Marhaenism (Indonesian: Marhaenisme) is a socialistic political ideology originating in Indonesia. An adherent of Marhaenism is known as a Marhaenist. It was developed by the first President of Indonesia, Sukarno.[1]

Some scholars argue that Marhaenism is a variant of Marxism.[2] It emphasizes national unity, culture, and collectivist economics. It was established as an anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist ideology. It promotes democratic rights in opposition to authoritarianism, while condemning liberalism and individualism. It combines both western and eastern principles.[3] Marhaenism is the guiding ideology of the Indonesian National Party Marhaenism and the now defunct Parti Marhaen Malaysia.


The name of the ideology is said to be taken that of a land-poor farmer named Marhaen, whom Sukarno met in Priangan. Sukarno attributed the farmer's poverty to a lack of access to production tools. Sukarno thenceforth took to referring to members of the agrarian class as "Marhaens".[4]


  1. ^ Leifer, Michael (2001). Dictionary of the modern politics of South-East Asia (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415238755.
  2. ^ Lev, Daniel S. (2009). The transition to guided democracy : Indonesian politics, 1957-1959 ([New ed.]. ed.). Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. ISBN 978-6028397407.
  3. ^ Holt, [edited by] Claire (2007). Culture and politics in Indonesia (1st Equinox ed.). Jakarta: Equinox Pub. ISBN 978-9793780573.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Soekarno (2004). Pokok-pokok ajaran marhaenisme menurut Bung Karno (Cet. 3. ed.). Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo. ISBN 978-9799222923.
Agrarian socialism

Agrarian socialism is a political ideology which combines an agrarian way of life with a socialist economic system.

Buddhist socialism

Buddhist socialism is a political ideology which advocates socialism based on the principles of Buddhism. Both Buddhism and socialism seek to provide an end to suffering by analyzing its conditions and removing its main causes through praxis. Both also seek to provide a transformation of personal consciousness (respectively, spiritual and political) to bring an end to human alienation and selfishness.People who have been described as Buddhist socialists include Buddhadasa Bhikkhu, B. R. Ambedkar, Han Yong-un, Seno’o Girō, U Nu and Norodom Sihanouk.Buddhadasa Bhikku coined the phrase "Dhammic socialism". He believed that Socialism is a natural state meaning all things exist together in one system.

Look at the birds: we will see that they eat only as much food as their stomachs can hold. They cannot take more than that; they don’t have granaries. Look down at the ants and insects: that is all they can do. Look at the trees: trees imbibe only as much nourishment and water as the trunk can hold, and cannot take in any more than that. Therefore a system in which people cannot encroach on each other’s rights or plunder their possessions is in accordance with nature and occurs naturally, and that is how it has become a society continued to be one, until trees became abundant, animals became abundant, and eventually human beings became abundant in the world. The freedom to hoard was tightly controlled by nature in the form of natural socialism.

Han Yong-un felt that equality was one of the main principles of Buddhism. In an interview published in 1931, Yong-un spoke of his desire to explore Buddhist Socialism.

I am recently planning to write about Buddhist socialism. Just like there is Christian socialism as a system of ideas in Christianity, there must be also Buddhist socialism in Buddhism.

Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama of Tibet has said that:

Of all the modern economic theories, the economic system of Marxism is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability. (...) The failure of the regime in the former Soviet Union was, for me, not the failure of Marxism but the failure of totalitarianism. For this reason I still think of myself as half-Marxist, half-Buddhist.

Charles Hall (economist)

Charles Hall (1740–1825) was a British physician, social critic and Ricardian socialist who published The Effects of Civilization on the People in European States in 1805, condemning capitalism for its inability to provide for the poor. In the book, Hall argued that inequalities in wealth and the production of luxuries led to the exploitation of the poor, and their suffering. Hall famously claimed that the exploitation of the poor was so severe that they "retained only the product of one hour's work out of eight".As a remedy for the problems in society, Hall proposed land reform and progressive taxation. His views and economic theory, particularly his views on severe exploitation of the poor, were important to the development of Marxism, and have led many to consider him one of the earliest socialists.

