Marc Augier

Marc Augier (nom de plume: Saint-Loup) (19 March 1908 in Bordeaux – 16 December 1990 in Paris) was a French anti-capitalist, later turned into fascist, politician, writer and mountaineer.

Early years

Augier's earliest direct political involvement began in the Republican-Socialist Party, although the main focus of his youthful energies was the Centre laïc des auberges, a non-political group central to the development of youth hostels in France.[1] Although its leader Jean Giono was not a fascist it was Augier's fascination with Giono's primitivism that eventually led to the young Augier adopting that ideology.[1] He was also a supporter of paganism against Christian "decadence".

Collaboration

Augier formed his own group, the Les Jeunes de l'Europe Nouvelle, in 1941, attracting 4000 members and affiliating to the Groupe Collaboration.[1] He became associated with the Breton nationalist Alphonse de Châteaubriant, a leading figure in the Groupe, and was for a time business manager of his journal La Gerbe.[1]

Augier then joined the political bureau of Jacques Doriot's French Popular Party (PPF). He enlisted in the Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism and served on the Eastern Front whilst also launching and editing the group's paper Le Combattant Européen.[1] He served in both the LVF and the French Waffen SS as a war correspondent. He was also responsible for the French Waffen SS' official organ, Devenir ("To become" or "Becoming"). However Augier, who still supported economic socialism and hoped that Nazism would take seriously the 'socialism' part of its name, grew disillusioned by the distinct lack of anti-capitalism amongst the SS men with whom he served.[1]

Post-war writing

In 1945 he went underground and published Face Nord ("North Face") under the pseudonym M-A de Saint-Loup to pay for his passage to Argentina. The book had some success in France. In Argentina he acted as a technical adviser to Juan Perón and also enlisted in the Argentine Army, attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel.[1] He also acted as Eva Peron's ski instructor.[2]

He was pardoned and returned to France in 1953. Once back in France he published La Nuit commence au Cap Horn ("The Night begins in Cap Horn") as Saint-Loup. He may have won the prestigious Prix Goncourt for the book but Le Figaro Littéraire exposed Augier as the true author. Of the entire jury only Colette refused to retract her vote for Saint-Loup during the ensuing uproar.[3]

Saint-Loup continued to work as an author and journalist, writing several books about the LVF (Les Volontaires; "The Volunteers") and both the French (Les Hérétiques; "The Heretics", Les Nostalgiques; "The Nostalgics") and Belgian Waffen SS (Les SS de la Toison d'or; "The SS of the Golden Fleece"). His writing was marked by a pursuit of adventure, the desire to surpass the self and an antipathy to Christian philosophy. He was an apologist for the foreign SS volunteers with whom he had served. He published several works about regionalist movements and about man's struggle to survive in wild and savage environments. He was also fascinated by cars and motorised transport and wrote biographies of Louis Renault and Marius Berliet. His last novel, La République du Mont-Blanc ("The Republic of Mont-Blanc"), was about the survival of a small Savoyard community that took refuge on the mountain to escape intermixing and decadence.

Saint-Loup influenced certain pagan and far-left authors such as Pierre Vial and Jean Mabire.

Later years

He would later return to France where he worked closely with René Binet whilst also acting as president of Dominique Venner's Comité France-Rhodesia.[1] He was featured heavily in France's far right journals until his death.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, 1990, p. 15
  2. ^ Uki Goñi, The Real ODESSA, London: Granta Books, 2003, p. 167
  3. ^ Dominique Venner, Histoire de la Collaboration, Pygmalion, 2000, p.536
Alain de Benoist

Alain de Benoist (; French: [də bənwa]; born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, philosopher, a founder of the Nouvelle Droite (New Right), and head of the French think tank GRECE.Benoist is opposed to Christianity, the United States, free markets, neoliberalism, democracy, and egalitarianism. His work has been influential with the alt-right movement in the United States, and he presented a lecture on identity at a National Policy Institute conference hosted by Richard B. Spencer; however, he has distanced himself from the movement.

