Marc Perrin de Brichambaut

Marc Perrin de Brichambaut (French pronunciation: ​[maʁk peʁɛ̃ də bʁiʃɑ̃bo]; born 29 October 1948) is a French career judge and diplomat. On 10 December 2014 he was elected a judge to the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague. Until 30 June 2011 he was the Secretary General of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

Marc Perrin de Brichambaut
OSCE Secretary General Marc Perrin de Brichambaut
Judge of the International Criminal Court
Assumed office
10 December 2014
Nominated byFrance
Appointed byAssembly of States Parties
Secretary General of the
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
In office
June 2005 – 30 June 2011
Preceded byJán Kubiš
Succeeded byLamberto Zannier
Personal details
Born29 October 1948 (age 70)
Rabat, French Morocco

Early life and education

Marc Perrin de Brichambaut was born in Rabat, Morocco. He graduated from France's École nationale d'administration in Paris in 1974.

Career

De Brichambaut joined the Council of State, France's supreme court for judicial review, in 1974.[1]

In 1983 and 1984, de Brichambaut was Chief-of-Staff to Roland Dumas, then Minister of European Affairs, and after Dumas became Foreign Minister, de Brichambaut continued to serve as his Chief-of-Staff.

In 1986, he moved to New York, where he worked as cultural Counsellor for the French Embassy, returning to Paris in 1988 as Principal Adviser to Defense Minister Jean-Pierre Chevenement. He was also adviser to French Foreign Minister Claude Cheysson.

From 1991 to 1994, de Brichambaut was the head of French Delegation at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (later (OSCE) in Vienna. He was appointed Conseiller d'Etat in 1992.[2]

From 1994 to 1998, de Brichambaut headed the French Foreign Ministry's Legal Division. In that capacity, he led the French delegation to the Rome Conference and signed the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on behalf of his country.[3]

Before being appointed as OSCE Secretary General he was Director for Strategic Affairs at the Ministry of the Armed Forces.

De Brichambaut served as Secretary General of the OSCE in Vienna from 2005 to 2011.

Judge at the International Criminal Court

On 10 December 2014 de Brichambaut was elected a judge to the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague. In his capacity as presiding judge of Trial Chamber VII in 2016, he convicted former vice-president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Jean-Pierre Bemba and four members of his legal team of interfering with witnesses; the verdicts marked the first time the court found suspects guilty of attempting to pervert the course of justice.[4] As presiding judge of Trial Chamber II, he issued a landmark ruling in 2017 by finding Congolese former militia leader Germain Katanga liable for $1 million in damages to his victims; this was the first time the court ordered a convict to pay damages to individual victims.[5]

In March 2018, the ICC judges elected de Brichambaut as Second Vice-President for a three-year term.[6]

References

  1. ^ Judge Marc Perrin de Brichambaut International Criminal Court (ICC).
  2. ^ Judge Marc Perrin de Brichambaut International Criminal Court (ICC).
  3. ^ Judge Marc Perrin de Brichambaut International Criminal Court (ICC).
  4. ^ Jean-Pierre Bemba convicted of interfering with witnesses in ICC first The Guardian, 19 October 2016.
  5. ^ Stephanie van den Berg (March 24, 2017), War crimes court orders former Congo militia leader to pay victims Reuters.
  6. ^ New ICC Presidency elected for 2018-2021 International Criminal Court (ICC), press release of 11 March 2018.

External links

Chile Eboe-Osuji

Chile Eboe-Osuji (born 1962) is a judge of the International Criminal Court, The Hague since March 2012 and was elected as President on 11 March 2018. His election into the Presidency of the International Criminal Court is for a three-year term. He was the Legal Advisor to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Dora Bakoyannis

Theodora "Dora" Bakoyannis (Greek: Θεοδώρα "Ντόρα" Μπακογιάννη; pronounced [ˈdoɾa bakoˈʝani]; née Mitsotakis; Greek: Μητσοτάκη; born May 6, 1954), is a Greek politician. From 2006 to 2009 she was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Greece, the highest position ever to have been held by a woman in the Cabinet of Greece at the time; she was also Chairperson-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 2009. Previously she was the Mayor of Athens from 2003 to 2006, the first female mayor in the city's history, and the first woman to serve as mayor of a city hosting the Olympic Games. She also served as Minister for Culture of Greece from 1992 to 1993. She has been serving as an independent member of the Hellenic Parliament representing unofficially Democratic Alliance, the political party she founded in 2010, having been expelled from the opposition New Democracy party due to voting against the party line. In May 2012, due to the critical situation in Greece before the elections and given the established electoral law, Democratic Alliance decided to cooperate with New Democracy, based on a specific framework of values and to suspend its activities. Dora Bakoyannis rejoined New Democracy on 21 May 2012, ahead of the parliamentary election in June, where she headed the state deputies' ballot.

International Criminal Court investigation in Libya

The International Criminal Court investigation in Libya or the Situation in Libya is an investigation started in March 2011 by the International Criminal Court (ICC) into war crimes and crimes against humanity claimed to have occurred in Libya since 15 February 2011. The initial context of the investigation was the 2011 Libyan Civil War and the time frame of the investigation continued to include the 2019 Western Libya offensive.

