March Engineering

March Engineering was a Formula One constructor and manufacturer of customer racing cars from the United Kingdom. Although only moderately successful in Grand Prix competition, March racing cars enjoyed much better achievement in other categories of competition, including Formula Two, Formula Three, IndyCar and IMSA GTP sportscar racing.

March Engineering
Full nameMarch Engineering
BaseUnited Kingdom
Founder(s)Max Mosley
Alan Rees
Graham Coaker
Robin Herd
Noted driversNew Zealand Chris Amon
Switzerland Jo Siffert
Austria Niki Lauda
Sweden Ronnie Peterson
Italy Vittorio Brambilla
France Henri Pescarolo
Formula One World Championship career
First entry1970 South African Grand Prix
Races entered207
EnginesFord, Alfa Romeo, Judd, Ilmor
Race victories2
Pole positions2
Fastest laps4
Final entry1992 Australian Grand Prix
March as a Formula One constructor
Formula One World Championship career
EntrantsTyrrell Racing, Frank Williams Racing Cars, Hesketh Racing, Williams, several minor teams and privateers
First entry1970 South African Grand Prix
Last entry1992 Australian Grand Prix
Races entered209
Race victories3
Constructors' Championships0
Pole positions5
Fastest laps7


March Engineering began operations in 1969. Its four founders were Max Mosley, Alan Rees, Graham Coaker and Robin Herd. They each had a specific area of expertise: Max Mosley looked after the commercial side, Robin Herd was the designer, Alan Rees managed the racing team and Graham Coaker oversaw production at the factory in Bicester, Oxfordshire. The history of March is dominated by the conflict between the need for constant development and testing to remain at the peak of competitiveness in F1 and the need to build simple, reliable cars for customers in order to make a profit. Herd's original F1 plan was to build a single-car team around Jochen Rindt, but Rindt became dismayed at the size of the March programme and elected to continue at Team Lotus.

Andrea de Adamich, March 711 Alfa Romeo (1971)
De Adamich going to practice in a March 711

March's launch was unprecedented in its breadth and impact. After building a single Formula Three car in 1969, March announced that they would be introducing customer cars for F1, F2, F3, Formula Ford and Can-Am in 1970, as well as running works F1, F2 and F3 teams.

The Formula One effort initially looked promising, with March supplying its 701 chassis to Tyrrell for Jackie Stewart. These cars were merely a stopgap for Tyrrell, who no longer had the use of Matra chassis and were in the process of constructing their own car; March was the only option available given clashing fuel contracts. In addition, the factory ran two team cars for Jo Siffert (Porsche were paying for his drive) and Chris Amon sponsored by STP. A third STP car, entered by Andy Granatelli for Mario Andretti, appeared on several occasions. Ronnie Peterson appeared in a semi-works car for Colin Crabbe when his works Formula Two commitments allowed; various other 701s went to privateers. The team constructed ten Formula One chassis that year, in addition to Formula Two, Formula Three, Formula Ford and Can-Am chassis. Stewart gave the March its first Formula One victory, at the 1970 Spanish Grand Prix, and both Amon and Stewart took a non-championship race victory, but the works team did not win a Grand Prix. The 701 had distinctive aerofoil-profile fuel tanks at the sides of the car designed by Peter Wright of Specialised Mouldings; Wright had been involved with BRM's abortive ground-effect programme in the late sixties and later worked on the groundbreaking Lotus 78. The 701's tanks lacked endplates and skirts to help generate any meaningful ground effect. Herd (in Mike Lawrence's history of the team Four Guys and a Telephone) described the 701 as essentially a good 1969 car and not what he would have done had he been able to run a small team for a star like Rindt - the 701 was designed and built very quickly and he claims he would have built something more like the 711.

For the 1971 Formula One season March Engineering came up with the remarkable 711 chassis, which had aerodynamics by Frank Costin and an ovoid front wing described as the Spitfire (for its shape) or "tea-tray" (for its elevation from the car) wing. The car took no wins, but Peterson finished second on four occasions, ending as runner-up in the World Championship. Alfa Romeo V8 powered cars were occasionally entered, to little avail (following on from an equally unsuccessful Alfa program with McLaren).

The 1972 Formula One season completely failed to capitalise on the promise March showed in 1970-71. Three distinct models of the car were used, beginning with the 721, which was a development of the 711. Peterson and Niki Lauda then drove the disappointing experimental 721X factory cars (using an Alfa Romeo transverse gearbox and intended to have a low polar-moment, anticipating in some ways the much more successful Tyrrell 005/006 series). Frank Williams ran regular 711 and 721 customer cars for Henri Pescarolo and Carlos Pace. The 721X was deemed to be a disaster and abandoned, but the team saw a way out; customer Mike Beuttler and his backers ordered an F1 car, and the team produced the 721G in nine days (the G stood for Guinness Book Of Records as the car was built so quickly) by fitting a Cosworth DFV and larger fuel tanks to the 722 F2 chassis (not as desperate an experiment as it may have sounded -- John Cannon commissioned a Formula 5000 car which was built to a very similar scheme). The 721G was light and quick, and the works team soon built their own chassis. The 721G set the trend for future March F1 cars, which for the rest of the 1970s were essentially scaled-up F2 chassis. Meanwhile, March was going from strength to strength in Formula Two and Formula Three.

