Marguerite de Navarre

Marguerite de Navarre (French: Marguerite d'Angoulême, Marguerite d'Alençon; 11 April 1492 – 21 December 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angoulême and Margaret of Navarre, was the princess of France, Queen of Navarre, and Duchess of Alençon and Berry.[1] She was married to Henry II of Navarre. Her brother became King of France, as Francis I, and the two siblings were responsible for the celebrated intellectual and cultural court and salons of their day in France.

Marguerite is the ancestress of the Bourbon kings of France, being the mother of Jeanne d'Albret, whose son, Henry of Navarre, succeeded as Henry IV of France, the first Bourbon king.

As an author and a patron of humanists and reformers, she was an outstanding figure of the French Renaissance. Samuel Putnam called her "The First Modern Woman".

Marguerite de Navarre
Marguerite d'Angoulême
Portrait by Jean Clouet
Queen consort of Navarre
Tenure24 January 1527 – 21 December 1549
Born11 April 1492
Angoulême, France
Died21 December 1549 (aged 57)
Odos, France
SpouseCharles IV, Duke of Alençon
Henry II of Navarre
IssueJeanne III of Navarre
Jean of Navarre
FatherCharles, Count of Angoulême
MotherLouise of Savoy
ReligionRoman Catholic, although strongly sympathized with Calvinists throughout her life

Early life

Marguerite was born in Angoulême on 11 April 1492, the eldest child of Louise of Savoy and Charles, Count of Angoulême.[2] Her father was a descendant of Charles V, and was thus the successor to the French crown by masculine primogeniture, if both Charles VIII and the presumptive heir, Louis, Duke of Orléans, were unable to produce male offspring.

On 16 February 1488, her father, Charles, married eleven-year-old Louise, the daughter of Philip II of Savoy and Margaret of Bourbon, who was the sister of the Duke of Beaujeu. Louise was considered one of the most brilliant feminine minds in France and she named their first-born, "Marguerite", after her own mother.

Two years after Marguerite's birth, the family moved from Angoulême to Cognac, "where the Italian influence reigned supreme, and where Boccaccio was looked upon as a little less than a god".[3] Marguerite's brother, Francis, later to be King Francis I of France, was born there on 12 September 1494.

She had several half-siblings, from illegitimate relationships of her father, who were raised alongside Marguerite and her brother. Two girls, Jeanne of Angoulême and Madeleine, were born of her father's long relationship with his châtelaine, Antoinette de Polignac, Dame de Combronde, who later became Louise's lady-in-waiting and confidante.[4] Another half-sister, Souveraine, was born to Jeanne le Conte, also one of her father's mistresses.

Her father died when she was nearly four; her one-year-old brother became heir presumptive to the throne of France. Thanks to her mother, who was only nineteen when widowed, Marguerite was carefully tutored from her earliest childhood and given a classical education that included Latin. The young princess was to be called "Maecenas to the learned ones of her brother's kingdom".[3] "Never", she wrote, "shall a man attain to the perfect love of God who has not loved to perfection some creature in this world." When Marguerite was ten, Louise tried to marry her to the Prince of Wales, who would later become Henry VIII of England, but the alliance was courteously rebuffed.[3] Perhaps the one real love in her life was Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours, nephew of King Louis XII. Gaston went to Italy, however, and died a hero at Ravenna, when the French defeated Spanish and Papal forces.

First marriage

Charles d'alencon
17th century portrait of Charles d'Alencon, Marguerite's first husband.

At the age of seventeen Marguerite was married to Charles IV of Alençon, aged twenty, by the decree of King Louis XII (who also arranged the marriage of his ten-year-old daughter, Claude, to Francis). With this decree, Marguerite was forced to marry a generally kind, but practically-illiterate man for political expediency—"the radiant young princess of the violet-blue eyes... had become the bride of a laggard and a dolt". She had been bartered to save the royal pride of Louis, by keeping the County of Armagnac in the family. There were no offspring from this marriage.