Judges of the International Criminal Court

The eighteen judges of the International Criminal Court (ICC) are elected for nine-year terms by the member-countries of the court. Candidates must be nationals of those countries and they must "possess the qualifications required in their respective States for appointment to the highest judicial offices".A judge may be disqualified from "any case in which his or her impartiality might reasonably be doubted on any ground", and a judge may be removed from office if he or she "is found to have committed serious misconduct or a serious breach of his or her duties" or is unable to exercise his or her functions.The judges are organized into three divisions: the Pre-Trial Division, Trial Division, and Appeals Division.

Ján Kubiš

Ján Kubiš (born 12 November 1952) is a Slovak diplomat and former Minister of Foreign Affairs who has been serving as United Nations Special Coordinator for Lebanon since 2019. He was appointed to this position by the United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres.

Lamberto Zannier

Lamberto Zannier (born 15 June 1954) is an Italian diplomat who is currently OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and earlier served as the Secretary General of the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe).Previously, from June 2008 to June 2011, Zannier served as the United Nations Special Representative for Kosovo and Head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), with the rank of UN Undersecretary-General. He was appointed to this position by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in June 2008.Zannier has served for the Foreign Service of Italy for almost 40 years. Before his appointment as Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Kosovo, he played a leading role at the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a coordinator for EU Foreign Policy and as a Coordinator for EU Security and Defence issues. Between 2002 and 2006, he was Director of the Conflict Prevention Centre of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in Vienna. In this capacity, he managed more than 20 civilian field operations in Europe and Central Asia.

From 2000 to 2002, he served as Representative of Italy to the Executive Council of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in The Hague. From 1997 to 1999, he was chairperson of the negotiations on the adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. From 1991 to 1997, he served as Head of Disarmament, Arms Control and Cooperative Security at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Previously, he served in Rome, Abu Dhabi and Vienna, mainly specialising in multilateral and security affairs. He has authored several publications on security, conflict prevention and crisis management issues. He routinely holds lessons and conferences on international relations and international security.

Zannier obtained a Law degree and a Honorary Degree in International and Diplomatic Sciences from the University of Trieste.

List of international organization leaders in 2005

2004 international organization leaders – Events of 2005 – 2006 international organization leaders – International organization leaders by year

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) –

Secretary-General –

Jean-Robert Goulongana, Gabon (2000–2005)

John Kaputin, Papua New Guinea (2005–2010)

African Development Bank –

President –

Omar Kabbaj, Morocco (1995–2005)

Donald Kaberuka, Rwanda (2005–present)

African Union –

Chairperson of the Commission – Alpha Oumar Konaré, Mali (2003–2008)

Chairperson – Olusegun Obasanjo, Nigeria (2004–2006)

President of the Pan-African Parliament – Gertrude Mongella, Tanzania (2004–2009)

Andean Community –

Secretary-General – Allan Wagner Tizón, Peru (2004–2006)

Antarctic Treaty

Executive Secretary – Jan Huber, Netherlands (2004–present)

Arab League –

Secretary-General – Amr Moussa, Egypt (2001–2011)

Arab Maghreb Union

Secretary-General – Habib Boularès, Tunisia (2002–2006)

Asian Development Bank –

President –

Tadao Chino, Japan (1999–2005)

Haruhiko Kuroda, Japan (2005–present)

Asian Football Confederation (AFC)

President – Mohamed bin Hammam, Qatar (2002–present)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Executive Director – Choi Seok Young, South Korea (2005)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) –

Secretary-General – Ong Keng Yong, Singapore (2003–2007)

Caribbean Community –

Secretary-General – Edwin Carrington, Trinidad and Tobago (1992–2010)

Central American Parliament –

President –

Fabio Gadea Mantilla, Nicaragua (2004–2005)

Julio Palacios, Panama (2005–2006)

Colombo Plan –

Secretary-General – Kittipan Kanjanapipatkul, Thailand (2003–2007)

Commonwealth of Nations –

Head – Queen Elizabeth II (1952–present)

Secretary-General – Don McKinnon, New Zealand (2000–2008)

Commonwealth of Independent States

Executive Secretary – Vladimir Rushailo, Russia (2004–2007)

Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)

Executive Secretary – Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca, Cape Verde (2004–present)

Confédération africaine de football (CAF)

President – Issa Hayatou, Cameroon (1988–present)

Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF)

President – Jack A. Warner, Trinidad and Tobago (1990–present)

Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL)

President – Nicolas Leoz, Paraguay (1986–present)

Council of Europe

Secretary General – Terry Davis, United Kingdom (2004–2009)

East African Community –

Secretary-General – Nuwe Amanya Mushega, Uganda (2001–2006)

Economic Community of West African States

Executive Secretary – Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Ghana (2002–2006)

Chairman –

John Agyekum Kufuor, Ghana (2003–2005)

Mamadou Tandja, Niger (2005–2007)

