his first two save opportunities, compiled two losses, and surrendered nine earned runs in 7 2⁄3 innings pitched. Concerned sportswriters attributed his struggles to infrequent use, as the Yankees presented him with few situations to enter a game. Rivera saved 30 of his next 32 opportunities and posted a 2.26 ERA over the final five months of the season. In addition, he passed John Franco for third place on the all-time saves list with his 425th career save. Still, Rivera finished 2007 with closer career worsts in earned runs (25), hits (68), and ERA (3.15), and his 30 saves in 34 opportunities were his second-lowest total since 1997. After the Yankees were eliminated from the playoffs in the opening round, Rivera stated his intentions to test the free agent market. He initially indicated that his decision of where to sign would be influenced by whether long-time manager Joe Torre was re-signed. Although Torre did not return, Rivera remained with the Yankees by agreeing to a three-year, $45 million contract, making him the highest-paid reliever in baseball history.
Rivera rebounded in 2008 and began the year with 16 consecutive scoreless innings pitched and 28 consecutive save opportunities converted, both personal bests to start a season. His first-half performance, highlighted by a 1.06 ERA and 23 saves in as many opportunities, garnered him his ninth All-Star selection. Leading up to the 2008 MLB All-Star Game, which was held at Yankee Stadium in the venue's final year of existence, a few sportswriters proposed making Rivera the AL's starting pitcher as a tribute to him and his home ballpark. He instead was used as a reliever in the AL's extra-inning win. In the final month of the season, he recorded two milestones: on September 15, he recorded his 479th save to pass Lee Smith for second all-time in regular season saves; on September 21, in the final game at Yankee Stadium, Rivera threw the final pitch in the venue's history, retiring Brian Roberts of the Baltimore Orioles on a ground-out. After the Yankees missed the postseason for the first time in his career, Rivera disclosed that he had suffered from shoulder pain throughout the year. Tests revealed calcification of the acromioclavicular joint in his throwing shoulder, for which he underwent minor arthroscopic surgery in the offseason.
Rivera's 2008 season was one of his best individual years. Along with a 1.40 ERA and 39 saves in 40 opportunities, he set career bests in multiple statistical categories, including WHIP (0.67), on-base plus slugging (OPS)-against (.422), batting average against (.165), save percentage (97.5%), walks (6), earned runs (11), and blown saves (1). He averaged 9.81 strikeouts per 9 innings pitched, his best mark as a closer. He pitched with such control that his 12.83 strikeout-to-walk ratio made him the second MLB pitcher ever to record a figure that high in a season (minimum 50 innings pitched). He placed fifth in the AL Cy Young Award voting.
In his first 12 appearances of 2009, Rivera surrendered four home runs and had a 3.97 ERA, leading to speculation about his cutter's effectiveness and his shoulder's health at age 39. As the season progressed, his numbers improved, and he reached a milestone on June 28 by becoming the second pitcher with 500 regular season saves. In the same game, while batting against fellow closer Francisco Rodríguez, he collected his first career run batted in by walking with the bases loaded. With 23 saves in 24 opportunities and a 2.43 ERA in the season's first half, Rivera was named an All-Star for the tenth time. At the 2009 MLB All-Star Game, he set a record by saving his fourth career All-Star Game. In the season's second half, Rivera allowed earned runs in only two of his final 40 appearances, while he set a new personal best for consecutive save opportunities converted with 36. He finished the regular season with a 1.76 ERA, 44 saves in 46 opportunities, and a 0.90 WHIP. In the postseason, he pitched 16 innings, allowing one earned run and saving five games, and he clinched the Yankees' victory in the 2009 World Series against the Philadelphia Phillies—his fifth championship. He was the only closer who did not record a loss or blown save that postseason. Rivera collected several awards at season's end, including his third Delivery Man Award, his fifth AL Rolaids Relief Man Award, and the 2009 Sporting News Pro Athlete of the Year Award. Reflecting on the decade's end, ESPN.com's Jerry Crasnick called Rivera the most valuable major league pitcher of the previous 10 years.
In 2010, Rivera and two of his "Core Four" teammates, Derek Jeter and Jorge Posada, became the first trio in any of the four major sports leagues in North America (MLB, NFL, NBA, or NHL) to play together on the same team for 16 consecutive seasons. Rivera began with one of his best first halves, compiling a 1.05 ERA, 20 saves in 22 opportunities, and 0.64 WHIP before the All-Star break, and in June, he set a personal best streak with 24 consecutive batters retired. He earned an 11th All-Star selection but withdrew from the game due to lingering oblique and knee injuries. In the second half, he was less effective—he struck out batters half as often, and in September, he compiled three blown saves and a 4.76 ERA. Rivera ended 2010 with a 1.80 ERA and 0.83 WHIP, numbers that were among his career bests, though his 33 saves in 38 opportunities and 6.75 strikeouts per 9 innings ratio were below his career averages. In the postseason, he pitched 6 1⁄3 scoreless innings while saving three games. After becoming a free agent in the offseason, Rivera agreed to a two-year, $30 million contract to remain with the Yankees.
That same offseason, Trevor Hoffman retired as the all-time regular season saves leader with a final tally of 601, leaving Rivera as the active leader in saves and 42 behind Hoffman's record to start 2011. Rivera's season was marked by several milestones. He broke the all-time record for games finished, and in May, he became the 15th pitcher to make 1,000 appearances and the first to do so with a single team. He was named an All-Star for the 12th time with a 1.85 ERA and 22 saves in 26 opportunities at the midseason break, but for the second consecutive year, he skipped the game to rest injuries. His pursuit of the saves record reached a climax in the final month of the season; on September 13, he collected his 600th save, making him just the second pitcher to accomplish the feat. Four days later, he saved his 601st game, tying him with Hoffman for the most in MLB history. Rivera broke the record on September 19 at Yankee Stadium by closing out a 6–4 win against the Twins, the final out by strikeout. After the game, Panamanian President Ricardo Martinelli called him to offer his congratulations. Rivera finished the season with a 1.91 ERA, a 0.90 WHIP, and 44 saves in 49 opportunities, making him the first pitcher over the age of 40 to save at least 40 games in a season. In the offseason, he underwent throat surgery to remove polyps from his vocal cords.