After the death of Queen Claude, she took in her two nieces Madeleine and Marguerite, for whom she would continue to care during her second marriage.[5]

Second marriage and recognition

Henri d'Albret (1503–1555), King of Navarre
Henri d'Albret King of Navarre

After the death of her first husband in 1525, Marguerite married Henry II of Navarre. Ferdinand II of Aragon had invaded the Kingdom of Navarre in 1512, and Henry ruled only Lower Navarre, the independent principality of Béarn, and several dependencies in Gascony. Approximately a year after the lead image (in the information box) that was painted by Jean Clouet, on 16 November 1528, Marguerite gave birth to a daughter by Henry, the future Jeanne III of Navarre, who became the mother of the future Henry IV of France.

A Venetian ambassador of that time praised Marguerite as knowing all the secrets of diplomatic art, hence to be treated with deference and circumspection. Marguerite's most remarkable adventure involved freeing her brother, King Francis I, who had been held prisoner in Spain by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor after being captured in the Battle of Pavia, Italy, 1525. During a critical period of the negotiations, Queen Marguerite rode horseback through wintry woods, twelve hours a day for many days, to meet a safe-conduct deadline, while writing her diplomatic letters at night.

Her only son, Jean, was born in Blois on 7 July 1530, when Marguerite was thirty-eight, an age considered old by sixteenth century standards. The child died on Christmas Day the same year. Scholars believe that her grief motivated Marguerite to write her most controversial work, Miroir de l'âme pécheresse, in 1531.

Sorbonne theologians condemned the work as heresy. A monk said Marguerite should be sewn into a sack and thrown into the Seine. Students at the Collège de Navarre satirized her in a play as "a Fury from Hell". Her brother forced the charges to be dropped, however, and obtained an apology from the Sorbonne.


Marguerite de Navarre - Project Gutenberg eText 17705
Marguerite de Navarre, from a crayon drawing by François Clouet, preserved at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris

Following the example set by her mother, Marguerite became the most influential woman in France during her lifetime when her brother acceded to the crown as Francis I in 1515. Her salon, known as the "New Parnassus", became famous internationally.

Pierre Brantôme said of her: "She was a great princess. But in addition to all that, she was very kind, gentle, gracious, charitable, a great dispenser of alms and friendly to all."

The Dutch humanist Erasmus wrote to her: "For a long time I have cherished all the many excellent gifts that God bestowed upon you; prudence worthy of a philosopher; chastity; moderation; piety; an invincible strength of soul, and a marvelous contempt for all the vanities of this world. Who could keep from admiring, in a great king's sister, such qualities as these, so rare even among the priests and monks."

Marguerite wrote many poems and plays. Her most notable works are a classic collection of short stories, the Heptameron, and a remarkably intense religious poem, Miroir de l'âme pécheresse (Mirror of the Sinful Soul). This poem is a first-person, mystical narrative of the soul as a yearning woman calling out to Christ as her father-brother-lover. Her work was passed to the royal court of England, suggesting that Marguerite had influence on the Protestant Reformation in England.

Role in the Reformation

Anne Boleyn had been a lady-in-waiting to Queen Claude during her years in France before returning to England. There is conjecture that the court of Queen Claude and the court of Marguerite overlapped and that, perhaps, Anne was in service to Marguerite rather than to Claude, as well as that Anne may have become a friend, admirer, and disciple to Marguerite, and absorbed Marguerite's views about Christianity. A written letter by Anne Boleyn after she became queen exists in which Anne Boleyn makes strong expressions of affection to Marguerite.