Fifth International

The phrase Fifth International refers to the efforts made by groups of socialists to create a new Workers' International.

Gandhian socialism

Gandhian socialism is the branch of socialism based on the nationalist interpretation of the theories of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhian socialism generally centres on Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule authored by Gandhi.

Federation of political and economical power and demonstrating a traditionalist reluctance towards the modernisation of technology and large scale industrialisation whilst emphasising self-employment and self-reliance are key features of Gandhian socialism.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee of the right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and other party leaders incorporated Gandhian socialism as one of the concepts for the party.

Indonesian National Party

The Indonesian National Party (Indonesian: Partai Nasional Indonesia, PNI) is the name used by several political parties in Indonesia from 1927 until the present day.

Indonesian National Party Marhaenism

The Indonesian National Party of Marhaenism (Indonesian: Partai Nasional Indonesia Marhaenisme) is a political party in Indonesia.

On 26 October 1995, former Indonesian National Party member Supeni established the Indonesian National Union (PNI). With the 1998 fall of President Suharto, came the chance to revive the Indonesian National Party. At a meeting on 20 May 1998 it was decided to change the name of the Indonesian National Union, and on 17 June 1998 the Indonesian National Party (PNI) was declared. It subsequently became known as PNI-Supeni to distinguish it from the other versions of the PNI, all claiming to be descendants of the old party. In December 1998 PNI-Supeni merged with PNI-Masa Marhaen, and contested the 1999 legislative election, winning 0.33% of votes, and gaining one seat in the People's Representative Council. After the election, the party name was changed to Indonesian National Party of Marhaenism so the party could compete in the 2004 elections. On 4 July 2000, Sukmawati Sukarnoputri, one of the daughters of Indonesia's first president, Sukarno, became party chairwoman. The party won 0.8% of the votes and again finished with one seat in the People's Representative Council. The party contested the 2009 legislative election, but won only 0.3 percent of the vote, less than the 2.5 percent electoral threshold, thereby losing its only seat in the People's Representative Council.

Labor-time calculation

Labor-time calculation is a method of economic calculation that uses labor time as the basic unit of accounting and valuation. This method of calculation was advocated by the economists Otto Bauer, Helene Bauer and Otto Leichter as an alternative to calculation in kind for a socialist economy. Otto Leichter criticized in-kind calculation on the basis that rational accounting required a general unit for comparing costs of heterogeneous goods.

The basis for labor-time calculation is found in Karl Marx's analysis of value in capitalism. However, Marx was vehemently opposed to any proposal for using labor-time as the basis for socialist calculation because his concept of socially necessary labor time was a conceptual framework for understanding and analyzing value in capitalism. In Marx's view socialism would operate according to its own economic "laws of motion" distinct from those of capitalism.

List of political parties in Indonesia

Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In the four legislative elections since the fall of the New Order regime, no political party has won an overall majority of seats, resulting in coalition governments.

All political parties must have Pancasila as one of their ideologies, a remnant of its sacred status as single ideology, especially during the New Order.

List of socialist economists

This article lists notable socialist economists and political economists.

Parti Marhaen Malaysia

Parti Marhaen Malaysia (PMM) was a former left-wing party formed by Ahmad Boestamam.


Partindo (Indonesia Party) (Indonesian: Partai Indonesia) was a nationalist political party in Indonesia that existed before independence and was revived in 1957 as a leftist party.


