Margaritifera is a genus of freshwater mussels, aquatic bivalve molluscs in the family Margaritiferidae, the freshwater pearl mussels.

Margaritifera margaritifera-buiten
Margaritifera margaritifera
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Unionida
Family: Margaritiferidae
Genus: Margaritifera
Schumacher, 1816


Species within the genus Margaritifera include:


Endotrichella is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae. It contains only one species, Endotrichella margaritifera, which is found in Papua New Guinea.

Esse, Finland

Esse (Finnish: Ähtävä) is a former municipality of Finland, now a village of Pedersöre. It has a population of about 3,000 people, of whom approximately 94% are Swedish-speaking Finns and the rest are Finnish-speaking. The village is in the northeast part of Pedersöre municipality.

Esse was consolidated to Pedersöre in 1977.

The river of Esse flows through the village. This river is one of the last places where the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera can be found.

Euphaedra margaritifera

Euphaedra margaritifera, the pearl-edged Ceres forester, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Nigeria and Cameroon. The habitat consists of forests.

Freshwater pearl mussel

The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is an endangered species of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusc in the family Margaritiferidae.

Although the name "freshwater pearl mussel" is often used for this species, other freshwater mussel species can also create pearls and some can also be used as a source of mother of pearl. In fact, most cultured pearls today come from Hyriopsis species in Asia, or Amblema species in North America, both members of the related family Unionidae; pearls are also found within species in the genus Unio.

The interior of the shell of Margaritifera margaritifera has thick nacre (the inner mother of pearl layer of the shell). This species is capable of making fine-quality pearls, and was historically exploited in the search for pearls from wild sources. In recent times, the Russian malacologist Valeriy Zyuganov received worldwide reputation after he discovered that the pearl mussel exhibited negligible senescence and he determined that it had a maximum lifespan of 210–250 years. The data of V.V. Zyuganov have been confirmed by Finnish malacologists and gained general acceptance.

Louisiana pearlshell

The Louisiana pearlshell, Margaritifera hembeli, is a rare species of bivalve mollusk in the family Margaritiferidae. This freshwater mussel is native to Louisiana in the United States, and was previously present also in Arkansas. It grows to a length of about 10 cm (4 in) and lives on the sand or gravel stream-bed in riffles and fast flowing stretches of small streams. Its life cycle involves a stage where it lives parasitically inside a fish. This mollusk is sensitive to increased sedimentation and cannot tolerate impoundments. Because of its limited range and its population decline, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated this mollusk as being "critically endangered".

Margaritifera auricularia

Margaritifera auricularia, or Spengler's freshwater mussel, is a species of European freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Margaritiferidae, the freshwater pearl mussels. It is named after Lorenz Spengler.

Margaritifera marrianae

Margaritifera marrianae, the Alabama pearlshell, is a species of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Margaritiferidae, the freshwater pearl mussels.

This species is endemic to the United States. It is threatened by habitat loss.


Margaritiferidae is a family of medium-sized freshwater mussels, aquatic bivalve molluscs in the order Unionida. They are known as freshwater pearl mussels, because the interior of the shell of these species has a thick layer of nacre or mother of pearl, and the mussels are thus capable of producing pearls.


Pinctada is a genus of saltwater oysters, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters. These oysters have a strong inner shell layer composed of nacre, also known as "mother of pearl".

Pearl oysters are not closely related to either the edible oysters of family Ostreidae or the freshwater pearl mussels of the families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae.

Pinctada margaritifera and P. maxima are used for culturing South Sea and Tahitian pearls. They are cultured widely primarily in the central and eastern Indo-Pacific. A pearl oyster can be seen on the reverse side of the 1,000-peso note of the Philippines.

Pinctada margaritifera

Pinctada margaritifera, commonly known as the black-lip pearl oyster, is a species of pearl oyster, a saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Pteriidae. This species is common in the Indo-Pacific within tropical coral reefs.