Eurasian Economic Community

Secretary-General – Grigory Rapota, Russia (2002–2007)

Chairman of the Interstate Council – Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan (2001–present)

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

President – Jean Lemierre, France (2000–2008)

European Free Trade Association

Secretary-General – William Rossier, Switzerland (2000–2006)

European Union (EU)

Presidency of the European Council –

Luxembourg (2005)

United Kingdom (2005)

President of the European Commission – José Manuel Barroso, Portugal (2004–present)

President of the European Parliament – Josep Borrell, Spain (2004–present)

Secretary-General of the Council and High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy – Javier Solana, Spain (1999–present)

President of the European Central Bank – Jean-Claude Trichet, France (2003–2011)

European Ombudsman – Nikiforos Diamandouros, Greece (2003–present)

President of the Committee of the Regions (CoR) – Peter Straub, (Germany) (2004–present)

President of the European Investment Bank (EIB) – Philippe Maystadt, Belgium (2000–2011)

President of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) – Vassilios Skouris, Greece (2003–present)

President of the European Court of Auditors –

Juan Manuel Fabra Vallés, Spain (2002–2005)

Hubert Weber, Austria (2005–present)

President of the Economic and Social Committee (ESC) – Anne-Marie Sigmund, Austria (2004–present)

Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)

President – Sepp Blatter, Switzerland (1998–present)

Food and Agriculture Organization

Director-General – Jacques Diouf, Senegal (1994–2011)

La Francophonie

Secretary-General – Abdou Diouf, Senegal (2003–2014)

Group of Eight (G-8)

President (informal) – Tony Blair, United Kingdom (2005)

Gulf Cooperation Council

Secretary-General – Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah, Qatar (2002–2011)

Ibero-American Secretariat (Segib)

Secretary-General – Enrique V. Iglesias, Uruguay (2005–present)

Indian Ocean Commission

Secretary-General – Monique Andreas Esoavekomandroso, Madagascar (2004–present)

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

President –

Enrique Iglesias, Uruguay (1988–2005)

Luis Alberto Moreno, Colombia (2005–present)

Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Executive Secretary – Attalla Hamad Bashir, Sudan (2000–2008)

International Atomic Energy Agency

Director-General – Muhammad al-Baradei, Egypt (1997–present)

International Civil Aviation Organization

President of the Council – Assad Kotaite, Lebanon (1976–2006)

Secretary-General – Taïeb Chérif, Algeria (2003–present)

International Court of Justice

President – Shi Jiuyong, China (2003–2006)

International Criminal Court

President – Philippe Kirsch, Canada (2003–2009)

International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)

Secretary-General – Ronald Noble, United States (2000–present)

President – Jackie Selebi, South Africa (2004–2008)

International Labour Organization

Director-General – Juan Somavía, Chile (1999–2012)

International Maritime Organization

Secretary-General – Efthimios E. Mitropoulos, Greece (2004–2011)

International Monetary Fund

managing director – Rodrigo Rato, Spain (2004–2007)

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

President – Jacques Rogge, Belgium (2001–present)

International Paralympic Committee (IPC)

President – Philip Craven, United Kingdom (2001–present)

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Director-general – Brunson McKinley, United States (1998–2008)

International Rugby Board (IRB)

President – Syd Millar, Ireland (2003–2007)

International Telecommunication Union

Secretary-General – Yoshio Utsumi, Japan (1999–2006)

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

President – Ahmad Mohamed Ali, Saudi Arabia (1975–present)

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

Chairman – Datuk Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Malaysia (2003–2006)

Nordic Council

Secretary-General – Per Unckel, Sweden (2003–present)

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

Secretary-General – Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Netherlands (2004–2009)

Supreme Allied Commander Europe – James L. Jones, United States (2003–present)

Oceania Football Confederation (OFC)

President – Reynald Temarii, Tahiti (2004–2010)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Secretary-General – Donald Johnston, Canada (1996–2006)

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

Secretary-General –

Ján Kubis, Slovakia (1999–2005)

Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, France (2005–2011)

Chairman-in-Office – Dimitrij Rupel, Slovenia (2005)

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

Director-General – Rogelio Pfirter, Argentina (2002–present)

Organization of American States

Secretary-General –

Luigi R. Einaudi, United States, acting (2004–2005)

José Miguel Insulza, Chile (2005–present)

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States

Director-General – Len Ishmael, Saint Lucia (2003–present)

Organisation of the Islamic Conference

Secretary-General – Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Turkey (2005–2013)

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Secretary-General – Ahmed Al-Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah, Kuwait (2005)

Pacific Community

Director-General – Lourdes Pangelinan, Guam (2000-6 January 2006)

Pacific Islands Forum

Secretary-General – Greg Urwin, Australia (2004–2008)

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

President – Juan Manuel Suárez del Toro Rivero, Spain (2001–present)

International Committee of the Red Cross

President – Jakob Kellenberger, Switzerland (2000–present)

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Secretary-General – Zhang Deguang, China (2004–2006)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

Secretary-General –

Q.A.M.A. Rahim, Bangladesh (2002–2005)