Also, the German team Eifelland entered under its own name a 721 much-modified with distinctive and eccentric bodywork by designer Luigi Colani for its driver Rolf Stommelen. This car was extremely unsuccessful, and later reverted mostly to conventional 721 form and was used by John Watson to make his F1 debut for John Goldie's Goldie Hexagon Racing team.

March's only notable result was Peterson's third place in Germany.

1973 was the low-point for March in Formula One. The four extant 721Gs were re-bodied and fitted with nose-mounted radiators and the crash-absorbing deformable structures that became mandatory that season; although no new chassis were built, they were re-designated 731s. Without significant STP money, the March factory team was struggling, running an almost unsponsored car for Jean-Pierre Jarier (who mainly concentrated on F2, winning the championship in a works March-BMW), while Hesketh bought a car for James Hunt to race. Jarier was replaced by Tom Wheatcroft's driver Roger Williamson, who suffered a fatal accident in Zandvoort (at which race March privateer David Purley attempted to rescue Williamson from his burning car). The Hesketh team, after an initial non-championship outing using a Surtees, bought a March which was developed by Harvey Postlethwaite and became a regular points-scorer, again hinting that there was little wrong with the basic concept of the 721G/731. Nineteen seventy-three marked the first year that F2 became more important to March than F1, with the new two-litre rules heralding the beginning of a long relationship with Paul Rosche at BMW. March undertook to buy a quantity of BMW engines each year in exchange for works units for their own team; the BMW unit was standard-issue for the 732 F2 car and to use up the rest of the units March also manufactured a two-litre prototype until 1975. Some of these had an unusually long life and were still competing (albeit much-modified) in Japan in the early 1980s.

In 1974, the factory team ran Howden Ganley until he left, having signed with Maki as their number-one driver. Then March ran Hans-Joachim Stuck in a Jägermeister-sponsored car and Vittorio Brambilla in a Beta Tools-sponsored car. Both drivers were exuberant and occasionally quick, but proved expensive in terms of accident damage. BMW was starting to exert pressure on March to quit F1 and concentrate on F2. Patrick Depailler took the F2 championship in an Elf-sponsored March-BMW, the marque's last title for several years as the Elf sponsorship programme and (in 1976) the arrival of Renault engines turned the formula into a French benefit. Some discontent arose in the March customer ranks in F2 since the works appeared after the first couple of F2 races with cars that differed significantly from the customer vehicles.

In the following year Brambilla continued, scoring a surprise victory in the rain-shortened 1975 Austrian Grand Prix. The second car was run by Lella Lombardi, the only woman to score a championship point in F1 (only a half point actually as the 1975 Spanish Grand Prix was shortened). Mark Donohue died after a practice accident in a Penske-owned March at the 1975 Austrian Grand Prix. Penske had abandoned their own car and bought a March to allow them to continue competing. Through the mid-1970s, March provided privateers with simple, fast, and economical cars; at one point Frank Williams bought an allegedly brand new 761B only to discover that it still had orange paint on it from its time as a 751 with Brambilla driving.

Hans-Joachim Stuck driving a March 761 at the Nürburgring in 1976

In 1976, Peterson, unhappy with the uncompetitive Lotus, left the team early and returned to March for whom he scored the team's second and last win at Monza. The 761 was fast but fragile, with the F2 components starting to show the strain; by this point the F1 effort was being run on a small budget with a two-car works effort featuring Peterson and Brambilla, the cars tending to turn up in different liveries as race-by-race sponsorship deals were signed, and a B-team entered under the March Engines banner for Stuck and Arturo Merzario. By now the F1 effort as a whole was under fairly severe pressure from BMW, which wanted Herd to concentrate entirely on the works' Formula Two effort, which was starting to be outpaced by French constructors (Martini and Elf) and the new Ralt marque.

That year Peterson scored only one other point in 1976 before being brokered back into a deal with Tyrrell for 1977. Although he felt most at home at March, it was clear that the team did not have the resources to do Formula One properly.

In the off-season of 1976-77, March engineer Wayne Eckersley constructed a rear end for the 761 chassis that had four driven wheels (designated the March 2-4-0) to Robin Herd's design. Unlike the six-wheeled Tyrrell P34, the 2-4-0 had four 16-inch driven wheels at the rear (the same size as the front wheels). The theory behind the design was that this arrangement would offer improved traction and reduced aerodynamic drag (compared to the Tyrrell, which used ultra-small front wheels and normally sized rears). The chassis was tested at Silverstone circuit in early 1977 by both Howden Ganley and Ian Scheckter but the project was curtailed in favour of further development of the conventional chassis. The car made March more profit than many of its successful racing cars as it was licensed by Scalextric and became one of their most popular models. The 2-4-0 rear end was later used in hillclimbing by various drivers including Roy Lane.

A token F1 effort with Rothmans sponsorship was run in 1977 for Alex Ribeiro and Ian Scheckter, but nothing worthwhile was achieved. Yet, as the works were fading from F1 the 761, by virtue of being cheap, simple and readily available, became the tool of choice for privateers, notably Frank Williams who after his acrimonious split with Walter Wolf needed a car to get back into racing before his own vehicle was ready.