Rivera began the 2012 season by blowing a save on Opening Day but followed it with eight scoreless innings and five saves for the remainder of April. After just nine appearances, his season was prematurely ended by a freak injury; prior to a May 3 game against the Kansas City Royals, Rivera's right knee buckled on the field's warning track while shagging balls during batting practice, causing him to tear his right anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Speculation grew that the injury would end his career, as he had hinted at retirement in spring training. Rivera put those concerns to rest the following day when he announced his intentions to return, saying, "Write it down in big letters. I'm not going down like this." He successfully underwent ACL reconstructive surgery on June 12, while his meniscus, previously thought to have been damaged, did not need to be repaired. Rafael Soriano filled in as closer in Rivera's absence and saved 42 games in 46 opportunities. Rivera signed a one-year, $10 million contract in the offseason to remain with the team.
After successfully rehabilitating his knee in the offseason, the 43-year-old Rivera announced on March 9, 2013, that he would retire after the 2013 season, his 19th in the major leagues. Throughout his final year, Rivera spent time during visits to each ballpark meeting privately with fans and unsung team employees to hear their stories and thank them for supporting baseball. He explained: "It was important for me to meet the people who make baseball what it is, the people who work in the game every day. They have given me far more than I have given them." Each opposing team returned the favor by honoring Rivera with a gift during his final visit to their city. In Cleveland, the Indians teamed up with the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to present Rivera with a gold record of his entrance song "Enter Sandman". The Minnesota Twins commissioned a rocking chair made of broken bats, many broken personally by Rivera's cutter, called the "Chair of Broken Dreams". The rival Boston Red Sox gave him a painting and several artifacts from Fenway Park. Many teams made donations to the Mariano Rivera Foundation, the pitcher's charitable organization. Corporate sponsors of the Yankees paid tribute as well. Delta Air Lines dedicated a Boeing 757 airplane with Rivera's signature and uniform number 42 on the exterior, while Hard Rock Cafe retired "Enter Sandman" from its song system at all locations except for its Yankee Stadium restaurant.
Rivera's 10 saves in 10 opportunities in April were his highest total for the opening month of a season. He converted his first 18 save attempts of the season until blowing a save against the Mets on May 28; it was the first time that he blew a save and lost a game without recording an out. Rivera entered the midseason break with 30 saves in 32 opportunities and a 1.83 ERA, and he was named an All-Star for the 13th time in his career, the second-most All-Star selections for a pitcher behind Warren Spahn's 17. During the All-Star Game, held at Citi Field in New York, Rivera was called upon to pitch in the eighth inning for his final All-Star appearance. As he trotted onto the field, players from both teams remained near their dugouts and joined fans in giving Rivera a standing ovation as he stood alone on the field. Rivera retired all three batters he faced, preserving his 0.00 career ERA in All-Star Games. He was named the All-Star Game MVP, making him the first reliever selected to an All-Star team to ever receive the award, as well as the first pitcher since Pedro Martínez in 1999 and the second Yankee ever after Derek Jeter in 2000. He became the first MLB player to be named the MVP of a World Series, League Championship Series, and All-Star Game. Rivera's performance dipped in the second half of the season, as he blew five save opportunities in the last two months, including three consecutive chances for the first time in his career. In a Fox Sports documentary chronicling his final season, entitled Being: Mariano, Rivera said that his farewell to baseball had mentally and physically drained him and that by September, he had "no desire" left for the sport.
On September 22, 2013, a day that Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg declared "Mariano Rivera Day", the Yankees held a 50-minute pre-game tribute to Rivera at Yankee Stadium. In a ceremony attended by former teammates, Yankees staff, and members of Jackie Robinson's family, Rivera's uniform number 42 was retired by the team, making him the first active Yankee to receive that honor. Metallica performed "Enter Sandman" live as he walked onto the field during the festivities. The team presented a video montage and several gifts to Rivera before he addressed the crowd to offer his thanks. Four days later against the Tampa Bay Rays, he pitched in the final game of his career before a home crowd at Yankee Stadium. Entering in the eighth inning to a pre-recorded introduction by late Yankees public address announcer Bob Sheppard, Rivera pitched 1 1⁄3 innings without allowing a baserunner. In the ninth inning, after retiring Yunel Escobar on a pop fly for the second out, Rivera was removed from the game; with permission from the umpires, Yankees manager Joe Girardi ceremonially delegated the substitution duty to Rivera's long-time teammates Andy Pettitte and Derek Jeter. After they reached the mound to make the pitching change, the normally reserved Rivera tearfully embraced his teammates for nearly a minute. Walking off the field to a standing ovation from fans and players, he saluted the crowd and then took a curtain call. After the game, he visited the mound for a final time and grabbed a handful of dirt as a memento. Rivera finished his final season with a 2.11 ERA, 1.05 WHIP, and 44 saves in 51 opportunities, earning him the AL Comeback Player of the Year Award, among several awards. During the World Series, he was honored as the 13th recipient of the Commissioner's Historic Achievement Award for his accomplished career and for being "a great ambassador of the game".
Rivera's signature pitch was a cut fastball or "cutter", which exhibited lateral movement towards left-handed hitters similar to that of a slider but with the velocity of a fastball. The sharp, late movement of Rivera's cutter prevented hitters from making contact with the ball on the sweet spot of their bats, leading to them not only making weak contact on batted balls but also frequently breaking their bats. According to a tally by columnist Buster Olney, Rivera broke 44 bats during the 2001 regular season. Chipper Jones, who once witnessed teammate Ryan Klesko break three bats in one plate appearance against Rivera in the 1999 World Series, called the pitch a "buzz saw". Rivera's long fingers and loose wrist allowed him to impart more spin on the ball, contributing to the pitch's movement. Describing his grip of the cutter, he said, "it's really a four-seam fastball with pressure on the middle finger". By adjusting the pressure that he applied to the ball with his fingertips, he could vary the pitch's movement. Rivera threw four-seam and two-seam fastballs as complementary pitches but primarily used his cutter; according to baseball statistics website Fangraphs, 83.3% of his pitches in 2010 were cutters. All three pitches typically reached a velocity in the low-to-mid 90s mph.