Lyonpo Chenkyab Dorji, Bhutan (2005–2008)

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur)

Director of the Executive Secretariat – Reginaldo Braga Arcuri, Brazil (2003–2005)

Southern African Development Community

Executive Secretary –

Prega Ramsamy, Mauritius (2000–2005)

Tomaz Salomão, Mozambique (2005–2013)

Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)

President – Lennart Johansson, Sweden (1990–2007)

United Nations

Secretary-General – Kofi Annan, Ghana (1997–2006)

President of the General Assembly –

Jean Ping, Gabon (2004–2005)

Jan Eliasson, Sweden (2005–2006)

Security Council members – China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States (permanent members); Algeria, Benin, Brazil, Philippines, Romania (elected for 2004–2005); Argentina, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Tanzania (elected for 2005–2006)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Executive Director –

Carol Bellamy, United States (1995–2005)

Ann Veneman, United States (2005–2010)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Director-General – Koichiro Matsuura, Japan (1999–2009)

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

High Commissioner – Louise Arbour, Canada (2004–2008)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

High Commissioner –

Ruud Lubbers, Netherlands (2001–2005)

Wendy Chamberlin, United States (acting) (2005)

António Guterres, Portugal (2005–present)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Director-general –

Carlos Alfredo Magariños, Argentina (1998–2005)

Kandeh Yumkella, Sierra Leone (2005–present)

Universal Postal Union

Director-General – Édouard Dayan, France (2005–present)

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

Secretary-General – Marino Busdachin, Italy (2003–2010)

Western European Union

Secretary-General – Javier Solana, Spain (1999–2009)

World Bank

President –

James Wolfensohn, United States (1995–2005)

Paul Wolfowitz, United States (2005–2007)

World Food Programme (WFP)

World Health Organization (WHO)

Director-General – Lee Jong Wook, Republic of Korea (2003–2006)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Director-General – Kamil Eltayed Idris, Sudan (1997–2008)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

President – Alexander Bedritsky, Russia (2003–2010)

Secretary-General – Michel Jarraud, France (2004–2015)

World Tourism Organization (WToO)

Secretary-General – Francesco Frangialli, France (1996–2009)

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Director-General –

Supachai Panitchpakdi, Thailand (2002–2005)

Pascal Lamy, France (2005–present)

List of international organization leaders in 2006

2005 international organization leaders – Events of 2006 – 2007 international organization leaders – International organization leaders by year

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) –

Secretary-General – John Kaputin, Papua New Guinea (2005–present)

African Development Bank –

President – Donald Kaberuka, Rwanda (2005–2010)

African Union –

Chairperson –

Olusegun Obasanjo, Nigeria (2004–2006)

Denis Sassou-Nguesso, Congo-Brazzaville (2006–2007)

Chairperson of the Commission – Alpha Oumar Konaré, Mali (2003–2008)

President of the Pan-African Parliament – Gertrude Mongella, Tanzania (2004–2009)

Andean Community –

Secretary-General –

Allan Wagner Tizón, Peru (2004–2006)

Alfredo Fuentes Hernández (Colombia), interim (2006–2007)

Antarctic Treaty

Executive Secretary – Jan Huber, Netherlands (2004–present)

Arab League –

Secretary-General – Amr Moussa, Egypt (2001–2011)

Arab Maghreb Union

Secretary-General –

Habib Boularès, Tunisia (2002–2006)

Habib Ben Yahia, Tunisia (2006–present)

Asian Development Bank –

President – Haruhiko Kuroda, Japan (2005–present)

Asian Football Confederation (AFC)

President – Mohamed bin Hammam, Qatar (2002–present)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Executive Director – Tran Trong Toan, Vietnam (2006)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) –

Secretary-General – Ong Keng Yong, Singapore (2003–2007)

Caribbean Community –

Secretary-General – Edwin Carrington, Trinidad and Tobago (1992–2010)

Central American Parliament –

President –

Julio Palacios, Panama (2005–2006)

Ciro Cepeda, El Salvador (2006–2007)

Colombo Plan –

Secretary-General – Kittipan Kanjanapipatkul, Thailand (2003–2007)

Common Market of East and Southern Africa (COMESA) –

Secretary-General – Erastus J.O. Mwencha, Kenya (1998–2008)

Commonwealth of Nations –

Head – Queen Elizabeth II (1952–present)

Secretary-General – Don McKinnon, New Zealand (2000–2008)

Commonwealth of Independent States

Executive Secretary – Vladimir Rushailo, Russia (2004–2007)

Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)

Executive Secretary – Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca, Cape Verde (2004–present)

Confédération africaine de football (CAF)

President – Issa Hayatou, Cameroon (1988–present)

Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF)

President – Jack A. Warner, Trinidad and Tobago (1990–present)

Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL)

President – Nicolas Leoz, Paraguay (1986–present)

Council of Europe

Secretary General – Terry Davis, United Kingdom (2004–2009)

President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) – René van der Linden, Netherlands (2005–2008)

President of the European Court of Human Rights – Luzius Wildhaber, Switzerland (1998–2007)

