Mare Tranquillitatis (Latin for Sea of Tranquility or Sea of Tranquillity (see spelling differences)) is a lunar mare that sits within the Tranquillitatis basin on the Moon. The mare material within the basin consists of basalt formed in the intermediate to young age group of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The surrounding mountains are thought to be of the Lower Imbrian epoch, but the actual basin is probably Pre-Nectarian. The basin has irregular margins and lacks a defined multiple-ringed structure. The irregular topography in and near this basin results from the intersection of the Tranquillitatis, Nectaris, Crisium, Fecunditatis, and Serenitatis basins with two throughgoing rings of the Procellarum basin. Palus Somni, on the northeastern rim of the mare, is filled with the basalt that spilled over from Tranquillitatis.
This Mare has a slight bluish tint relative to the rest of the moon and stands out quite well when color is processed and extracted from multiple photographs. The color is likely due to higher metal content in the basaltic soil or rocks.
Unlike many other maria, there is no mass concentration (mascon), or gravitational high, in the center of Mare Tranquillitatis. Mascons were identified in the center of other maria (such as Serenitatis or Imbrium) from Doppler tracking of the five Lunar Orbiter spacecraft in 1968. The gravity field was mapped at higher resolution with later orbiters such as Lunar Prospector and GRAIL, which unveiled an irregular pattern.
A view of the Apollo 11 landing site at center, facing west, with Maskelyne crater in right foreground
In February 1965, the Ranger 8spacecraft was deliberately crashed into the Mare Tranquillitatis, after successfully transmitting 7,137 close-range photographs of the Moon in the final 23 minutes of its mission.
These are three views of Mare Tranquillitatis on the moon, taken by the mapping camera of the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, facing south-southwest from an average altitude of 111 km on Revolution 36 of the mission. At the left is the east side of Mare Tranquillitatis, with the craters Franz (bottom right), Lyell (dark floor, right of center), and Taruntius (upper left). The "bay" of dark mare (basalt) at left is Sinus Concordiae, with "islands" of older, light highland material. At right is the crater Cauchy, which lies between the Rupes Cauchy and Cauchy rille. The center photo shows the central mare with craters Vitruvius (lower right) and Gardner (bottom center). At the horizon are lighter highlands at the southern margin of the mare, near the Apollo 11 landing site. The crater Jansen is visible at the edges of both the center and right photos. The right photo shows the western mare, with the craters Dawes (lower left) and the large Plinius (43 km diameter), with the Plinius Rilles in the foreground. These photos were taken within minutes of each other as the Command ModuleAmerica orbited the moon. The sun elevation drops from 46 degrees at left to 30 degrees at right.
During eclipses with long totality, temperatures slowly plunges, as being in a basin, it remains nearly high in many areas but slightly cooler in the southeast. The highest are in some of the large craters of the basin such as Plinius. They were first known in the mid-infrared image of the Moon was taken during a September 1996 lunar eclipse by the SPIRIT-III instrument aboard the orbiting Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite.
In the arts
Israeli psych-progressive rock band Jericho Jones recorded a song named "Mare Tranquilitatas" as the opening track of their UK album release (1971) Junkies, Monkeys & Donkeys. The band is also known as The Churchills.
Singer songwriter Tommy Shaw (best known for his work with the rock band Styx) is associated with a number of references to the Sea of Tranquility. Tranquility Base Songs is his publishing company. He called his farm Tranquility Base Farms. A number of his songs mention Tranquility Base or simply "tranquility." Examples include: "Boat on the River", "And all roads lead to Tranquility Base" (from the 1979 album Cornerstone), "Everything Is Cool" – "We are a Sea of Tranquillity" (from the 1999 album Brave New World), and "These Are the Times" – "We know the end will bring tranquility" (from the 2003 album Cyclorama).
Sea of Tranquillity is the title of a 1994 novel by Paul Russell.
Six Finger Satellite included a song named "Sea of Tranquility, Parts 1 & 2" from their 1998 album Law of Ruins.
In the 1987 film "Can't Buy Me Love", Ronald Miller (played by Patrick Dempsey) describes the Sea of Tranquility to Cindy Mancini (played by Amanda Peterson) while viewing it through a telescope on their final date.
In the anime Log Horizon 2, Mare Tranquillitatis is the name of the sea inside the dimension where characters go when they die.
Mare Tranquillitatis is the name of a 2016 song by Adam Young.
Sea of Tranquility appears in chapter 78 of Life of Pi by Yann Martel.
In the Alien franchise of movies, Weyland-Yutani (Often referred to as "The company") has a major corporate headquarters in the Sea of Tranquility. (Mentioned in the 1979 film "Alien" as seen on the opening screen of the "Mother" computer, among other sources)
In the book Artemis, the city Artemis is located in the Sea of Tranquility, just north of the Moltke Foothills. The Apollo 11 Visitor Center and reactor/smelter complex is also located in the Sea of Tranquility, 40 and 1km north and south of Artemis respectively.
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