Early in his major league career, Rivera was a "power pitcher" who relied on an overpowering four-seam fastball that topped out at 96 mph (154 km/h) to retire hitters. By enticing them to swing and miss at pitches high in the strike zone, he accumulated strikeouts at a high rate. Rivera altered his pitching style after accidentally discovering the cutter. One day in June 1997 during one of his daily warm-up tosses with teammate Ramiro Mendoza, Rivera noticed that his fastballs were moving sharply and unpredictably, a problem that began to occur in games as well. After unsuccessfully spending a month trying to eliminate the movement, Rivera relented and incorporated the cutter into his pitching repertoire, making it one of his primary pitches in 1998. When asked about the pitch's origin, he explained, "It was just from God. I didn't do anything. It was natural." As he came to rely on the cutter, Rivera began to record more outs on batted balls. Consequently, his strikeout rate decreased in subsequent years, dropping from 10.87 strikeouts per 9 innings in 1996 to 5.3 in 1998, but at the benefit of more efficiency; his pitches per inning rate dropped from 18.7 in 1995 to 14.9 in 1998. Rivera credited his improved efficiency and consequent longevity in baseball to his long-time pitching coach Mel Stottlemyre.
Rivera had an impeccable ability to accurately locate pitches and consistently throw strikes, particularly on the inside and outside edges of the strike zone. This strength offset his reliance on one pitch and hitters' anticipation of it. His former catcher Joe Girardi said, "He was so easy to catch because he always put the ball right there. I don't think there's ever been a pitcher that great who was so easy to catch." Rivera's 4.10 career strikeout-to-walk ratio in the regular season ranks tenth-best in major league history. His control was a byproduct of his smooth, easily repeated pitching motion, which some opposing hitters found to be deceptive. One such player, Darrin Fletcher, said in 1999 that Rivera "almost kind of lulls you to sleep with his delivery. It gives you a false sense of security, and then the ball is on you and it's exploding."
Although switch-hitters usually bat left-handed against right-handed pitchers to better see the ball's release point, switch-hitters occasionally batted right-handed when facing the right-handed Rivera to avoid being jammed on their hands by his cutter. Similarly, some managers, such as Bruce Bochy in the 1998 World Series, sent right-handed batters to pinch hit for left-handers against Rivera, thinking that the cutter would be more difficult for lefties to hit. Opposing hitters occasionally chose to face Rivera with backup or batting practice bats, rather than risk breaking their best ones against his cutter.
Rivera was considered an exceptional athlete, distinguished by his slender physique and durability. His propensity to shag balls during batting practice convinced scouts he could be a top AL center fielder. Olney compared Rivera's regimen of physical preparation and guidelines for staying healthy to Satchel Paige's "Rules for Staying Young". Former teammate Alex Rodriguez expressed amazement at Rivera's athleticism and claimed that the pitcher completed a 35-inch vertical jump at Yankees training camp at age 41.
Rivera exhibited a reserved demeanor on the field that contrasted with the emotional, demonstrative temperament of many of his peers. Hall of Fame closer Goose Gossage said that Rivera's composure under stress gave him the appearance of having "ice water in his veins". Commenting on his ability to remain focused in pressure situations, Rivera said, "When you start thinking, a lot of things will happen... If you don't control your emotions, your emotions will control your acts, and that's not good." His ability to compartmentalize his successes and failures impressed fellow reliever Joba Chamberlain, who said, "He's won and lost some of the biggest games in the history of baseball, and he's no worse for the wear when he gives up a home run." Rivera explained the need to quickly forget bad performances, saying "the game that you're going to play tomorrow is not going to be the same game that you just played." Derek Jeter called him the "most mentally tough" teammate with whom he had ever played.
During his playing career, Rivera was regarded as a team leader within the Yankees organization, often mentoring younger pitchers and counseling teammates. He had a team-first mindset and deferred most discussions about individual accolades to team goals and his teammates, praising them for making his presence in games possible. When once asked to describe his job, Rivera put it simply, "I get the ball, I throw the ball, and then I take a shower."
Rivera was a dominant reliever throughout his career, pitching with a consistency and longevity uncharacteristic of a role commonly marked by volatility and high turnover. In his 17-year tenure as the Yankees' closer, Rivera compiled considerable career numbers. A 13-time All-Star, he is the major leagues' all-time regular season leader in saves (652) and games finished (952). He pitched in 1,115 regular season games, which is fourth-most in MLB history, the most in AL history, and the most by a right-handed pitcher. Rivera holds or shares several records for the most seasons of reaching various save milestones, including seasons with at least: 20 saves (sixteen); 25 saves (fifteen consecutive, sixteen non-consecutive); 30 saves (nine consecutive, fifteen non-consecutive); 35 saves (twelve); 40 saves (nine); and 50 saves (two). Rivera's career ERA (2.21) and WHIP (1.00) are the lowest of any MLB pitcher in the live-ball era (minimum 1,000 innings pitched), making him one of the top pitchers since 1920 at preventing hitters from reaching base and scoring. He recorded an ERA under 2.00 in 11 seasons, tying him with Walter Johnson for the most such seasons (minimum 60 innings pitched each). Rivera also ranks first in career adjusted ERA+ (205), a statistic that adjusts ERA for league and ballpark to allow comparisons of pitchers on the same baseline.
In addition to his strong regular season numbers, Rivera excelled in the postseason, recording an 8–1 win–loss record and a 0.76 WHIP. He holds numerous postseason records, including lowest career ERA (minimum 30 innings pitched) (0.70), most saves (42), most consecutive scoreless innings pitched (33 1⁄3), most consecutive save opportunities converted (23), and most games pitched (96). As of 2018, Rivera has saved twice as many postseason games as any other pitcher; Brad Lidge, with 18, had the next-highest total. Joe Torre, who managed Rivera for most of his career, said, "Let's face it. The regular season for Mo is great, but that's the cupcakes and the ice cream. What separates him from everybody else is what he's done in the postseason." Rivera's dominance in the postseason often led to him being utilized for two-inning appearances, as he saved a record 14 postseason games in this manner—more than all other relievers combined during his career. He ranks first all time in win probability added in the postseason with 11.7, nearly three times the total of the next-closest player. In a 2009 ESPN.com poll, Rivera was voted one of the top five postseason players in MLB history.