East African Community –

Secretary-General –

Nuwe Amanya Mushega, Uganda (2001–2006)

Juma Volter Mwapachu, Tanzania (2006–2011)

Economic Community of West African States

Executive Secretary – Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Ghana (2002–2006)

Chairman – Mamadou Tandja, Niger (2005–2007)

Eurasian Economic Community

Secretary-General – Grigory Rapota, Russia (2002–2007)

Chairman of the Interstate Council – Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan (2001–present)

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

President – Jean Lemierre, France (2000–2008)

European Free Trade Association

Secretary-General –

William Rossier, Switzerland (2000–2006)

Kåre Bryn, Norway (2006–2012)

European Union (EU)

Presidency of the European Council –

Austria (2006)

Finland (2006)

President of the European Commission – José Manuel Barroso, Portugal (2004–present)

President of the European Parliament – Josep Borrell, Spain (2004–present)

Secretary-General of the Council and High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy – Javier Solana, Spain (1999–present)

President of the European Central Bank – Jean-Claude Trichet, France (2003–2011)

European Ombudsman – Nikiforos Diamandouros, Greece (2003–present)

President of the Committee of the Regions (CoR) – Peter Straub, Germany (2004–present)

President of the European Investment Bank (EIB) – Philippe Maystadt, Belgium (2000–2011)

President of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) – Vassilios Skouris, Greece (2003–present)

President of the European Court of Auditors – Hubert Weber, Austria (2005–present)

President of the Economic and Social Committee (ESC) – Anne-Marie Sigmund, Austria (2004–present)

Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)

President – Sepp Blatter, Switzerland (1998–present)

Food and Agriculture Organization

Director-General – Jacques Diouf, Senegal (1994–2011)

La Francophonie

Secretary-General – Abdou Diouf, Senegal (2003–2014)

Group of Eight (G-8)

President (informal) – Vladimir Putin, Russia (2006)

Gulf Cooperation Council

Secretary-General – Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah, Qatar (2002–2011)

Ibero-American Secretariat (Segib)

Secretary-General – Enrique V. Iglesias, Uruguay (2005–present)

Indian Ocean Commission

Secretary-General – Monique Andreas Esoavekomandroso, Madagascar (2004–present)

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

President – Luis Alberto Moreno, Colombia (2005–present)

Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Executive Secretary – Attalla Hamad Bashir, Sudan (2000–2008)

International Atomic Energy Agency

Director-General – Muhammad al-Baradei, Egypt (1997–present)

International Civil Aviation Organization

President of the Council – Assad Kotaite, Lebanon (1976–2006), Roberto Kobeh Gonzalez, Mexico (2006–present)

Secretary-General – Taïeb Chérif, Algeria (2003–present)

International Court of Justice

President –

Shi Jiuyong, China (2003–2006)

Rosalyn Higgins, United Kingdom (2006–present)

International Criminal Court

President – Philippe Kirsch, Canada (2003–2009)

International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)

Secretary-General – Ronald Noble, United States (2000–present)

President – Jackie Selebi, South Africa (2004–2008)

International Labour Organization

Director-General – Juan Somavía, Chile (1999–2012)

International Maritime Organization

Secretary-General – Efthimios E. Mitropoulos, Greece (2004–2011)

International Monetary Fund

managing director – Rodrigo Rato, Spain (2004–2007)

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

President – Jacques Rogge, Belgium (2001–present)

International Paralympic Committee (IPC)

President – Philip Craven, United Kingdom (2001–present)

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Director-general – Brunson McKinley, United States (1998–2008)

International Rugby Board (IRB)

President – Syd Millar, Ireland (2003–2007)

International Telecommunication Union

Secretary-General – Yoshio Utsumi, Japan (1999–2006)

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

President – Ahmad Mohamed Ali, Saudi Arabia (1975–present)

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

Chairman –

Datuk Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Malaysia (2003–2006)

Fidel Castro, Cuba (2006–2008)

Nordic Council

Secretary-General – Per Unckel, Sweden (2003–present)

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

Secretary-General – Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Netherlands (2004–2009)

Supreme Allied Commander Europe – James L. Jones, United States (2003–present)

Oceania Football Confederation (OFC)

President – Reynald Temarii, Tahiti (2004–2010)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Secretary-General –

Donald Johnston, Canada (1996–2006)

José Ángel Gurría, Mexico (2006–present)

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

Secretary-General – Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, France (2005–2011)

Chairman-in-Office – Karel De Gucht, Belgium (2006)

High Commissioner on National Minorities – Rolf Ekéus, Sweden (2001–2007)

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

Director-General – Rogelio Pfirter, Argentina (2002–present)

Organization of American States

Secretary-General – José Miguel Insulza, Chile (2005–present)

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States

Director-General – Len Ishmael, Saint Lucia (2003–present)

Organisation of the Islamic Conference

Secretary-General – Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Turkey (2005–2013)

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Secretary-General – Edmund Daukoru, Nigeria (2006)

Pacific Community

Director-General –

Lourdes Pangelinan, Guam (2000–2006)

Jimmie Rodgers, Solomon Islands (2006–present)