Following the expulsion of John Calvin and William Farel from Geneva in 1538, Marguerite de Navarre wrote to Marie Dentière, a notable French Protestant reformer in Geneva. The two women appear to have personal history outside of their written correspondence: Marguerite was godmother to the daughter of Marie Dentière and Dentière's daughter composed a French guide to the Hebrew language to send to Marguerite's daughter.[6] In her letter, Marguerite inquired what was the cause for Calvin and Farel's expulsion. Dentière responded in 1539 with the Epistre tres utile, commonly known today as the Epistle to Marguerite de Navarre.[7] This epistle criticized the Protestant clergy who had expelled Calvin and Farel, asked for Marguerite's support and aid in increasing scriptural literacy and access among women, and advised her to act in expelling Catholic clergy from France.[8]

It is conjectured that Marguerite gave Anne the original manuscript of Miroir de l'âme pécheresse at some point. It is certain that in 1544, nine years after Anne Boleyn's execution, that Anne's daughter, who would become Elizabeth I (1533–1603), translated the poem into English prose as The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul when she was eleven years old and presented it, written in her own hand, to her then-stepmother, the English queen Katherine Parr.[9] This literary connection between Marguerite, Anne Boleyn, Katherine Parr, and Elizabeth suggests a direct mentoring link or legacy of reformist religious convictions.

Richard Parkes Bonington 003
"Francis I and Marguerite de Navarre" by Richard Parkes Bonington

As a generous patron of the arts, Marguerite befriended and protected many artists and writers, among them François Rabelais (1483–1553), Clément Marot (1496–1544), Claude de Bectoz (d. 1547) and Pierre de Ronsard (1524–1585). Also, Marguerite served as a mediator between Roman Catholics and Protestants (including John Calvin). Although Marguerite espoused reform within the Catholic Church, she was not a Calvinist. She did, however, do her best to protect the reformers and dissuaded Francis I from intolerant measures as long as she could. After her death, eight religious wars occurred in France, marked notably by the notorious St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572.

American historian Will Durant wrote: "In Marguerite the Renaissance and the Reformation were for a moment one. Her influence radiated throughout France. Every free spirit looked upon her as protectoress and ideal .... Marguerite was the embodiment of charity. She would walk unescorted in the streets of Navarre, allowing any one to approach her and would listen at first hand to the sorrows of the people. She called herself 'The Prime Minister of the Poor'. Henri, her husband, King of Navarre, believed in what she was doing, even to the extent of setting up a public works system that became a model for France. Together he and Marguerite financed the education of needy students."

Jules Michelet (1798–1874), the most celebrated historian of his time, wrote of her: "Let us always remember this tender Queen of Navarre, in whose arms our people, fleeing from prison or the pyre, found safety, honor, and friendship. Our gratitude to you, Mother of our [French] Renaissance! Your hearth was that of our saints, your heart the nest of our freedom."

Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), French philosopher and critic, whose Dictionnaire historique et critique (Historical and Critical Dictionary, 1697) greatly influenced the French Encyclopedists and the rationalist philosophers of the eighteenth century, such as Voltaire and Diderot, esteemed her highly, writing: "... for a queen to grant her protection to people persecuted for opinions which she believes to be false; to open a sanctuary to them; to preserve them from the flames prepared for them; to furnish them with a subsistence; liberally to relieve the troubles and inconveniences of their exile, is an heroic magnanimity which has hardly any precedent ..."

Leonardo Da Vinci's house
Clos Lucé in Amboise, France, where Leonardo da Vinci died in 1519

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) died while guest of Marguerite and her brother, Francis I. They had been raised at Château d'Amboise, which belonged to their mother, Louise of Savoy. The king maintained his residence there and Marguerite maintained a residence nearby. During the first few years of the reign of Francis the château in which he lived reached the pinnacle of its glory. Leonardo had been the architect of a large château for them, among many other projects, and they provided quarters for him when he left Italy and joined her court. As a guest of the king, who provided him with a comfortable stipend, Leonardo da Vinci came to Château Amboise in December 1515 and lived and worked in the nearby Clos Lucé, connected to the château by an underground passage. Tourists are told that he is buried in the Chapel of Saint-Hubert, adjoining the Château, which had been built in 1491–96.[10]

In 1550, one year after Marguerite's death, a tributary poem, Annae, Margaritae, Ianae, sororum virginum heroidum Anglarum, in mortem Diuae Margaritae Valesiae, Nauarrorum Reginae, Hecatodistichon, was published in England. It was written by the nieces of Jane Seymour (1505–1537), third wife of King Henry VIII.