The Indonesian Marhaen People's Union (Indonesian: Persatuan Rakyat Marhaen Indonesia), generally known by its acronym Permai (meaning 'beautiful'), was a social movement in Indonesia, functioning both as a political party and an Abangan mystical association. The organisation was founded on 17 December 1945. Permai was led by Mei Kartawinata.Permai called its doctrine Marhaenism. It beliefs were said to have been revealed to the Permai founder during meditation. The movement claimed to practice 'pure native science', i.e. pre-Hindu and pre-Islamic 'original' Javanese beliefs. This set of ideas was combined with support for Indonesian Pancasila nationalism. Permai was strongly opposed to Islam, arguing that it was a foreign religion, in contradiction to Javanese culture and traditions. On the other hand, whilst officially rejecting Hinduism, the movement had incorporated many Hindu practices into its doctrine.In February 1948 the Tan Malaka-led Revolutionary People's Movement was founded, with Permai as one of its constituents.The outspoken anti-Islamic profile of Permai brought it into collision with Islamist political forces. In 1954 mass protests were launched against statements made by the Permai leader Mei Kartawinata. According to some accounts, these protests mustered half a million participants. Also, the holding of Permai weddings and funerals provoked clashes with Muslim organizations (Permai was not a recognized religion, and thus these ceremonies had no official stature).Permai obtained 149,287 votes in the 1955 legislative election (0.4% of the national vote), and won a seat in the parliament. After the election, the Permai MP joined the National Progressive Fraction, a body of ten MPs from Java. In the 1955 Constituent Assembly election, the party obtained 164,386 votes (0.43%) and two seats in the assembly.


Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement. Within the socialist movement, reformism is the view that gradual changes through existing institutions can eventually lead to fundamental changes in a society’s political and economic systems. Reformism as a political tendency and hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism, which contends that revolutionary upheaval is a necessary precondition for the structural changes necessary to transform a capitalist system to a qualitatively different socialist economic system.

As a doctrine, reformism is distinguished from the act of pragmatic reform which instead aims to safeguard and permeate the status quo by preventing fundamental structural changes to it whereas reformism posits that an accumulation of reforms can eventually lead to the emergence of entirely different economic and political systems than those of present-day capitalism and democracy.

Religious socialism

Religious socialism is any form of socialism based on religious values. Members of several major religions have found that their beliefs about human society fit with socialist principles and ideas. As a result, religious socialist movements have developed within these religions. Such movements include:

Buddhist socialism

Christian socialism

Hindu socialism

Islamic socialism

Jewish socialism

Socialism in Australia

Socialism in Australia dates back to the earliest pioneers of the area.

Socialism in Sri Lanka

Socialism in Sri Lanka or Sri Lankan socialism is a political philosophy that is shared by various political parties of the country. Socialist parties specially the Trotskyist Lanka Sama Samaja Party has played a major role in the country's history from the time of the Sri Lankan Independence movement. Socialist ideology shaped the principal economic and social policies of Sirimavo Bandaranaike and the Sri Lanka Freedom Party during the 1970s. Several sectors of the economy including banking,insurance and some privately owned estates were nationalized during her tenure.Bread and several esstential items were rationed by the government at the time.

Socialism of the 21st century

Socialism of the 21st century (Spanish: socialismo del siglo XXI) is an interpretation of socialist principles first advocated by German sociologist and political analyst Heinz Dieterich and taken up by a number of Latin American leaders. Dieterich argued in 1996 that both free market industrial capitalism and 20th-century socialism have failed to solve urgent problems of humanity like poverty, hunger, exploitation, economic oppression, sexism, racism, the destruction of natural resources, and the absence of a truly participative democracy. Socialism of the 21st century has democratic socialist elements, but it primarily resembles Marxist revisionism.Leaders who have advocated for this form of socialism include Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, Néstor Kirchner of Argentina, Rafael Correa of Ecuador, Evo Morales of Bolivia, and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil. Because of the local unique historical conditions, socialism of the 21st century is often contrasted with previous applications of socialism in other countries, with a major difference being the effort towards a more decentralized and participatory planning process.

Socialist Party

Socialist Party is the name of many different political parties around the world. All of these parties claim to uphold some form of socialism, though they may have very different interpretations of what "socialism" means. Statistically, most of these parties advocate either democratic socialism, social democracy or even Third Way as their ideological position. Many Socialist Parties have explicit connections to the labour movement and trade unions. See also Socialist International, list of democratic socialist parties and organizations and list of social democratic parties. A number of affiliates of the Trotskyist Committee for a Workers' International also use the name "Socialist Party".

This list only includes parties that use the exact name "Socialist Party" for themselves, sometimes alongside the name of the country in which they operate. The list does not include political parties that use the word "Socialist" in addition to one or more other political adjectives in their names. For example, the numerous parties using the name "Socialist Workers' Party" are not included.

Schools of thought
Key topics and issues
See also

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