1978 March-Triumph F3 car heritage motor museum gaydon
1978 March-Triumph F3 car, as raced by Nigel Mansell, on display at the Heritage motor museum, Gaydon

Merzario later built his own unsuccessful F1 car based on his old 761, which he and Simon Hadfield attempted to develop into a ground effect car. This programme was completely unsuccessful.

At the end of the 1977 season, the F1 team's assets and FOCA membership were sold to ATS (who had bought the Penske cars); Herd was retained by them as a consultant and was hence in the curious position of developing a development of his own 1975 car - and the 1978 ATS had some features reminiscent of contemporary March thinking. Mosley left the company to concentrate on FOCA matters. The F2 car had reached the end of a train of development that had started with the 732 and was becoming seriously uncompetitive; the works team abandoned the evolutionary 772 in favour of a smaller, neater car built around an old Formula Atlantic monocoque, the 772P. This was more than a match for the Martini opposition and formed the basis of the next year's dominant 782.

From 1978, March concentrated on Formula Two, running the works BMW team. A 781 chassis was occasionally campaigned in the minor Aurora F1 series. March also assisted in the production of the Group 4 and Group 5, racing versions of the BMW M1 sports car, which as well as running in mainstream endurance races also ran in the one-make Procar series as supporting events in many F1 races. The F2 cars of this era, particularly the 782, were often superb, and March regained its dominance of the formula - Bruno Giacomelli took the F2 title.

Ground effects came to F2 in 1979 but were widely misunderstood; for a while it looked like Rad Dougall in the Toleman team's conventional 782 would beat not only Brian Henton in Toleman's own car but also March's new 792 to the title. In the end, however, Marc Surer prevailed for the works.


A March 83G-Chevy driven by David Cowart and Kenper Miller takes part in a 1983 Camel GT race at Sears Point.

In 1981 March made a half-hearted and ill-financed effort to return to F1, building cars that were little more than heavy and insufficiently stiff copies of the Williams FW07 for Mick Ralph and John McDonald's RAM Racing. The car was driven initially by Eliseo Salazar, but he soon quit for Derek Daly to take over. The team acquired a major sponsorship deal from Rothmans in 1982, but the money came too late for Herd or Adrian Reynard (who was working as chief engineer) to improve the performance of the cars. In 1983, McDonald started building his own cars and March was left outside F1 once more. The RAM-March effort was at armslength from March proper, with the cars being built at a separate factory and the only real link with March being Robin Herd.

During this phase, March Engines (a separate company within the group) undertook a number of bespoke customer projects - a highly modified BMW M1 (which was highly unsuccessful but provided some input into the later GTP/Group C cars) and an equally unsuccessful Indycar (the Orbitor) based around the 792 chassis.

March 821 London Motorsports Show 2006
The March 821 from the 1982 season on display.

March's attention in the early 1980s was mainly split between F2 and breaking into the IndyCar market. It is a curious irony that although March's FW07 copy bombed in Formula One, when developed into the 81C Indycar it was instantly successful (largely down to George Bignotti's direct involvement in developing the car). Cosworth-powered Marches won the Indianapolis 500 five straight times between 1983 and 1987. The March 86C actually won the race twice in a row, 1986-1987. On the other hand, when Williams directly licensed the FW07 design to Bobby Hillin, the resultant Longhorn cars were a failure.

An important sideline appeared when Group C and IMSA GTP racing started; March built a line of sports-prototypes descended from the unsuccessful BMW M1C, which, fitted with Porsche or Chevrolet engines, enjoyed considerable success in America (but less in Europe). The biggest success for March in sportscar racing was victory in the 1984 24 Hours of Daytona. A works BMW deal in IMSA suffered from engine problems but the cars were intermittently very fast.

In 1982, Corrado Fabi took March's last Formula Two title; the formula was being increasingly dominated by the works Ralt-Hondas. March abandoned the Formula Three market at the end of the 1981 season; they had enjoyed periods of dominance in the category, but this had faded in favour of Ralt, though. The margins on an F3 car were low and the factory could be more productively occupied building F2s and Indycars.

The Truesports March 86C driven by Bobby Rahal to the 1986 Indy 500 and CART championships

The new Formula 3000 in 1985 gave March much more success for the first few years of the formula, with Christian Danner being the first champion in a March chassis. He was followed in 1986 by Ivan Capelli and in 1987 by Stefano Modena. These early F3000s were little more than developments of the 842 F2 car (as were the Japanese F2 cars in 1985-86). In 1986, the 86G was modified into the BMW GTP by BMW North America for use in the IMSA GT Championship, but saw little success. Meanwhile, March became by far the dominant marque in Indycar racing, reaching the point where 30 out of 33 starters in the Indianapolis 500 were Marches. Into the late 1980s, the F3000 programme started to be eclipsed by Lola and Ralt, and was virtually obliterated by Reynard Motorsport's entry to the market.