Coat of Arms of Marguerite of Angouleme, Queen Consort of Navarre
Coat of arms of Marquerite as Queen of Navarre

Marguerite was married twice, first to Charles IV of Alençon, but this marriage was childless.

Her next marriage was to Henry II of Navarre. The children of Marguerite and Henry were:


  1. ^ Marie Dentiére, Epistle to Marguerite de Navarre and Preface to a Sermon by John Calvin (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), 51.
  2. ^ Reid 2009, p. 56-57.
  3. ^ a b c Putnam, Samuel. Marguerite of Navarre. New York: Coward McCann, Inc.: 1935. Print.
  4. ^ Francis Hackett, Francis The First, pages 48-52.
  5. ^ Marshall, Rosalind K. (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034-1714. Tuckwell Press. p. 100.
  6. ^ Dentiére, Epistle to Marguerite de Navarre, 53.
  7. ^ Marie Dentiere, Epistle to Marguerite de Navarre and Preface to a Sermon by John Calvin. Edited and translated by Mary B. McKinley. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2004.
  8. ^ Dentiére, Epistle to Marguerite de Navarre.
  9. ^ Willis, Sam; Daybell, James (29 October 2018). Histories of the Unexpected: How Everything Has a History. Atlantic Books. pp. XCII. ISBN 9781786494153 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ Records show that Leonardo da Vinci was buried in the church of Saint-Florentin, part of the Château Amboise. At the time of Napoleon this church was in such a ruinous state, dilapidated during the French Revolution, that the engineer appointed by Napoleon decided it was not worth preserving; it was demolished and the stonework was used to repair the château. Some sixty years later the site of Saint-Florentin was excavated: a complete skeleton was found with fragments of a stone inscription containing some of the letters of Leonardo's name. It is this collection of bones that is now in the chapel of Saint-Hubert.
  11. ^ Strage 1976, p. 148.


  • Reid, Jonathan A. (2009). Gow, Andrew Colin, ed. King's Sister - Queen of Dissent: Marguerite of Navarre (1492-1549) and her Evangelical Network. Vol. 1. Brill.
  • Durant, Will, The Story of Civilization, v. VI, The Reformation, p. 501, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1953.
  • Jourda, Pierre, Une princesse de la Renaissance, Marguerite d'Angoulême, reine de Navarre, 1492–1549, Genève, Slatkine Reprints, 1973.
  • Michelet, Jules, Histoire de France, n.d., 5 v.
  • Putnam, Samuel, Marguerite of Navarre, Grosset & Dunlap, New York, 1936.
  • Hackett, Francis, Francis The First, pages 48–52, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, 1937.
  • Patricia F. Cholakian and Rouben C. Cholakian. Marguerite de Navarre: Mother of the Renaissance. New York, Columbia University Press, 2006. 448 pp.
  • Anderson Magalhães, Le Comédies bibliques di Margherita di Navarra, tra evangelismo e mistero medievale, in La mujer: de los bastidores al proscenio en el teatro del siglo XVI, ed. de I. Romera Pintor y J. L. Sirera, Valencia, Publicacions de la Universitat de València, 2011, pp. 171–201.
  • Anderson Magalhães, «Trouver une eaue vive et saine»: la cura del corpo e dell’anima nell’opera di Margherita di Navarra, in Le salut par les eaux et par les herbes: medicina e letteratura tra Italia e Francia nel Cinquecento e nel Seicento, a cura di R. Gorris Camos, Verona, Cierre Edizioni, 2012, pp. 227–262.