Rivera achieved a reputation as an all-time great reliever among baseball experts and his peers. Hall of Fame starter-turned-closer Dennis Eckersley called him "the best ever, no doubt", while Trevor Hoffman said he "will go down as the best reliever in the game in history". Torre said, "He's the best I've ever been around. Not only the ability to pitch and perform under pressure, but the calm he puts over the clubhouse." Writer Tom Verducci said, "Rivera is definitively the best at his position by a wider margin than any player at any position in the history of baseball. There is Rivera, a gulf, and then every other closer." He compared Rivera's reputation for being the best at his position to that of Michael Jordan and Wayne Gretzky. MLB Commissioner Bud Selig said, "Clearly unequivocally, he's the greatest relief pitcher of all time, and did it in a way that was remarkable." Speaking about Rivera's looming presence at the end of games, Alex Rodriguez said, "He's the only guy in baseball who can change the game from a seat in the clubhouse or the bullpen. He would start affecting teams as early as the fifth inning, because they knew he was out there. I've never seen anyone who could affect a game like that." Gossage said that Rivera "might be the greatest closer of all-time" but suggested that the modern closer's job has become too specialized and easy compared to multiple-inning "firemen" from Gossage's era; Rivera had only one regular season save of seven-plus outs in his career, whereas Gossage logged 53. In 2016, ESPN.com ranked Rivera 49th on its list of the greatest MLB players.
|Mariano Rivera's number 42 was retired by the New York Yankees in 2013.|
Rivera is well respected throughout baseball for his professionalism. Fellow closer Joe Nathan said, "I look up to how he's handled himself on and off the field... You never see him show up anyone and he respects the game. I've always looked up to him and it's always a compliment to be just mentioned in the same sentence as him." Michael Young said of Rivera, "I respect Mo more than anybody in the game. The guy goes out there, gets three outs and shakes [Jorge] Posada's hand. You appreciate someone who respects the game like he does, respects the people he plays with and against, and obviously his results speak for themselves." In a Sports Illustrated cover story about Rivera that was published in the final week of his career, Verducci said of the pitcher, "Few players in any sport have retired with more reverence from his peers." Rivera was the last MLB player to wear the uniform number 42 on a regular basis; at the time of his retirement, he was the only active player still grandfathered by the league to wear Jackie Robinson's retired number. Speaking about Rivera's connection to her husband, Robinson's widow Rachel said: "[Rivera] carried himself with dignity and grace, and that made carrying the number a tribute to Jack... I've always been proud and pleased that Mariano was the one chosen to wear that number because I think he brought something special to it." Presenting him with the Commissioner's Historic Achievement Award, Selig said: "Throughout his illustrious career, he has represented his family, his country, the Yankees and all of Major League Baseball with the utmost class and dignity. It is wholly appropriate that Mariano was the last Major League player to wear Jackie Robinson's sacred number 42."
Rivera's cut fastball was a respected pitch among major league hitters. Jim Thome called it "the single best pitch ever in the game". David Ortiz echoed his sentiment, saying: "His cutter was the single best pitch I've ever seen, but the really amazing thing is how he was able to do it for so many years. Are there guys now who have stuff as nasty as Mariano? Maybe for one year, two years. But nobody could maintain it like he did." In 2004, ESPN.com ranked his cutter as the best "out pitch" in baseball. Olney described his cut fastball as "the most dominant pitch of a generation". Several of Rivera's colleagues credit him with popularizing the cutter among major league pitchers. Fellow closer Jason Isringhausen, who adopted the pitch later in his career, said: "I think he's been an influence on everybody that throws it. Everybody saw what [Rivera] could do, basically with one pitch. Nobody could throw it like he did, but now, you talk about the evolution of the cutter—just ask hitters about it and they tell you everybody's throwing one. And they hate it." Al Leiter, whose signature pitch was a cutter, echoed Isringhausen's sentiments: "Now, everybody throws it and Mo has had a huge influence on that. Pitchers watched him and marveled at what he did with one pitch." In 2008, Roy Halladay consulted Rivera for help with his own cutter and traced the reliever's suggested grip onto a baseball as a visual reference; Rivera's willingness to help an opponent drew a playful fine from his teammates in the Yankees' kangaroo court.
Rivera was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the BBWAA on January 22, 2019, in his first year of eligibility. He became the first player in major league history to be elected unanimously, appearing on all 425 ballots; the previous record for election percentage was held by Ken Griffey Jr., who received 99.3% of votes in 2016. Rivera was just the second Panamanian to be elected to the Hall of Fame after Rod Carew, and just the eighth relief pitcher.
Rivera and his wife Clara have known each other since elementary school, and they were married on November 9, 1991. They have three sons: Mariano III, Jafet, and Jaziel. The family lived in Panama until 2000, when they relocated to Westchester County, New York; they currently reside in Rye, New York. Mariano III pitched for Iona College in New Rochelle, not far from his home. He was drafted by the Yankees with the 872nd pick in the 2014 MLB draft, but decided to return to Iona for his junior year. In the following year's draft, Mariano III was selected by the Washington Nationals in the 4th round with the 134th overall pick.
Over the course of his professional career, Rivera learned English, beginning in 1991 with the Greensboro Hornets, when he realized none of his teammates spoke his native Spanish. He is now a proponent of Latino players learning English and of American press members learning Spanish, in order to bridge the cultural gap. Rivera became a naturalized citizen of the United States in October 2015, and was recognized as an Outstanding American by Choice during the ceremony.
In February 2019, a Panamanian woman accused Rivera of failing to financially support her two children, a boy and a girl then aged 11 and 15, that were allegedly conceived with Rivera out of wedlock. Five lawsuits were filed in his native country demanding child support that he allegedly stopped paying two years earlier. He called the demands "unfounded."
Rivera is a devout Christian. During his childhood, neither he nor his family attended church, but after a born-again experience around the age of 21, Rivera became religious and converted from Catholicism to a Pentecostal faith. His parents followed his lead after seeing the difference it made in him. Rivera believes that God has a reason for everything that happens. For example, he found his failure in Game 7 of the 2001 World Series easier to deal with when he learned of the consequences it had for teammate Enrique Wilson. Had the Yankees won the series, Wilson would have remained in New York for the championship parade and would have departed for his native Dominican Republic on American Airlines Flight 587, which crashed shortly after takeoff and killed all 260 people aboard. Rivera told Wilson, "I am glad we lost the World Series, because it means that I still have a friend." Rivera's pitching glove was inscribed "Phil. 4:13", in reference to the Bible verse Philippians 4:13 ("I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me").