March began a new Formula One program in 1987 with the Ford-engined 871 which was sponsored by Japanese real estate company Leyton House and driven by Ivan Capelli, who had brought his F3000 sponsor to the team (in fact, for the very first race an F3000/F1 hybrid called the 87P had to be used as the 871 was not ready). In August 1987, Adrian Newey came to March F1 and designed the March-Judd 881 for Capelli and Maurício Gugelmin to drive. The car was a real success, scoring 21 points in 1988, including a second place at the 1988 Portuguese Grand Prix. It was the only normally aspirated car to lead a race in anger (Nigel Mansell in the Willams Judd had led away at the Brazilian Grand Prix after inheriting pole position - although was second by the first corner)[1] - albeit briefly - during the season when Capelli passed the all-powerful McLaren-Honda turbo of Alain Prost on lap 16 during the Japanese Grand Prix (Prost admitted to missing a gear out of the chicane which allowed Capelli to lead over the line. Honda power told though as the Judd V8 could not match it for straight line speed). This was actually the first time since 1983 that a naturally-aspirated powered car had led a Grand Prix. The aerodynamics and ultra-slim monocoque of the 881 were copied by most of the grid in 1989 and the car launched Newey as a superstar designer.


March encountered financial trouble and in June 1989, Japanese real estate entrepreneur Akira Akagi purchased the March F1 and F3000 teams. March concentrated on high-value partnership deals, such as Porsche and Alfa Romeo Indycar (the Porsche deal led to some success; the Alfa project was unsuccessful), consultancy work on the Panther Solo supercar, composites, and wind tunnel businesses. The wind tunnel was a disaster, with the insulation being far too efficient - it was effectively a pressure cooker that generated useless results and this destroyed the competitiveness of various teams that used it, including Lotus. The economic downturn of the late 80s affected March's market severely and the management recognised that they were producing poor customer cars; the logical move was to merge with Ralt, with March becoming the brand for industry partnership deals, leaving Ralt to look after the production categories. This duly took place, although the businesses were never efficiently integrated.

Leyton House Racing

The F1 team raced as Leyton House Racing in 1990 and 1991, acquiring Ilmor V10 power, but by the end of the year, Akagi was immersed in the Fuji Bank scandal and Leyton House withdrew from racing. The team was bought by Ken Marrable, an associate of Akagi, and resumed the name March for the 1992 season but with little funding and results fell far short of expectations. The Leyton House Racing operation closed down as the team (now unconnected to the March group) attempted to assemble a project for the beginning of the 1993 season.


A complex series of buyouts and sales saw the March group (now essentially a financial services outfit) divest itself of its racing interests; after a management buyout, March and Ralt were subsequently sold to Andrew Fitton and Steve Ward in the early 1990s. Fitton later wound March up and Ward continued Ralt at a lower level. In the late 1990s the engineering assets of March were sold to Andy Gilberg. This consisted of over 30,000 engineering drawings and design rights for the customer cars, works F1 cars from the 1970s and other projects produced at the Murdock Road facility. These records are currently available to car owners, racing services providers and historians through


March Racing Organisation Ltd made an application to compete in the 2010 Formula One season under the March Racing Organisation banner, in May 2009.[2] The entry was made when a forty-five million Euros budget cap was being considered for Formula One, to allow less well-funded teams to be competitive with the frontrunners. MRO's entry consisted of just the name; with the March team inactive since 1992 a factory and team would have had to be assembled in the eight months before the start of the season.[3]

Car designations

March's cars generally followed a simple designation scheme in which the first two digits correspond to the year (69–91), and the third digit or letter corresponds to the formula. Some peculiarities emerged, which are documented below. There were some minor exceptions to these rules, for example xx5 designated both some very early Formula B/Atlantic cars, some early F5000s and some early 2-litre sports cars.

  • Formula One – 701-781, 811-821, 871-881. Subsequent March F1 cars took the CG prefix after Cesare Gariboldi, a Leyton House March team manager who was killed in a road accident in 1989:[4] CG891, CG901, CG911. Note that, during 1972, three distinct F1 cars appeared: 721, 721X (low-polar-moment) and 721G (F2-based). At the start of the 1987 season, the team ran the 87P/87B, a hybrid F1/F3000 car.
  • Formula Two – 702-842. Japanese F2 cars in 1985-86 were designated 85J and 86J. A 772P appeared in 1977 based on an old Atlantic chassis as a prototype for the 782.
  • Formula 3000 – 85B - 89B
  • Formula Three – 693-813. In 1971, two types of F3 car were made, a spaceframe and a monocoque, these were designated 713S and 713M.
  • Can-Am/Interserie Group 7 – 707, 717, 817, 827, 847
  • 2-litre sports prototypes – 73S - 77S; Sports 2000 81S-84S
  • IndyCar/Champcar – 81C - 89C. Bespoke cars for Porsche took the 89P and 90P designations; bespoke cars for Alfa Romeo took the 89CE designation.
  • Formula 5000 – 72A - 76A
  • Formula Atlantic – 73B - 79B
  • Formula Ford (UK) – 708 - 718
  • Formula Ford (US) – 709 - 719
  • Formula Renault – 75R
  • IMSA GTP/Group C – 80G - 87G, 88S, 92S. 'N' and 'S' designations used for Nissan cars.

Formula One results

Results achieved by the 'works' March team.