Pacific Islands Forum

Secretary-General – Greg Urwin, Australia (2004–2008)

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

President – Juan Manuel Suárez del Toro Rivero, Spain (2001–present)

International Committee of the Red Cross

President – Jakob Kellenberger, Switzerland (2000–present)

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Secretary-General – Zhang Deguang, China (2004–2006)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

Secretary-General – Lyonpo Chenkyab Dorji, Bhutan (2005–2008)

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur)

Director of the Executive Secretariat – Reginaldo Braga Arcuri, Brazil (2003–present)

Southern African Development Community

Executive Secretary – Tomaz Salomão, Mozambique (2005–2013)

Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)

President – Lennart Johansson, Sweden (1990–2007)

United Nations

Secretary-General – Kofi Annan, Ghana (1997–2006)

President of the General Assembly –

Jan Eliasson, Sweden (2005–2006)

Haya Rashed Al-Khalifa, Bahrain (2006–2007)

Security Council members – China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States (permanent members); Argentina, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Tanzania (elected for 2005–2006); Congo-Brazzaville, Ghana, Peru, Qatar, Slovakia (elected for 2006–2007)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Executive Director – Ann Veneman, United States (2005–2010)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Director-General – Koichiro Matsuura, Japan (1999–2009)

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

High Commissioner – Louise Arbour, Canada (2004–2008)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

High Commissioner – António Guterres, Portugal (2005–present)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Director-general – Kandeh Yumkella, Sierra Leone (2005–present)

Universal Postal Union

Director-General – Édouard Dayan, France (2005–present)

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

Secretary-General – Marino Busdachin, Italy (2003–2010)

Western European Union

Secretary-General – Javier Solana, Spain (1999–2009)

World Bank

President – Paul Wolfowitz, United States (2005–2007)

World Food Programme (WFP)

World Health Organization (WHO)

Director-General –

Lee Jong Wook, Republic of Korea (2003–2006)

Anders Nordström, Sweden (acting) (2006)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Director-General – Kamil Eltayed Idris, Sudan (1997–2008)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

President – Alexander Bedritsky, Russia (2003–2010)

Secretary-General – Michel Jarraud, France (2004–2015)

World Tourism Organization (WToO)

Secretary-General – Francesco Frangialli, France (1996–2009)

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Director-General – Pascal Lamy, France (2005–present)

List of international organization leaders in 2007

2006 international organization leaders - 2008 international organization leaders - International organization leaders by year

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) -

Secretary-General - John Kaputin, Papua New Guinea (2005–2010)

African Development Bank -

President - Donald Kaberuka, Rwanda (2005–present)

African Union -

Chairperson -

Denis Sassou-Nguesso, Republic of Congo (2006–2007)

John Kufuor, Ghana (2007–2008)

Chairperson of the Commission - Alpha Oumar Konaré, Mali (2003–2008)

President of the Pan-African Parliament - Gertrude Mongella, Tanzania (2004–2009)

Andean Community -

Secretary-General -

Alfredo Fuentes Hernández (Colombia), interim (2006–2007)

Freddy Ehlers (Ecuador), (2007–2010)

Antarctic Treaty

Executive Secretary - Jan Huber, Netherlands (2004–present)

Arab League -

Secretary-General - Amr Moussa, Egypt (2001–2011)

Arab Maghreb Union

Secretary-General - Habib Ben Yahia, Tunisia (2006–present)

Asian Development Bank -

President - Haruhiko Kuroda, Japan (2005–present)

Asian Football Confederation (AFC)

President - Mohamed bin Hammam, Qatar (2002–present)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Executive Director - Colin S. Heseltine, Australia (2007)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) -

Secretary-General - Ong Keng Yong, Singapore (2003–2007)

Caribbean Community -

Secretary-General - Edwin Carrington, Trinidad and Tobago (1992–2010)

Central American Parliament -

President -

Ciro Cepeda, El Salvador (2006–2007)

Julio González, Guatemala (2007–2008)

Colombo Plan -

Secretary-General -

Kittipan Kanjanapipatkul, Thailand (2003–2007)

Patricia Yoon-Moi Chia, Malaysia (2007–present)

Common Market of East and Southern Africa (COMESA) -

Secretary-General - Erastus J.O. Mwencha, Kenya (1998–2008)

Commonwealth of Nations -

Head - Queen Elizabeth II (1952–present)

Secretary-General - Don McKinnon, New Zealand (2000–2008)

Commonwealth of Independent States

Executive Secretary -

Vladimir Rushailo, Russia (2004–2007)

Sergei Lebedev, Russia (2007–present)

Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)

Executive Secretary - Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca, Cape Verde (2004–present)

Confédération africaine de football (CAF)

President - Issa Hayatou, Cameroon (1988–present)

Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF)

President - Jack A. Warner, Trinidad and Tobago (1990–present)

Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL)

President - Nicolas Leoz, Paraguay (1986–present)

Council of Europe

Secretary General - Terry Davis, United Kingdom (2004–2009)

President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) - René van der Linden, Netherlands (2005–2008)