External links

French royalty
Preceded by
Juana Enríquez
Queen consort of Navarre
Succeeded by
Marguerite de Valois
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles IV
Duchess of Alençon
Countess of Armagnac
and Perche

Reverted to the
royal domain

Year 1492 (MCDXCII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

The year 1492 is considered to be a significant year in the history of the West, Europe, Christianity, Spain, and the New World, among others, because of the number of significant events to have taken place during it. Some of the events which propelled the year into Western consciousness, also listed below, include the completion of the Reconquista of Spain, Europe's discovery of the New World, and the expulsion of Jews from Spain.

1492 in France

Events from the year 1492 in France

1558 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1558.

1559 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

Abel Lefranc

Maurice Jules Abel Lefranc (27 July 1863 – 26 November 1952) was a historian of French literature, expert on Rabelais, and the principal advocate of the Derbyite theory of Shakespeare authorship.

Anne Seymour, Countess of Warwick

Anne Dudley (née Seymour) Countess of Warwick (1538–1588) was a writer during the sixteenth century in England, along with her sisters Lady Margaret Seymour and Lady Jane Seymour.

She was the eldest daughter of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, who from 1547–1549 was the Lord Protector of England during the minority of her cousin, Edward VI. Being educated by the French humanist and poet, Nicholas Denisot, Anne Seymour with her sisters Margaret and Jane composed 103 Latin distichs for the tomb of Marguerite de Navarre, which were published in France as Hecatodistichon. The first edition of March 1550 was followed by a second in 1551, containing significant alterations.

Arcadia (poem)

Arcadia is a pastoral poem written around 1480 by Jacopo Sannazaro and published in 1504 in Naples. Sannazaro's Arcadia influenced the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries (e.g., William Shakespeare, Philip Sidney, Marguerite de Navarre, Jorge de Montemayor, and John Milton).

Château de Cambiac

The Château de Cambiac is a 15th-century castle in the commune of Cambiac in the Haute-Garonne département of France.Originally a vast 15th century residence, it was probably constructed on the foundations of an earlier structure. It was given to the sieur Milhau, constable of Montauban, by Marguerite de Navarre.At the end of the 19th century, massive restoration works gave the castle an extra floor and a pavilion. A Louis XII style was incorporated both inside and out.Privately owned, it has been listed since 2001 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.

Château de Nérac

The Château de Nérac is a castle in the Lot-et-Garonne département in southwest France. An edifice of the French Renaissance style, it was finished during the reign of Jeanne d'Albret, the daughter of Marguerite d'Angoulème who was also Marguerite de Navarre by her marriage, (the sister of the king, Francis I of France).

The castle has been listed as a Monument historique since 1862 by the French Ministry of Culture.

Clos Lucé

The Château du Clos Lucé (or simply Clos Lucé) is a large château in the city of Amboise, France. The place is famous for being the official residence of Leonardo da Vinci between 1516 and 1519, when Leonardo died.

Clos Lucé is located at 500 metres from the royal Château d'Amboise, to which it is connected by an underground passageway. Built by Hugues d'Amboise in the middle of the fifteenth century, it was acquired in 1490 by Charles VIII of France for his wife, Anne de Bretagne. Later, it was used by Francis I, as well as his sister Marguerite de Navarre, who began writing her book entitled L'Heptaméron while living there.

In 1516, King Francis I of France invited Leonardo da Vinci to Amboise and provided him with the Clos Lucé, then called Château de Cloux, as a place to stay and work. Leonardo, a famous painter and inventor, arrived with three of his paintings, namely the Mona Lisa, Sainte Anne, and Saint Jean Baptiste. Leonardo lived at the Clos Lucé for the last three years of his life, and died there on 2 May 1519.

Today, the Clos Lucé is a Leonardo da Vinci museum that reflects the prestigious history of the region and includes forty models of the various machines designed by Leonardo. The museum also includes a copy of the Mona Lisa, painted in 1654 by Ambroise Dubois.