Season Entrant Car Tyres Engine Drivers Constructors Championship
1970 March Engineering March 701 F Cosworth DFV Chris Amon
Jo Siffert
3rd (48 pts) (see Note 1)
1971 STP March Racing Team March 711
March 701
F Alfa Romeo
Cosworth DFV
Ronnie Peterson
Alex Soler-Roig
Andrea de Adamich
Nanni Galli
Niki Lauda
Jean-Pierre Jarier
Mike Beuttler
4th (33 pts)
1972 March Racing Team March 721
March 721X
March 721G
G Cosworth DFV Ronnie Peterson
Niki Lauda
6th (15 pts) (see Note 2)
1973 March Racing Team March 731 (actually rebuilt 721G) G Cosworth DFV Jean-Pierre Jarier
Henri Pescarolo
Roger Williamson
5th (14 pts) (see Note 3)
1974 March Engineering March 741 G Cosworth DFV Hans-Joachim Stuck
Howden Ganley
Vittorio Brambilla
Reine Wisell
9th (6 pts)
1975 March Engineering
Beta Team March
Lavazza March
March 751
March 741
G Cosworth DFV Lella Lombardi
Vittorio Brambilla
Hans-Joachim Stuck
8th (7.5 pts) (see Note 4)
1976 March Engineering

Beta Team March
March 761 G Cosworth DFV Ronnie Peterson
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Vittorio Brambilla
7th (19 pts)
1977 Team Rothmans International
Hollywood March Racing
March 761B
March 771
G Cosworth DFV Ian Scheckter
Alex Ribeiro
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Brian Henton
NC (0 pts)
1981 March Grand Prix Team March 811 A
Cosworth DFV Eliseo Salazar
Derek Daly
NC (0 pts)
1982 March Grand Prix
Rothmans March Grand Prix Team
LBT Team March
March 821 A
Cosworth DFV Raul Boesel
Jochen Mass
Rupert Keegan
Emilio de Villota
NC (0 pts)
1987 Leyton House March Racing Team March 87P (1st race only)
March 871
G Cosworth DFZ Ivan Capelli 13th(1 pt)
1988 Leyton House March Racing Team March 881 G Judd Ivan Capelli
Maurício Gugelmin
6th (22 pts)
1989 Leyton House March Racing Team March 881
March CG891
G Judd Ivan Capelli
Maurício Gugelmin
14th (4 pts)
1990 Competed as Leyton House Racing
1991 Competed as Leyton House Racing
1992 March F1 March CG911B G Ilmor Paul Belmondo
Karl Wendlinger
Emanuele Naspetti
Jan Lammers
9th (3 pts)


  • Four Guys And A Telephone, Mike Lawrence, MRP
  • March: The Grand Prix and Indy Cars, Alan Henry, Hazleton


  1. ^ MrViniciusf11995 (21 November 2012), gp do brasil 1988 completo (Brazilian Grand Prix 1988 Complete), retrieved 20 March 2016
  2. ^ Alexander, Earl (30 May 2009). "A return of March to Formula One". Racing-Live. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
  3. ^ "F1: March And Brabham Submit Entries For 2010". The Motor Report. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  4. ^ Smith, Damien (February – March 2013). "Hand of the Creator". Road & Track. 64 (6): 64–69.

Related links

1971 European Formula Two Championship

The 1971 European Formula Two season was contested over 11 rounds. March Engineering driver Ronnie Peterson clinched the championship title.

1974 European Formula Two Championship

The 1974 European Formula Two season was contested over 10 rounds and had Frenchman Patrick Depailler as the season champion. Depailler raced the Formula One season as well this year, driving for the Tyrrell racing team.

1975 British Formula Three season

The 1975 B.A.R.C. BP Super Visco British F3 Championship was the 25th season of the British Formula 3 season. Sweden’s Gunnar Nilsson took the title.

After the poor 1974 season, Formula Three was completely revived in 1975, not just in Britain but in Italy, Sweden and Germany. The British series, sponsored by BP and organised by the B.A.R.C., was the most important of these as it was the only one open to drivers of all nationalities and was regarded by some as the effective European championship. There was also a European Cup, but in this first season it was barely noticed. The BP championship dominated by three works operations: March, with drivers Gunnar Nilsson and Alex Ribeiro, Modus, with Danny Sullivan, and Safir, with Patrick Nève. The works GRD operation also mounted a comeback but it was a failure, despite a surprise GRD win at Monaco, and the company collapsed the following year. Nilsson was a worthy champion, winning five British championship events plus three others, including the opening round of the Swedish series in April.

Alex Ribeiro

Alexandre "Alex" Dias Ribeiro (born in Belo Horizonte, November 7, 1948) is a former racing driver from Brazil. He entered in 20 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, but scored no World Championship points.


The BMW M12/13 turbo 1500 cc 4-cylinder turbocharged Formula One engine, based on the standard BMW M10 engine introduced in 1961, powered the F1 cars of Brabham, Arrows and Benetton. Nelson Piquet won the FIA Formula One Drivers' Championship in 1983 driving a Brabham powered by the BMW M12/13 turbo. It was the first Drivers' Championship to be won using a turbocharged engine. The engine also powered the BMW GTP and in the 2.0 litre naturally aspirated form, the successful March Engineering Formula Two cars.