Rivera is involved with philanthropic efforts in several countries. The Mariano Rivera Foundation, a 501(c)(3) organization established in July 1998, helps provide underprivileged children with an education, distributing more than $500,000 annually in the US and Rivera's native Panama through church-based institutions. His contributions in Panama include building an elementary school, providing Christmas gifts to children, and developing a program that provides computer access and adult mentors to youths. In addition to funding church start-ups in Panama, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, California, and Florida, Rivera opened a church in New Rochelle in March 2014 that his foundation renovated at a cost of $3 million. The church, named Refugio de Esperanza ("Refuge of Hope"), has his wife Clara as its pastor and hosts a Pentecostal congregation that previously met at the Rivera home.
For years, the Mariano Rivera Foundation was a private institution, but during his final baseball season in 2013, many teams wanted to commemorate the pitcher by donating to his foundation. As a result, he formed a public version of it; Naomi Gandia was appointed executive director and works out of their headquarters in Stanton, Delaware. Since retiring from baseball, Rivera has dedicated himself to philanthropy and his churches. In 2014, he and Clara created a scholarship in their names that they have awarded to students at the local College of New Rochelle. Recently, Rivera has organized an annual charity golf tournament that benefits White Plains Hospital and his foundation. He also holds multiple events annually in Delaware, including giveaways of backpacks with school supplies to children, distribution of turkey dinners during the holiday season, and the "Mariano Rivera Foundation 5K & Kids Run".
In 2012, the Giving Back Fund estimated that Rivera donated $627,500 to charity in 2010, ranking him as the 25th-most generous celebrity on a list that the fund compiled. He won the 2013 Marvin Miller Man of the Year Award, which is given to the MLB player "who inspires others through his on-field performances and contributions to his community".
Rivera was an investor in two New York area restaurants: "Clubhouse Grill", which opened in New Rochelle in 2006 as "Mo's New York Grill"; and Siro's, which opened in Manhattan in 2012. Both restaurants have since closed. In 2015, he opened a Toyota and Scion car dealership in Mount Kisco, New York. Rivera has been a celebrity spokesman for several companies, including: Nike sports apparel; Canali, a premium men's clothing company, as their first athlete spokesperson; Skechers footwear; and Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc. Rivera donated all his earnings from endorsement deals to his foundation. A 2011 list by the marketing firm Nielsen ranked him as the second-most marketable player in baseball behind only Derek Jeter; the list accounted for personal attributes such as sincerity, approachability, experience, and influence. Based on sales figures from Majestic Athletic, Rivera had the 18th-best-selling MLB jersey in 2011, and the top-selling jersey in the second half of 2013. He earned approximately $169.6 million in salary during his baseball career, ten percent of which he donated to his foundation.
In March 2014, Rivera was twice recognized for his philanthropic efforts, receiving the ROBIE Humanitarian Award from the Jackie Robinson Foundation, as well as a Jefferson Award for Public Service. Later that month, the "Legends Series", comprising two MLB exhibition games between the Yankees and Miami Marlins, was played in Rivera's native Panama to "honor [his] legacy"; he helped promote the games, which were supplemented by charitable events and a gala benefiting his foundation. On April 9, 2014, MLB announced that a new annual award for relief pitchers, the Reliever of the Year Award, would replace the existing Delivery Man of the Year Award, and that the AL honor would be named after Rivera. The following month, a section of River Avenue bordering Yankee Stadium at 161st Street was renamed "Rivera Avenue" in the pitcher's honor. This coincided with the release of his autobiography, The Closer: My Story, co-authored with Wayne Coffey. New York University bestowed an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree upon Rivera during its commencement ceremony at Yankee Stadium on May 21, 2014. During the 2015 Little League World Series, he was inducted into the Little League Hall of Excellence. The Yankees dedicated a plaque to Rivera in Yankee Stadium's Monument Park on August 14, 2016. In May 2018, Rivera was nominated to co-chair the President's Council on Sports, Fitness, and Nutrition.
|Award/Honor||# of Times||Dates||Refs|
|All-Star Game MVP Award||1||2013|||
|American League All-Star||13||1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013|||
|American League Championship Series MVP Award[a]||1||2003|||
|American League Comeback Player of the Year Award||1||2013|||
|American League Player of the Week||3||May 26–June 1, 2008; June 22–28, 2009; September 19–25, 2011|||
|American League Rolaids Relief Man Award[b]||5||1999, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2009|||
|Babe Ruth Award||1||1999|||
|Commissioner's Historic Achievement Award||1||2013|||
|Clutch Performer of the Month||1||June 2010|||
|Delivery Man of the Year Award[c]||3||2005, 2006, 2009|||
|Delivery Man of the Month Award||2||April 2008, July 2009|||
|Marvin Miller Man of the Year Award||1||2013|||
|Sporting News Comeback Player of the Year Award||1||2013|||
|Sporting News Pro Athlete of the Year Award||1||2009|||
|Sporting News Reliever of the Year Award[c]||6||1997, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2009|||
|This Year in Baseball's Closer of the Year Award[c]||4||2004, 2005, 2006, 2009|||
|Thurman Munson Award||1||2003|||
|World Series MVP Award[a]||1||1999|||
|World Series champion||5||1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2009|||
|Most career saves||652|||
|Most career games finished||952|||
|Highest career adjusted ERA+ (minimum 1,000 innings pitched)||205|||
|Most career games pitched with single team
Most career games pitched in American League history
Most career games pitched by right-handed pitcher
|Most consecutive seasons with at least one save[a]||18 (1996–2013)|||
|Most seasons with at least 20 saves
Most seasons with at least 25 saves
|16 (1997–2011, 2013)|||
|Most consecutive seasons with at least 25 saves||15 (1997–2011)|||
|Most seasons with at least 30 saves||15 (1997–2001, 2003–11, 2013)|||
|Most consecutive seasons with at least 30 saves||9 (2003–11)|||
|Most seasons with at least 35 saves[b]||12 (1997–2001, 2003–05,
2008–09, 2011, 2013)
|Most seasons with at least 40 saves[b]||9 (1997, 1999, 2001, 2003–05,
2009, 2011, 2013)
|Most seasons with at least 50 saves[c]||2 (2001, 2004)|||
|Most seasons with sub-2.00 ERA (minimum 60 innings pitched each)[d]
Most seasons with 20-plus saves and sub-2.00 ERA
|11 (1997–99, 2003–06, 2008–11)|||
|Most seasons with at least 20 saves, sub-2.00 ERA, and sub-1.00 WHIP||7 (1999, 2005–06, 2008–11)|||
|Most career saves for a single winning pitcher||72 (Andy Pettitte)|||
|Most career interleague saves||75|||
|Most career saves in a single ballpark||230 (original Yankee Stadium)|||
|Lowest career ERA (minimum 30 innings pitched)||0.70|||
|Most career saves||42|||
|Most consecutive scoreless innings pitched||33 1⁄3|||
|Most consecutive save opportunities converted||23|||
|Most consecutive scoreless appearances||23|||
|Most career two-inning saves||14|||
|Most career games pitched||96|||
|Most career saves in each postseason round||18 (DS), 13 (LCS), 11 (WS)|||
|Most career games pitched in each postseason round||39 (DS), 33 (LCS), 24 (WS)|||
|Lowest career ERA in Division Series history (minimum 20 innings pitched)||0.32|||
|Most career saves to clinch series||8|||
|Most games finished to clinch series||16|||
|Most games finished to clinch World Series championship||4|||
|Most All-Star selections as reliever||13|||
|Most career saves||4|||
|Most career games pitched||1,115|||
|Highest career wins above replacement for a pitcher||56.3|||
|Highest career win probability added for a pitcher||56.6|||
|Most saves in single season||53 (2004)|||
|Lowest career WHIP (minimum 500 innings pitched)||1.00|||
|Highest strikeouts per 9 innings in single season||10.87 (1996)|||
|Most consecutive save opportunities converted||36|||
|Most games finished in single season||69 (2004)|||
Mariano Rivera gets his 25th save in Game 1, reaching the plateau for the 16th time to extend his all time record
The 1998 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 1998 season. The 94th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the American League (AL) champion New York Yankees and the National League (NL) champion San Diego Padres. The Yankees swept the Series in four games to win their second World Series championship in three years and their 24th overall. Yankees third baseman Scott Brosius was named the World Series Most Valuable Player.