The ability of P. margaritifera to produce pearls means that the species is a valuable resource to humans. The oysters are harvested wild from coral reefs and are also commonly grown in aquaculture, both primarily taking place in the Indo-Pacific region.

Pyroteuthis margaritifera

Pyroteuthis margaritifera, the jewel enope squid, is a species of squid in the family Pyroteuthidae.

This species has three large, ellipsoidal, double photophores on the tentacles, the nearest ellipsoidal photophore to the tip is near the carpal cluster and is widely separated from the two smaller spherical photophores at the base of the tentacle, but nearer to the other two ellipsoidal photophores. Another spherical photophore is located at the base of the tentacular club. The fourth right arm is hectocotylised and has 13-19 basal hooks, each of these hooks is large and has a primary cusp with a smooth inner edge and a large, rounded secondary cusp. Betong these basal hooks there is a fleshy, elongated pad, this is a flap in other species of Pyroteuthis, with three hooks opposite it and between zero and thirteen suckers at its tip.P. margaritifera has been collected off Bermuda from depths of 375-500 m in the day and between 75 and 175 m during the night. It is a widely distributed species which occurs throughout the tropical and temperate Atlantic, Indian and South Pacific Oceans but has not been recorded from the eastern Pacific. It was originally described by the German naturalist Eduard Rüppell in 1844 as Enoploteuthis margaritifera from specimens taken in the Mediterranean. It shows some geographic variation.

Scolopsis margaritifera

Scolopsis margaritifera, commonly known as Pearly monocle bream, is a fish native to the western Pacific Ocean.

South American common toad

The South American common toad (Rhinella margaritifera; also mitred toad, in Spanish sapo crestado) is a species complex of toads in the family Bufonidae. They are found throughout the Amazonian South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela) and eastern Panama. It was originally believed to be a single species, but is now known to represent a complex of more than one.Its natural habitats are primary and secondary lowland, premontane and montane tropical moist forests (including terra firme and seasonally flooded forests). It is a generalist species that can also be found in disturbed areas.

Spectacle case pearly mussel

The spectacle case pearly mussel or spectacle case (Cumberlandia monodonta) is a species of bivalve in the family Margaritiferidae. It is endemic to the United States. The spectaclecase is a freshwater mussel that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed as an endangered species.Historically, the spectaclecase was found in at least 44 streams of the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri River basins in 14 states. It has been extirpated from 3 states and today is found in only 20 streams. The spectaclecase’s current range includes Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. With few exceptions, spectaclecase populations are fragmented and restricted to short stream reaches.Spectaclecase mussels are found in large rivers where they live in areas sheltered from the main force of the river current. This species often clusters in firm mud and in sheltered areas, such as beneath rock slabs, between boulders and even under tree roots.

Tahitian pearl

The Tahitian pearl (or black pearl) is an organic gem formed from the black lip oyster (Pinctada margaritifera). These pearls derive their name from the fact that they are primarily cultivated around the islands of French Polynesia, around Tahiti.

Thwaitesia margaritifera

Thwaitesia margaritifera, is a species of spider of the genus Thwaitesia. It is found in China, India, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.

Trachylepis margaritifera

Known as the rainbow mabuya, rainbow skink, pearly skink or blue-tailed skink, Trachylepis margaritifera, is a species of Afro-Malagasy mabuya or skink in the subfamily Lygosominae.

Tulista pumila

Tulista pumila ("Vratjiesaalwee") is a species of Tulista succulent plant, from the Western Cape, South Africa.

It was formerly placed in the genus Haworthia, as Haworthia pumila or Haworthia maxima.

Valeriy Zyuganov

Valeriy Valeryevich Zyuganov (Russian: Зюганов Валерий Валерьевич, born 31 July 1955 in Yangiyo‘l city, (Uzbekistan) is a Soviet and Russian biologist, (zoologist) and Doctor of Biological Sciences. He is the pupil and follower of professors V.V. Khlebovich,the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Yu. A. Labas.A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences


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