Cosworth DFV

The DFV is an internal combustion engine that was originally produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder.Its development in 1967 for Colin Chapman's Team Lotus was sponsored by Ford. For many years it was the dominant engine in Formula One, and it was also used in other categories of racing, including CART, Formula 3000 and sportscar racing.

The engine is a 90°, 2,993 cc V8 with a bore and stroke of 85.67 x 64.897 mm (3.373 x 2.555 in) producing over 400 bhp (408 bhp at 9,000 rpm, 270 ft⋅lbf (370 N⋅m) torque at 7,000 rpm was quoted) from the start reaching over 500 bhp (510 bhp at 11,200 rpm was quoted) by the end of its Formula 1 career. The 1983 DFY variant had a revised bore and stroke of 90 x 59 mm (3.543 x 2.316 in) giving 2,993 cc and 520–530 bhp at 11,000 rpm, 280 ft⋅lbf (380 N⋅m) torque at 8,500 rpm.

European Formula Two Championship

The European Formula Two Championship was a Formula Two motor racing series that was held between 1967–84. The races were held across Europe, and were contested both by drivers aiming to compete in Formula One in the future as well as current Formula One drivers wishing to practice. The series was sanctioned by the FIA, motorsports world governing body.

In order to prevent the series being dominated by Formula One drivers, the grading system was introduced where successful Formula One drivers and recent Formula Two champions were not eligible to score championship points if they competed in a round of the European Formula Two Championship.

Towards the end of the series life, the number of entrants diminished and declining interest meant that it was replaced by the Formula 3000 class following the 1984 season.

Formula One Constructors' Association

The Formula One Constructors' Association (FOCA) was an organization of the chassis builders (constructors) who design and build the cars that race in the FIA Formula One World Championship. It evolved from the earlier Formula 1 Constructors Association (F1CA; the name was changed due to unfortunate connotations in some languages) and came to be dominated by Bernie Ecclestone and Max Mosley (originally a co-founder of March Engineering). Frank Williams, Colin Chapman, Teddy Mayer, Ken Tyrrell were also significant members. FOCA served to represent the interests of their privately owned teams – usually against the race organisers and later against the manufacturer-owned or supported teams such as Ferrari, Matra and Alfa Romeo. Ecclestone became the organisation's chief executive in 1978, with Mosley taking on the role of legal advisor.

In the early 1980s, the organization fell out with the sport's governing body – the FISA. The eventual resolution of this conflict saw Ecclestone take a more significant role in the running of the sport with the formation of FOA (Formula One Administration).

Following the disqualification of Nelson Piquet and Keke Rosberg from the 1982 Brazilian Grand Prix, numerous FOCA-aligned teams including McLaren, Williams and Brabham boycotted the San Marino Grand Prix. Four FOCA-aligned teams – Tyrrell, Osella, ATS and Toleman – broke their stated boycott and started the race anyway.

Formula Two

Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship. The name returned in 2017 when the former GP2 Series became known as the FIA Formula 2 Championship.

Gustav Brunner

Gustav Brunner (born 12 September 1950 in Graz) is an Austrian Formula One (F1) designer and engineer. He started his career in racing car design at the German-based constructor McNamara. He first entered F1 in a brief spell working for the ATS team in 1978, before designing cars for Formula Two and sportscar racing. He came to prominence in Formula One in 1983, by returning to ATS. He designed two chassis for the team, the 1983 D6 and the 1984 D7, before quitting after a number of arguments with team principal Günter Schmid. In 1985 he joined RAM Racing, designing the RAM 03 car. By this time he was gaining a reputation within the sport for designing good chassis on a limited budget, even if the teams he had worked for had a conspicuous lack of results.

He then worked for Arrows and Ferrari, before reuniting with ATS boss Schmid as designer for his new Rial F1 outfit in 1988. He fell out with Schmid again and became Technical Director of the Zakspeed team. When the team folded at the end of the 1989 season, he moved on to Leyton House, where he worked on the March CG891 and stayed on as they reverted to March Engineering. During this period, he is perhaps best remembered for vaulting the pitlane wall and running onto the track when Ivan Capelli finished 2nd in the 1990 French Grand Prix. With March Engineering folding, he moved to Minardi for 1993, designing their successful M193 chassis, before another switch, to Ferrari's Research & Development department, eventually returning to Minardi as chief designer in 1997 to help new technical director, Gabriele Tredozi, and became the technical director in 1999.

Following three successive seasons where his Minardi designs had been praised for their innovative design considering such small resources, he was head-hunted by Toyota to become their Technical Director for their new Formula One team in 2001. He left Toyota at the end of 2005.

Hans-Joachim Stuck

Hans-Joachim Stuck (born 1 January 1951), nicknamed "Strietzel", is a German racing driver who has competed in Formula One and many other categories.

Judd (engine)

Judd is a name brand of engines produced by Engine Developments Ltd., a company founded in 1971 by John Judd and Jack Brabham in Rugby, Warwickshire, England. Engine Developments was intended to build engines for Brabham's racing efforts, and became one of the first firms authorised by Cosworth to maintain and rebuild its DFV engines, but has since expanded into various areas of motorsport.