The Yankees advanced to the World Series by defeating the Texas Rangers in the AL Division Series, three games to none, and then the Cleveland Indians in the AL Championship Series, four games to two. The Padres advanced to the series by defeating the Houston Astros in the NL Division Series, three games to one, and then the Atlanta Braves in the NL Championship Series, four games to two. It was the Yankees' second appearance in the World Series in three years, and San Diego's second World Series appearance overall, their first since losing in 1984.
This was officially the first World Series that Bud Selig presided over as Commissioner of Baseball, although he had presided over the Commissioner's Trophy presentation at the end of the 1995 and 1997 World Series as the interim Commissioner. For the first time, the same city—San Diego—hosted both the final World Series game and the Super Bowl the same year; not only were they held in the same city, they were both also held in the same stadium, Qualcomm Stadium.1999 World Series
The 1999 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 1999 season. The 95th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the defending American League (AL) and World Series champion New York Yankees and the National League (NL) champion Atlanta Braves. The Yankees swept the Series in four games for their second consecutive title, third in four years, and 25th overall. Yankees closer Mariano Rivera was named the World Series Most Valuable Player.
The Yankees advanced to the World Series by defeating the Texas Rangers in the AL Division Series, three games to none, and then the Boston Red Sox in the AL Championship Series, four games to one. The Braves advanced to the series by defeating the Houston Astros in the NL Division Series, three games to one, and then the New York Mets in the NL Championship Series, four games to two. The matchup between the Yankees and Braves was a rematch of the 1996 World Series, in which the Yankees also prevailed. It is remembered for Chad Curtis's walk-off home run in Game 3, which gave the Yankees a 6–5 victory, and Game 2's infamous interview of Pete Rose by Jim Gray on NBC. This was the first World Series to feature both number-one seeds from the AL and NL, which would not repeat again until 2013.2001 American League Championship Series
The 2001 American League Championship Series (ALCS) was a rematch of the 2000 ALCS between the New York Yankees, who had come off a dramatic comeback against the Oakland Athletics in the Division Series after being down two games to zero, and the Seattle Mariners, who had won their Division Series against the Cleveland Indians in five games. The series had additional poignancy, coming immediately after downtown New York City was devastated by the events of September 11, 2001 (the series was played in late October due to Major League Baseball temporarily shutting down in the wake of the attacks). The Yankees would go on to lose to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the World Series.
Though the Mariners had won an American League record 116 regular season games (tying the major league record established by the 1906 Chicago Cubs), and had home field advantage, the Yankees won the first two games in Seattle. The Mariners' manager, former Yankee player and manager Lou Piniella, guaranteed after Game 2 that the Mariners would win at least two of the next three games in New York to return the series to Seattle. But the Yankees closed out the series in New York, beating the Mariners four games to one. The series ended with a 12–3 Yankees victory in Game 5.2001 World Series
The 2001 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2001 season. The 97th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the National League (NL) champion Arizona Diamondbacks and the three-time defending World Series champions and American League (AL) champion New York Yankees. The Diamondbacks defeated the Yankees, four games to three to win the series. Considered one of the greatest World Series of all time, memorable aspects included two extra-inning games and three late-inning comebacks. Diamondbacks pitchers Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling were both named World Series Most Valuable Players.
The Yankees advanced to the World Series by defeating the Oakland Athletics, three games to two, in the AL Division Series, and then the Seattle Mariners in the AL Championship Series, four games to one. It was the Yankees' fourth consecutive World Series appearance, after winning championships in 1998, 1999, and 2000. The Diamondbacks advanced to the World Series by defeating the St. Louis Cardinals, three games to two, in the NL Division Series, and then the Atlanta Braves in the NL Championship Series, four games to one. It was the franchise's first appearance in a World Series.
The Series began later than usual as a result of a delay in the regular season after the September 11 attacks and was the first to extend into November. The Diamondbacks won the first two games at home, limiting the Yankees to just one run. The Yankees responded with a close win in game 3, at which US President George W. Bush threw out the ceremonial first pitch. In games 4 and 5, the Yankees won in comeback fashion, hitting game-tying home runs off Diamondbacks closer Byung-hyun Kim with one out remaining in consecutive games, before winning in extra innings. The Diamondbacks won game 6 in blowout, forcing a decisive game 7. In the final game, the Yankees led in the ninth inning before the Diamondbacks staged a comeback against closer Mariano Rivera, capped off by a walk-off, bases-loaded bloop single by Luis Gonzalez to clinch Arizona's championship victory. This was the third World Series to end in a bases-loaded, walk-off hit, following 1991 and 1997.