President of the European Court of Human Rights -

Luzius Wildhaber, Switzerland (1998–2007)

Jean-Paul Costa, France (2007–present)

East African Community -

Secretary-General - Juma Volter Mwapachu, Tanzania (2006–2011)

Economic Community of West African States

President of the Commission - Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Ghana (2007–2010)

Chairman -

Mamadou Tandja, Niger (2005–2007)

Blaise Compaoré, Burkina Faso (2007–2008)

Eurasian Economic Community

Secretary-General -

Grigory Rapota, Russia (2002–2007)

Tair Mansurov, Kazakhstan (2007–present)

Chairman of the Interstate Council - Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan (2001–present)

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

President - Jean Lemierre, France (2000–2008)

European Free Trade Association

Secretary-General - Kåre Bryn, Norway (2006–2012)

European Union (EU)

Presidency of the European Council -

Germany (2007)

Portugal (2007)

President of the European Commission - José Manuel Barroso, Portugal (2004–present)

President of the European Parliament - Josep Borrell, Spain (2004–present)

Secretary-General of the Council and High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy - Javier Solana, Spain (1999–present)

President of the European Central Bank - Jean-Claude Trichet, France (2003–2011)

European Ombudsman - Nikiforos Diamandouros, Greece (2003–present)

President of the Committee of the Regions (CoR) - Peter Straub, Germany (2004–present)

President of the European Investment Bank (EIB) - Philippe Maystadt, Belgium (2000–2011)

President of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) - Vassilios Skouris, Greece (2003–present)

President of the European Court of Auditors - Hubert Weber, Austria (2005–present)

President of the Economic and Social Committee (ESC) - Anne-Marie Sigmund, Austria (2004–present)

Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)

President - Sepp Blatter, Switzerland (1998–present)

Food and Agriculture Organization

Director-General - Jacques Diouf, Senegal (1994–2011)

La Francophonie

Secretary-General - Abdou Diouf, Senegal (2003–2014)

Group of Eight (G-8)

President (informal) - Angela Merkel, Germany (2007)

Gulf Cooperation Council

Secretary-General - Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah, Qatar (2002–2011)

Ibero-American Secretariat (Segib)

Secretary-General - Enrique V. Iglesias, Uruguay (2005–present)

Indian Ocean Commission

Secretary-General - Monique Andreas Esoavekomandroso, Madagascar (2004–present)

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

President - Luis Alberto Moreno, Colombia (2005–present)

Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Executive Secretary - Attalla Hamad Bashir, Sudan (2000–2008)

International Atomic Energy Agency

Director-General - Muhammad al-Baradei, Egypt (1997–present)

International Civil Aviation Organization

President of the Council - Roberto Kobeh Gonzalez, Mexico (2006–present)

Secretary-General - Taïeb Chérif, Algeria (2003–present)

International Court of Justice

President - Rosalyn Higgins, United Kingdom (2006–present)

International Criminal Court

President - Philippe Kirsch, Canada (2003–2009)

International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)

Secretary-General - Ronald Noble, United States (2000–present)

President - Jackie Selebi, South Africa (2004–2008)

International Labour Organization

Director-General - Juan Somavía, Chile (1999–2012)

International Maritime Organization

Secretary-General - Efthimios E. Mitropoulos, Greece (2004–2011)

International Monetary Fund

Managing Director -

Rodrigo Rato, Spain (2004–2007)

Dominique Strauss-Kahn, France (2007–2011)

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

President - Jacques Rogge, Belgium (2001–present)

International Paralympic Committee (IPC)

President - Philip Craven, United Kingdom (2001–present)

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Director-general - Brunson McKinley, United States (1998–2008)

International Rugby Board (IRB)

President - Syd Millar, Ireland (2003–2007)

International Telecommunication Union

Secretary-General - Hamadoun Touré, Mali (2007–present)

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

President - Ahmad Mohamed Ali, Saudi Arabia (1975–present)

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

Chairman - Fidel Castro, Cuba (2006–2008)

Nordic Council

Secretary-General -

Per Unckel, Sweden (2003–2007)

Jan-Erik Enestam, Finland (2007–2013)

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

Secretary-General - Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Netherlands (2004–2009)

Oceania Football Confederation (OFC)

President - Reynald Temarii, Tahiti (2004–2010)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Secretary-General - José Ángel Gurría, Mexico (2006–present)

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

Secretary-General - Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, France (2005–2011)

Chairman-in-Office - Miguel Ángel Moratinos, Spain (2007)

High Commissioner on National Minorities -

Rolf Ekéus, Sweden (2001–2007)

Knut Vollebæk, Norway (2007–present)

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

Director-General - Rogelio Pfirter, Argentina (2002–present)

Organization of American States

Secretary-General - José Miguel Insulza, Chile (2005–present)

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States

Director-General - Len Ishmael, Saint Lucia (2003–present)

Organisation of the Islamic Conference

Secretary-General - Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Turkey (2005–2013)

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Secretary-General - Abdallah Salem el-Badri, Libya (2007–2016)