Judd has provided engines for many major series, including Formula One and other smaller formula series, sports car racing, and touring car racing. They have been associated with manufacturers such as Yamaha, MG, and Honda, although they have mainly been a privateer-engine supplier.

List of British Formula Three champions

This page contains a list of British Formula Three champions. The championship has been in existence intermittently since 1951 and has some former champions who later made Formula One. The most notable among these are multiple Formula One world champions Ayrton Senna, Jackie Stewart, Nelson Piquet, Jim Clark, Emerson Fittipaldi and Mika Häkkinen. This list not include champions of the BRDC British Formula 3 Championship.

Lotus 96T

The Lotus type 96T was Team Lotus's last Indycar.

The project was the brainchild of former Formula 2 team owner Roy Winkelmann. During the 1960s Winklemann had proved successful running Brabhams and scoring successes with Jochen Rindt. However this team was to break up suddenly in 1969 with some of the core personnel (including Alan Rees) forming March Engineering.

Winklemann then relocated himself in the United States and built up a large and diverse business empire. Following the creation of the CART series in 1979 Winklemann saw a perceived blossoming of international interest and was once again lured to an opportunity to race again. However he did not wish to buy an "off-the-shelf" March or Lola chassis as was de rigueur in CART racing during the 1980s. Instead he initially approached Cosworth and obtained some assurances that they would be prepared to build "works" engines for his team. All teams in the championship were effectively running second-hand DFX engines at this point, with little input from Cosworth.

Winklemann then approached Team Lotus and their new designer Gérard Ducarouge to obtain a bespoke chassis with the plan of competing and conquering CART within three years. Ducarouge enlisted Mike Coughlan to help design the chassis.

The 96T was Ducarogue's response to these requirements. Its tub, lines and suspension were similar to the Lotus 95T that was racing in the 1984 Formula One Championships, but with one significant design alteration. Ducarouge had foreseen that at a track like Indianapolis, the car stood the very real possibility of hitting a concrete retaining wall at over 200 mph (322 km/h), therefore the chassis was modified.

Since 1981 all Formula one Lotuses had been constructed of a carbon/Kevlar (Chapman Tartan) sandwich with the void between the two filled with Nomex paper foil. The Type 96T departed from this by having the void filled with a lightweight aluminium-foil honeycomb. This modification was significant as it built in extra strength at no cost to weight and was to lay the foundations for all future Lotus Formula 1 chassis.

Despite the project's promising beginnings it was to be the American CART establishment's lack of enthusiasm (interpreted by some as outward hostility) for a "works team" that was to effectively kill this project. The repercussions of this were to virtually guarantee none of the sponsorship that Winklemann had originally been so confident of. Also with a lack of sponsorship many drivers were not willing to sacrifice their growing reputations with an unknown European team, despite the legacy that team came with.

The one and only prototype now resides with Classic Team Lotus.

Max Mosley

Max Rufus Mosley (born 13 April 1940) is the former president of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), a non-profit association that represents the interests of motoring organisations and car users worldwide. The FIA is also the governing body for Formula One and other international motorsports.

A barrister and former amateur racing driver, Mosley was a founder and co-owner of March Engineering, a racing car constructor and Formula One racing team. He dealt with legal and commercial matters for the company between 1969 and 1977 and became its representative at the Formula One Constructors' Association (FOCA), the body that represents Formula One constructors. Together with Bernie Ecclestone he represented FOCA at the FIA and in its dealings with race organisers. In 1978, Mosley became the official legal adviser to FOCA. In this role he and Marco Piccinini negotiated the first version of the Concorde Agreement, which settled a long-standing dispute between FOCA and the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA), a commission of the FIA and the then governing body of Formula One. Mosley was elected president of FISA in 1991 and became president of the FIA, FISA's parent body, in 1993.

Mosley identified his major achievement as FIA President as the promotion of the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP or Encap). He has also promoted increased safety and the use of green technologies in motor racing. In 2008, stories about his sex life appeared in the British press, along with unfounded allegations regarding Nazi connotations. Mosley successfully sued the newspaper that published the allegations and maintained his position as FIA president. He stood down at the end of his term in 2009 and was replaced by his preferred successor, Jean Todt.

Mosley is the youngest son of Sir Oswald Mosley, former leader of the British Union of Fascists, and Diana Mitford. He was educated in France, Germany, and Britain before going on to attend university at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated with a degree in physics. He then changed to law and was called to the bar in 1964. In his teens and early twenties, Mosley was involved with his father's post-war political party, the Union Movement (UM). He has said that the association of his surname with fascism stopped him from developing his interest in politics further, although he briefly worked for the Conservative Party in the early 1980s.

Patrick Nève

Patrick Marie Ghislain Pierre Simon Stanislas Nève de Mévergnies (13 October 1949 – 12 March 2017) was a Belgian racing driver. He participated in 14 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 16 May 1976. He was notable for being the very first driver for Williams Grand Prix Engineering. He scored no championship points. His younger brother, Guy, was also a racing driver.