Among several firsts, the 2001 World Series was: the first World Series championship for the Diamondbacks; the first World Series ever played in the state of Arizona and the Mountain Time Zone; the first championship for a Far West state other than California; the first major professional sports team from the state of Arizona to win a championship; and the earliest an MLB franchise had ever won a World Series (the Diamondbacks had only existed for four years). The home team won every game in the Series, which had only happened twice before, in 1987 and 1991. The Diamondbacks outscored the Yankees, 37–14, as a result of large margins of victory achieved by Arizona at Bank One Ballpark relative to the one-run margins the Yankees achieved at Yankee Stadium. Arizona's pitching held powerhouse New York to a .183 batting average, the lowest in a seven-game World Series. This and the 2002 World Series were the last two consecutive World Series to have game sevens until the World Series of 2016 and 2017. The 2001 World Series was the subject of an HBO documentary, Nine Innings from Ground Zero, in 2004.2003 American League Championship Series
The 2003 American League Championship Series (ALCS) was played between the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees from October 8 to 16, 2003. The Yankees won the series four games to three to advance to the World Series, where they lost in six games to the National League champion Florida Marlins.300 save club
In Major League Baseball (MLB), the 300 save club is the group of pitchers who have recorded 300 or more regular-season saves in their careers. Most commonly a relief pitcher ("reliever" or "closer") earns a save by being the final pitcher of a game in which his team is winning by three or fewer runs and pitching at least one inning without losing the lead. The final pitcher of a game can also earn a save by getting at least one batter out to end the game with the winning run on base, at bat, or on deck, or by pitching at least three innings without relinquishing the lead, regardless of score.
The statistic was created by Jerome Holtzman in 1959 to "measure the effectiveness of relief pitchers" and was adopted as an official statistic by MLB in 1969. The save has been retroactively measured for past pitchers where applicable. Hoyt Wilhelm retired in 1972 and recorded just 31 saves from 1969 onwards, for example, but holds 227 total career saves.Mariano Rivera holds the MLB save record with 652. Only Rivera and Trevor Hoffman have exceeded 500 or 600 saves, and Hoffman was the first to achieve either. Rivera, Hoffman, Lee Smith, Francisco Rodríguez, John Franco, and Billy Wagner are the only pitchers to have recorded 400 or more saves. Rollie Fingers was the first player to record 300 saves, reaching the mark on April 21, 1982. Craig Kimbrel is the most recent, achieving his 300th on May 5, 2018. In total, 29 players have recorded 300 or more saves in their career. Only eight relievers – Dennis Eckersley, Fingers, Goose Gossage, Hoffman, Rivera, Smith, Bruce Sutter, and Wilhelm – have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame; all but Wilhelm are also members of the 300 saves club. Kimbrel and Fernando Rodney are the only members of the 300 save club who are still active players. Of them, Kimbrel is the active leader in saves with 333.Closer (baseball)
In baseball, a closing pitcher, more frequently referred to as a closer (abbreviated CL), is a relief pitcher who specializes in getting the final outs in a close game when his team is leading. The role is often assigned to a team's best reliever. Before the 1990s, pitchers in similar roles were referred to as a fireman, short reliever, and stopper. A small number of closers have won the Cy Young Award. Mariano Rivera, Dennis Eckersley, Trevor Hoffman, Rollie Fingers, Goose Gossage, Bruce Sutter and Hoyt Wilhelm are closers who have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.Core Four
The "Core Four" are the former New York Yankees baseball players Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, and Mariano Rivera. All four players were drafted or originally signed as amateurs by the Yankees in the early 1990s. They played together in the minor leagues, and made their Yankee major league debuts in 1995. Each of them was a key contributor to the Yankees' late-1990s dynasty that won four World Series championships in five years. By 2007, they were the only remaining Yankees from the franchise's dynasty of the previous decade. All four players were on the Yankees' active roster in 2009 when the team won the 2009 World Series—its fifth championship in the previous 14 years.
Three members of the Core Four—Jeter, Rivera and Posada—played together for 17 consecutive years (1995–2011), longer than any other similar group in North American professional sports. Pettitte had a sojourn away from the team when he played for the Houston Astros for three seasons, before returning to the Yankees in 2007. He retired after the 2010 season, reducing the group to the so-called Key Three. Posada followed suit after 2011, ending his 17-year career with the Yankees. Pettitte came out of retirement prior to the 2012 season and played for two more years. Both Pettitte and Rivera retired after the 2013 season, and Jeter retired after the 2014 season.La Chorrera, Panama
La Chorrera (Spanish pronunciation: [la tʃoˈreɾa]) is a city and municipality in central Panama, located about 30 km south-west of Panama City. Is the capital of the province of Panamá Oeste and one of the larger cities in the country and is fond of the phrase "La Bella, Enamoradora y Querendona, La Gran Chorrera", reportedly as a tribute to its beautiful women, kind people, and happy nightlife.
La Chorrera is renowned for its international fair and famous as being the home of Bollo and Chicheme. It's the home of San Francisco F.C., Mariano Rivera (five-times World Series champion with the New York Yankees), Vicente Mosquera (former World Boxing Champion), and José Luis Garcés.List of Major League Baseball career games finished leaders
In baseball statistics, a relief pitcher is credited with a game finished (denoted by GF) if he is the last pitcher to pitch for his team in a game. A starting pitcher is not credited with a GF for pitching a complete game.
Mariano Rivera is the all-time leader in games finished with 952. Rivera is the only pitcher in MLB history to finish more than 900 career games. Trevor Hoffman and Lee Smith are the only other pitchers to finish more than 800 games in their careers.List of Major League Baseball career records
In Major League Baseball (MLB), records play an integral part in evaluating a player's impact on the sport. Holding a career record almost guarantees a player eventual entry into the Baseball Hall of Fame because it represents both longevity and consistency over a long period of time.Luis Mariano Rivera
Luis Mariano Rivera (1906-2002) was a Venezuelan singer, composer, poet, and dramatist.