Pacific Community

Director-General - Jimmie Rodgers, Solomon Islands (2006–present)

Pacific Islands Forum

Secretary-General - Greg Urwin, Australia (2004–2008)

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

President - Juan Manuel Suárez del Toro Rivero, Spain (2001–present)

International Committee of the Red Cross

President - Jakob Kellenberger, Switzerland (2000–present)

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

Secretary-General - Bolat Nurgaliyev, Kazakhstan (2007–present)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

Secretary-General - Lyonpo Chenkyab Dorji, Bhutan (2005–2008)

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur)

Director of the Executive Secretariat - Reginaldo Braga Arcuri, Brazil (2003–present)

Southern African Development Community

Executive Secretary - Tomaz Salomão, Mozambique (2005–2013)

Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)

President -

Lennart Johansson, Sweden (1990–2007)

Michel Platini, Sweden (2007–present)

United Nations

Secretary-General - Ban Ki Moon, South Korea (2007–present)

President of the General Assembly -

Haya Rashed Al-Khalifa, Bahrain (2006–2007)

Srgjan Asan Kerim, Macedonia (2007–2008)

Security Council members - China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States (permanent members); Congo-Brazzaville, Ghana, Peru, Qatar, Slovakia (elected for 2006–2007); Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Panama, South Africa (elected for 200-2008)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Executive Director - Ann Veneman, United States (2005–2010)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Director-General - Koichiro Matsuura, Japan (1999–2009)

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

High Commissioner - Louise Arbour, Canada (2004–2008)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

High Commissioner - António Guterres, Portugal (2005–present)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Director-general - Kandeh Yumkella, Sierra Leone (2005–present)

Universal Postal Union

Director-General - Édouard Dayan, France (2005–present)

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

Secretary-General - Marino Busdachin, Italy (2003–2010)

Western European Union

Secretary-General - Javier Solana, Spain (1999–2009)

World Bank

President -

Paul Wolfowitz, United States (2005–2007)

Robert Zoellick, United States (2007–present)

World Food Programme (WFP)

Executive Director -

Josette Sheeran, United States (2007–present)

World Health Organization (WHO)

Director-General - Margaret Chan, China (acting) (2007–present)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Director-General - Kamil Eltayed Idris, Sudan (1997–2008)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

President - Alexander Bedritsky, Russia (2003–2010)

Secretary-General - Michel Jarraud, France (2004–2015)

World Tourism Organization (WToO)

Secretary-General - Francesco Frangialli, France (1996–2009)

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Director-General - Pascal Lamy, France (2005–present)

List of international organization leaders in 2008

2007 international organization leaders - 2009 international organization leaders - International organization leaders by year

List of international organization leaders in 2009

2008 international organization leaders – Events of 2009 – 2010 international organization leaders – International organization leaders by year

List of international organization leaders in 2010

2009 international organization leaders - 2011 international organization leaders - International organization leaders by year

List of international organization leaders in 2011

2010 international organization leaders - 2012 international organization leaders - International organization leaders by year

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria and its institutions. It has its origins in the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland.

The OSCE is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its 57 participating states are located in Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America. The participating states cover much of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. It was created during the Cold War era as an East–West forum.

Presidency of the International Criminal Court

The Presidency of the International Criminal Court is the organ responsible for the proper administration of the Court (apart from the Office of the Prosecutor).

The Presidency oversees the activities of the Registry and organises the work of the judicial divisions. It also has some responsibilities in the area of external relations, such as negotiating agreements on behalf of the court and promoting public awareness and understanding of the institution.The Presidency comprises the President and the First and Second Vice-Presidents — three judges of the court who are elected to the Presidency by their fellow judges for a maximum of two three-year terms.As of March 2018, the President is Chile Eboe-Osuji from Nigeria, who took office on 11 March 2018. His first term will expire in 2021.

Rabat

Rabat (Arabic: الرِّبَاط‎, al-ribāṭ; Berber languages: ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ Aṛṛbaṭ) is the capital city of Morocco and the country's seventh largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million. It is also the capital city of the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra administrative region.Once a reputed corsair haven, Rabat served as one of the many ports in North Africa for the Barbary pirates, who were particularly active from the 16th through the 18th centuries. The city is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. On the facing shore of the river lies Salé, the city's main commuter town. Rabat, Temara, and Salé form a conurbation of over 1.8 million people. Silt-related problems have diminished Rabat's role as a port; however, Rabat, and Salé still maintain important textile, food processing and construction industries. In addition, tourism and the presence of all foreign embassies in Morocco serve to make Rabat one of the most important cities in the country. The Moroccan capital was ranked at second place by CNN in its "Top Travel Destinations of 2013". It is one of four Imperial cities of Morocco, and the medina of Rabat is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rabat is accessible by train through the ONCF system and by plane through the nearby Rabat–Salé Airport.

Reactions to the International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence

There have been strong reactions to the International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence, rendered on 22 July 2010. The ruling, which held that the Kosovo declaration of independence was not in violation of international law, drew praise from some quarters and negative reactions from other quarters led by Serbia and other states which said their position would not change.

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