Robin Herd

Robin Herd (23 March 1939 – 5 June 2019) was an English engineer, designer and businessman.Herd studied at St Peter's College, Oxford, having turned down an offer to play cricket for Worcestershire at the age of 18. He initially entered Oxford with a scholarship to study mathematics, however he switched subjects and graduated with a double first in physics and engineering, before joining the Royal Aircraft Establishment in 1961 as a design engineer on the Concorde supersonic aircraft project, focussing on computational fluid dynamics. He worked on the Concorde project for four years and was eventually promoted to senior scientific officer at the age of 24.He was recruited by McLaren in 1965, having been alerted to an engineering vacancy with the constructor by former school friend and racing driver Alan Rees, and worked on cars, such as the Mallite-bodied M2A test car for the Firestone tire company. The M2A subsequently evolved into the Formula One M2B car. Herd stayed with McLaren until 1968 — during which time he designed their M4B, M5A and M7 Formula One cars, as well as the successful M6A Can-Am car — before moving to Cosworth to design a four-wheel drive F1 car. He also carried out work for Frank Williams in late 1969, modifying Williams' Brabham BT26 to take a Ford Cosworth DFV to enter Piers Courage in Formula One. He co-founded March Engineering with Max Mosley, Alan Rees and Graham Coaker in 1969. The team completed 207 Formula One Grand Prix races between 1970 and 1992, winning three with four pole positions. In addition they enjoyed a great deal of success in Formula Two, and in the 1980s they made a successful foray into Indycars, with March cars winning the Indianapolis 500 for five successive years from 1983 to 1987.He sold March Racing to the Japanese property company Leyton House in 1989 and created Robin Herd Ltd., a design office in Bicester. He quit racing in 1995 and bought Oxford United Football Club, becoming chairman, and also established a company investigating natural ways of producing energy. He resigned from his duty as chairman in 1998, and formed an Indy Racing League team called March Indy International in the following year.

Ron Tauranac

Ronald Sidney Tauranac (born 13 January 1925) is a retired British-Australian engineer and racing car designer, who with Formula One driver Jack Brabham founded the Brabham constructor and racing team in 1962. Following Brabham's retirement as a driver at the end of the 1970 season, Tauranac owned and managed the Brabham team until 1972, when he sold it to Bernie Ecclestone. He remained in England to assist with a redesign of a Politoys Formula One chassis for Frank Williams in 1973 and helped Trojan develop a Formula One version of their Formula 5000 car.

After a brief retirement in Australia, Tauranac returned to England to establish the Ralt marque (a name he and his brother Austin had used for some 'specials' in Australia in the 1950s, winning the NSW Hillclimb Championship in 1954 with the Ralt 500). The first "modern" Ralt was the Ralt RT1 chassis, to be raced in Formula Three, Formula Two and Formula Atlantic. The chassis proved successful, winning the European Formula Three championship in 1975 in the hands of Australian driver Larry Perkins. The 1978 season also proved successful for the RT1 chassis, winning the European F3 championship for Jan Lammers.

Tauranac designed the Theodore Racing F1 car for the 1978 season. Two new designs were created for the 1979 season: the RT2 for Formula Two and the RT3 for Formula Three. The RT3 chassis won the 1983 European F3 championship for Pierluigi Martini and five consecutive British F3 titles. A joint venture with Honda resulted in the RH6 chassis, which won the 1981, 1984 and 1985 titles. In October 1988, Tauranac sold the Ralt business to March Engineering for £1.25 million.

Tauranac has remained involved with various aspects of the sport since departing from Ralt, including racing-school cars for Honda, a Formula Renault car, consulting work for the Arrows Formula One team, and continuing his relationship with Honda that goes back to their early Formula Two days as engine supplier to Brabham in the 1960s. He has moved back to Australia but retains an interest in the sport. Tauranac can be seen each year as a design judge at the Formula SAE Australasia competition in Melbourne, Australia.

Ronnie Peterson

Bengt Ronnie Peterson (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈrɔnːɪ ²peːtɛˌʂɔn]; 14 February 1944 – 11 September 1978) was a Swedish racing driver. Known by the nickname 'SuperSwede', he was a two-time runner-up in the FIA Formula One World Drivers' Championship.

Peterson began his motor racing career in kart racing, traditionally the discipline where the majority of race drivers begin their careers in open-wheel racing. After winning a number of karting titles, including two Swedish titles in 1963 and 1964, he moved on to Formula Three, where he won the Monaco Grand Prix Formula Three support race for the 1969 Grand Prix. Later that year he won the FIA European Formula 3 Championship and moved up into Formula One, racing for the March factory team. In his three-year spell with the team, he took six podiums, most of which were scored during the 1971 Formula One season in which he also finished as runner-up in the Drivers' Championship.

After seeing out his three-year contract at March, Peterson joined Colin Chapman's Team Lotus in the 1973 season, partnering defending champion Emerson Fittipaldi. During his first two seasons with Lotus, Peterson took seven victories, scoring a career-best 52 points in 1973. After a poor 1975 season, Peterson moved back to March and scored his final victory for the team at the 1976 Italian Grand Prix. After spending the 1977 season with Tyrrell, he moved back to Lotus for the 1978 season as number two driver to Mario Andretti. Peterson scored two wins, at the South African and Austrian Grand Prix races, and finished second in the Drivers' Championship standings despite his fatal first-lap accident at Monza during the Italian Grand Prix.

2019 season


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