Gary Ferguson

Gary Ferguson (born March 19, 1963), a specialist of French Renaissance literature and culture, is the Douglas Huntly Gordon Distinguished Professor of French at the University of Virginia. From 1989, he taught at the University of Delaware, where he held the Elias Ahuja Professorship of French from 2012-2015. He graduated from St Chad's College, Durham University, receiving a BA with first-class honours in 1985 and a Ph.D. in 1989.

He is the author of Mirroring Belief: Marguerite de Navarre's Devotional Poetry (Edinburgh University Press, 1992), Queer (Re)Readings in the French Renaissance: Homosexuality, Gender, Culture (Ashgate, 2008), and Same-Sex Marriage in Renaissance Rome: Sexuality, Identity, and Community in Early Modern Europe (Cornell University Press, 2016), as well as of numerous articles dealing in particular with questions of gender and sexuality, women's writing, devotional literature and the cultural history of religion. He has edited or co-edited a number of collections of scholarly essays, including (Re)Inventing the Past: Essays on French Early Modern Culture, Literature and Thought in Honour of Ann Moss (2003, with Catherine Hampton), Narrative Worlds: Essays on the ‘Nouvelle’ in 15th- and 16th-Century France (2005, with David LaGuardia), L’Homme en tous genres : masculinités, textes et contextes (2008), and A Companion to Marguerite de Navarre (2013, with Mary B. McKinley). He has also published a critical edition of Anne de Marquets’s Sonets spirituels (Droz, 1997).


Hecatodistichon was a poem written in 1550 by the Seymour sisters, Jane, Anne and Margaret. It was the first female-authored English-language encomium, the only work by Englishwomen published in Latin in the 16th century, and the only work by any Englishwomen published in any language before the 1560s.It was written on the death of Marguerite de Navarre, sister of the French king and queen of Navarre.It comprised 104 distichs, or couplets. Hecato is a prefix from the Greek word for "hundred".The Hecatodistichon was published in Paris in 1550 by the sisters' tutor, Nicolas Denison. It was republished in 2000 in the series The early modern Englishwoman by Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot (ISBN 1840142197).

Henry II of Navarre

Henry II (18 April 1503 – 25 May 1555), nicknamed Sangüesino because he was born at Sangüesa, was the King of Navarre from 1517, although his kingdom had been reduced to a small territory north of the Pyrenees by the Spanish conquest of 1512. Henry succeeded his mother, Queen Catherine, upon her death. His father was her husband and co-ruler, King John III, who died in 1516.

Jacques Pelletier du Mans

Jacques Pelletier du Mans, also spelled Peletier (Latin: Iacobus Peletarius Cenomani, 25 July 1517–17 July 1582) was a humanist, poet and mathematician of the French Renaissance.

Born in Le Mans into a bourgeois family, he studied at the Collège de Navarre in Paris, where his brother Jean was a professor of mathematics and philosophy. He subsequently studied law and medicine, frequented the literary circle around Marguerite de Navarre and from 1541 to 1543 he was secretary to René du Bellay. In 1541 he published the first French translation of Horace's Ars poetica and during this period he also published numerous scientific and mathematical treatises.

In 1547 he produced a funeral oration for Henry VIII of England and published his first poems (Œuvres poétiques), which included translations from the first two cantos of Homer's Odyssey and the first book of Virgil's Georgics, twelve Petrarchian sonnets, three Horacian odes and a Martial-like epigram; this poetry collection also included the first published poems of Joachim Du Bellay and Pierre de Ronsard (Ronsard would include Jacques Pelletier into his list of revolutionary contemporary poets La Pléiade). He then began to frequent a humanist circle around Théodore de Bèze, Jean Martin, Denis Sauvage.

In the Renaissance, the French language had acquired many inconsistencies in spelling through a misguided attempt to model French words on their Latin roots (see Middle French). Jacques Pelletier tried to reform French spelling in a 1550 treatise advocating a phonetic-based spelling using new typographic signs which he would continue to use in all his published works. In this system he consistently spells his name with one "l": Peletier.