He was born on August 19, 1906 and was a self-taught musician. He wrote hundreds of songs that have been performed by musicians including Morella Muñoz, Jesús Sevillano, Gualberto Ibarreto, Juan Carlos Salazar, Cecilia Todd, Lilia Vera, Simón Díaz, Serenata Guayanesa and Un Solo Pueblo. Biographer Rafael Salazar wrote in his book “Luis Mariano Rivera, Poet and Singer of Express Canchunchú”: “Few popular poets and musicians have had the privilege to be recognized by so many people, regional and national institutions”. Luis Mariano Rivera died on March 15, 2002.Major League Baseball Reliever of the Year Award
Major League Baseball (MLB) annually honors its best relief pitchers in the American League (AL) and National League (NL) with the Mariano Rivera AL Reliever of the Year Award and Trevor Hoffman NL Reliever of the Year Award, respectively. The awards are named after Mariano Rivera and Trevor Hoffman, who played their entire careers in the respective leagues. First issued in 2014, the awards replaced the Major League Baseball Delivery Man of the Year Award, which had been presented since 2005. Also in 2014, the Major League Baseball Delivery Man of the Month Award was discontinued. The Reliever of the Year Award winners had all been closers until 2018, when Josh Hader of the Milwaukee Brewers won as a setup man.
The Reliever of the Year Awards are based on the votes of a panel of retired relievers. Each voter selects three pitchers for each league based solely on their performance in the regular season; a 5-3-1 weighted point system is used to determine the winner. At its inception in 2014, the panel consisted of the top five relievers in career saves at the time—Rivera, Hoffman, Lee Smith, John Franco, and Billy Wagner—and the four living relief pitchers who were in the Hall of Fame: Dennis Eckersley, Rollie Fingers, Goose Gossage, and Bruce Sutter.Mariano Rivera Paz
Mariano Rivera Paz (24 December 1804 – 26 February 1849) was Head of State of Guatemala and its first president.Puerto Caimito
Puerto Caimito is a town and corregimiento in La Chorrera District, Panamá Oeste Province, Panama with a population of 16,951 as of 2010. Its population as of 1990 was 3,623; its population as of 2000 was 7,198. It was the boyhood home of New York Yankees relief pitcher Mariano Rivera.Rolaids Relief Man Award
The Rolaids Relief Man Award was an annual Major League Baseball (MLB) award given from 1976 to 2012 to the top relief pitchers of the regular season, one in the American League (AL) and one in the National League (NL). Relief pitchers are the pitchers who enter the game after the starting pitcher is removed. The award was sponsored by Rolaids, whose slogan was "R-O-L-A-I-D-S spells relief." Because the first closers were nicknamed "firemen", a reference to "putting out the fire" of another team's rally, the trophy was a gold-plated firefighter's helmet. Unlike other awards, such as the Cy Young Award or the MLB Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award, the Relief Man was based on statistical performance, rather than votes. Each save was worth three points; each win was worth two points; and each loss was worth negative two points. Beginning with the 1987 MLB season, negative two points were given for blown saves. In the 2000 MLB season, the term "tough save", which was worth an additional point, was introduced by Rolaids. A "tough save" happened when a relief pitcher entered the game already having the potential tying run on base, and got the save. The player with the highest point total won the award.The inaugural award winners were Bill Campbell (AL) and Rawly Eastwick (NL); Campbell also won in the following season. Dan Quisenberry and Mariano Rivera each won the AL award five times, while Rollie Fingers and Bruce Sutter won the award four times each. Lee Smith won the award on three occasions; Campbell, Dennis Eckersley, Dave Righetti, John Franco, Éric Gagné, Randy Myers, Trevor Hoffman, Francisco Rodríguez, Heath Bell, and José Valverde each won the award twice. Sutter (NL 1979), Fingers (AL 1981), Steve Bedrosian (NL 1987), Mark Davis (NL 1989), Eckersley (AL 1992), and Éric Gagné (NL 2003) won the Relief Man and the Cy Young Award in the same season; Fingers and Eckersley won the AL MVP as well, in 1981 and 1992 respectively. Todd Worrell won both the Relief Man and the MLB Rookie of the Year Award in the 1986 MLB season. Rivera and Joe Nathan were the only relief pitchers to have tied in points for the award, and both were awarded in 2009. Goose Gossage, Fingers, Eckersley, Hoffman, Rivera, Smith, John Smoltz and Sutter were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. Craig Kimbrel (NL) and Jim Johnson (AL) were the final award winners in 2012. Sanofi acquired Rolaids from Johnson & Johnson unit McNeil Consumer Healthcare in 2013, but the award was not continued as a part of its marketing strategy.Save (baseball)
In baseball, a save (abbreviated SV or S) is credited to a pitcher who finishes a game for the winning team under certain prescribed circumstances, described below. The number of saves, or percentage of save opportunities successfully converted, is an oft-cited statistic of relief pitchers, particularly those in the closer role. It became an official Major League Baseball (MLB) statistic in 1969. Mariano Rivera is MLB's all-time leader in regular season saves with 652.Shagging (baseball)
In baseball, shagging is the act of catching fly balls in the outfield outside the context of an actual baseball game. This is most commonly done by pitchers during batting practice before a game, where they assist their hitting teammates by catching or picking up their batted baseballs and throwing them back to the pitching area in the infield. Batboys also help shagging, and it is reportedly considered a great honor among batboys to be asked to do this. This pre-game activity is widely disliked by pitchers, who argue that it does not benefit them at all, since it drains their energy and actually increases the risk of stiffness in the lower back and leg as a result of prolonged standing. In response to these claims, several teams have exempted pitchers from having to shag. In the Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) league, teams pay groups specifically assembled to shag fly balls in place of pitchers, and the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim recruit local firefighters in Arizona to do the job when the team plays in the Cactus League during spring training.Yankeeography
Yankeeography is a biography-style television program that chronicles the lives and careers of the players, coaches, and other notable personnel associated with the New York Yankees Major League Baseball team. The series is aired on the YES Network and is produced by MLB Productions. The series is hosted by Yankees radio personality John Sterling. The series has earned five New York Sports Emmy Awards since its inception. In addition to airing on YES, MLB Productions has packaged many of the shows into DVD boxed sets.
After debuting as a weekly show with the 2002 launch of YES, Yankeeography only debuts new episodes periodically (as there are fewer prominent Yankees yet to be spotlighted). For instance, four episodes premiered in 2006: Tino Martinez, David Cone, the Yankees' 1996 World Series team, and Billy Martin. All Yankees with retired numbers have had shows completed with the exception of Bill Dickey. The show has been criticized for producing episodes on players who remain active while Hall of Famers from much earlier eras such as Jack Chesbro, Tony Lazzeri, Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez were not profiled. Some profiles have been updated to reflect new developments.