Pelletier spent many years in Bordeaux, Poitiers, Piedmont (where he may have been the tutor of the son of Maréchal de Brissac), and Lyon (where he frequented the poets and humanists Maurice Scève, Louise Labé, Olivier de Magny and Pontus de Tyard). In 1555 he published a manual of poetic composition, Art poétique français, a Latin oration calling for peace from Henry II of France and emperor Charles V and a new collection of poetry, L'Amour des amours (consisting of a sonnet cycle and a series of encyclopedic poems describing meteors, planets and the heavens) which would influence poets Guillaume du Bartas and Jean-Antoine de Baïf.

His last years were spent in travels to the Savoy, Germany, Switzerland, possibly Italy, and various regions in France, and in publishing numerous works in Latin on algebra, geometry and mathematics, and medicine (including a refutation of Galen, and a work on the Plague). In 1572 he was briefly director of the College of Aquitaine in Bordeaux, but, bored by the position, he resigned. During this period he was friends with Michel de Montaigne and Pierre de Brach. In 1579 he returned to Paris and was named director of the College of Le Mans. A final collection of poetry Louanges was published in 1581.

Pelletier died in Paris in July or August 1582.

Jeanne d'Angoulême

Jeanne d'Angoulême, Countess of Bar-sur-Seine (c. 1490 – after 1531/1538), Dame de Givry, Baroness of Pagny and of Mirebeau, was an illegitimate half-sister of King Francis I of France and princess Marguerite de Navarre. She was created suo jure Countess of Bar-sur-Seine in 1522. She was the wife of Jean de Longwy, Seigneur of Givry, Baron of Pagny and of Mirebeau.

Lawrence D. Kritzman

Lawrence D. Kritzman, an American scholar, is the Willard Professor of French, Comparative Literature and Oratory at Dartmouth College. He has previously held the Edward Tuck professorship in French, the Ted and Helen Geisel Third Century Professorship in the Humanities, and the John and Pat Rosenwald Research Professorship. He has written works on, edited works on, or given lectures on Barthes, Foucault, Kristeva, Sartre, Camus, Malraux, Derrida, Montaigne, Simone de Beauvoir, and others, focusing especially on twentieth-century French philosophy. Drawing on psychoanalytic theory, he has innovated sixteenth century French studies in his readings of Marguerite de Navarre, Scève, Ronsard, Rabelais, Montaigne, and the poètes rhétoriqueurs.

Nicolas Cop

Nicolas Cop (born circa 1501 in Paris and died 1540), rector of the University of Paris in late 1533, from 10 October 1533, was a Swiss Protestant Reformer and friend of John Calvin. Nicolas Cop and his brother Michel Cop, sons of the king's physician, had become Calvin's friends during their shared time at the Collège de Montaigu. (Cop and Calvin were both French and not Swiss.)

Around 1533, when Calvin had returned to Paris, tensions were rising between the humanistic and religious reformers of the Collège Royal and the conservative senior faculty members. The Collège Royal was later to become the Collège de France. Nicolas Cop, one of the reformers, had been elected rector of the University of Paris although the institution generally condemned Martin Luther. On All Saints Day, November 1, 1533, Nicolas Cop as rector delivered his inaugural address, in which he revealed himself as being in sympathy with Luther. Cop discussed the need for reform and renewal in the Roman Catholic Church and highlighted differences between the Beatitudes of the Gospels and the theology and practices of the Roman Catholic Church pre-Counter Reformation. Calvin certainly influenced but did not write Cop's address, which defended the doctrine of justification by faith alone. Calvin is thought to have been complicit because he had fled from Paris just before Cop's delivery of the inaugural address.

Nicolas Cop's inaugural address as rector of the University of Paris provoked a strong reaction from the faculty, many of whom denounced it as heretical. Within just two days, on 3 November 1533, two Franciscans filed a complaint in the Parlement de Paris against Cop for heresy. Cop appeared before the parlement and, upon failing to obtain the support of the king or the university, was forced to flee. He fled in secret, arriving in time at Basel. Cop traveled until reaching Basel in February 1534 and then went to Freiburg with Erasmus and Ludwig Baer. He made contact with the reformers in Strassburg and Ludovicus Carinus or Ludwig Carinus, whom he had known well in Paris. King Francis I during the furor created by Cop's brief tenure as rector referred to "the cursed Lutherans." Calvin, implicated in Cop's offense, was himself forced into hiding for the next year.

Nicolas Cop was befriended by the King's sister Marguerite de Navarre. He used his post to rehabilitate her work "Le miroir de l'âme pécheresse" (The mirror of the sinful soul). In January 1535, Calvin joined Cop in Basel, a city that had come under the influence of the reformer Johannes Oecolampadius. Cop traveled again to Paris where he earned his medical licence in May 1536. In the following year he was called to Scotland, where illness had struck the newly married Madeleine of France. Nicolas Cop also taught medicine at the university of Paris, but died suddenly in the winter of 1539/1540. Protestant relatives of Nicolas Cop eventually took refuge in the Rheinland where his surname became Germanized to "Kob," before soon being anglicized in the American colonies as Cope.

Richard Cooper (academic)

Richard Cooper (born 1947) is emeritus Professor of French at the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages, University of Oxford and emeritus Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. In September 2018 he was appointed as Master of St Benet's Hall, Oxford. He was formerly Chair of the Faculty Board of Modern Languages.

After studying French and Italian at New College, Oxford, Cooper moved to the University of Lancaster as Lecturer in French from 1971. In 1977 he returned to Oxford, becoming Tutor in French at Brasenose College, and was appointed Reader in 1996 and subsequently Professor in 1998. He is a member of the Académie des Sciences, Belles Lettres et Arts, Lyon, and a member of the Institut des Sciences de l'Homme, Lyon. He was appointed Officier in the Ordre des Palmes Académiques in 1996, Commendatore dell'Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana in 2003, and Commandeur des Palmes Académiques in 2012.Prof Cooper was selected as a torch bearer for the 2012 Summer Olympics torch relay, reflecting his 40 years of service to sport at the Oxford University, including 15 years as chairman of the university sports committee. He is President of the Alliance française d'Oxford.

The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul

The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul is a manuscript book that was given to Catherine Parr by her stepdaughter, the future Elizabeth I of England in 1544, when Elizabeth was eleven years old. Elizabeth translated the poem from the French work Miroir de l'âme pécheresse by Marguerite de Navarre, into English prose and wrote the manuscript with her own hand, dedicating it with the words, "From Assherige, the last daye of the yeare of our Lord God 1544 ... To our most noble and vertuous Quene Katherin, Elizabeth her humble daughter wisheth perpetuall felicitie and everlasting joye," Elizabeth probably also embroidered the bookbinding. This book is now owned by the Bodleian Library.

Ancestors of Marguerite de Navarre
16. Charles V of France
8. Louis I, Duke of Orléans
17. Joanna of Bourbon
4. John, Count of Angoulême
18. Gian Galeazzo Visconti
9. Valentina Visconti
19. Isabelle of Valois
2. Charles, Count of Angoulême
20. Alain VIII, Viscount of Rohan
10. Alain IX, Viscount of Rohan
21. Béatrix de Clisson
5. Marguerite de Rohan
22. John IV, Duke of Brittany
11. Margaret of Brittany
23. Joan of Navarre
1. Marguerite de Navarre
24. Antipope Felix V
12. Louis, Duke of Savoy
25. Mary of Burgundy
6. Philip II, Duke of Savoy
26. Janus of Cyprus
13. Anne of Cyprus
27. Charlotte of Bourbon
3. Louise of Savoy
28. John I, Duke of Bourbon
14. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon
29. Marie, Duchess of Auvergne
7. Margaret of Bourbon
30. John II, Duke of Burgundy
15. Agnes of Burgundy
31. Margaret of Bavaria

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