Défense de l’Occident

Défense de l’Occident (meaning Defense of the West in English) was a conservative French magazine published in Paris, France, from 1952 to 1982.

History of far-right movements in France

The far-right tradition in France finds its origins in the Third Republic with Boulangism and the Dreyfus Affair. The modern "far right" or radical right grew out of two separate events of 1889: the splitting off in the Socialist International of those who chose the nation and the culmination of the "Boulanger Affair", which championed the demands of the former Minister of War General Georges Boulanger. The Dreyfus Affair provided one of the political division lines of France. Nationalism, which had been before the Dreyfus Affair a left-wing and Republican ideology, turned after that to be a main trait of the right-wing and, moreover, of the far right. A new right emerged, and nationalism was reappropriated by the far right who turned it into a form of ethnic nationalism, itself blended with anti-Semitism, xenophobia, anti-Protestantism and anti-Masonry. The Action française, first founded as a review, was the matrix of a new type of counter-revolutionary right-wing, and continues to exist today. During the interwar period, the Action française (AF) and its youth militia, the Camelots du Roi, were very active. Far right leagues organized riots.

The Organisation armée secrète (OAS) was created in Madrid by French military opposed to the independence of Algeria.

Jean-Marie Le Pen founded the Front National (FN) party in 1972. At the 1986 legislative elections, the FN managed to obtain 35 seats, with 10% of the votes. Mark Frederiksen, a French Algeria activist, created in April 1966 a neo-Nazi group, the FANE (Fédération d'action nationaliste et européenne, Nationalist and European Federation of Action). However, in 1978, neo-Nazi members of the GNR-FANE broke again with the FN. During the 1980s, the National Front managed to gather, under Jean-Marie Le Pen's leadership, most rival far-right tendencies of France, following a succession of splits and alliances with other, minor parties, during the 1970s.

La Gerbe

La Gerbe (French pronunciation: ​[la ʒɛʁb], The Sheaf) was a weekly newspaper of the French collaboration with Nazi Germany during World War II that appeared in Paris from July 1940 till August 1944. Its political-literary line was modeled after Candide and Gringoire, two right-wing newspapers founded in the interwar period.

Founder and editor was the writer Alphonse de Châteaubriant, and chief editor was Marc Augier. Also involved in the management was the German journalist Eitel Moellhausen, who wrote under the pen names Aimé Cassar and Pierre Cousinery. Gabrielle Storms-Castelot, the mother of André Castelot and mistress of Châteaubriant, was director's secretary.

The first issue of La Gerbe, announced by a huge poster campaign in Paris, consisted of only four pages. But within three months the publication's size had reached ten pages and its circulation 100,000. In 1943 it sold 140,000 copies.The newspaper's title was taken from Châteaubriant's 1937 naively pro-Hitler book La gerbe des forces. But it also alluded to the position it advanced: France, destined to be an agrarian country, should become a part of the new Europe created by Hitler. Violently anticommunist, antirepublican and antisemitic, and hostile to the Popular Front, the newspaper drew its ideology from Fascism and more particularly from Nazism.

According to La Gerbe, the country had to undergo a "national alignment" and had to fight with all its strength against individualism. Châteaubriant's vision of Hitler was that he would form a unified Catholic Europe as it last existed under Charlemagne.Openly eugenic and racist, the newspaper made its columns available to Georges Montandon, and declared in its edition of 7 November 1940: "The time has come to say that Apollo and Pallas Athena are the images of the Nordic man and the Nordic woman, an affirmation that was impossible at the time of the Jewish conspiracy."

Like its founder, La Gerbe synthesized Catholicism and racism. The newspaper demanded that the mass should accentuate what would bring it closer to a racist ceremony (21 November 1940) and asked: "Joy, said Father Janvier in one of his talks, is the motor of life. Did Hitler say otherwise when he said 'Kraft durch Freude' [i.e. Strength Through Joy]?"

Strongly pro-nazi intellectuals writing for the newspaper included Drieu La Rochelle, Louis-Ferdinand Céline and Robert Brasillach. Other writers were the pro-nazi Henry de Montherlant, Jean Giono, and the more ambiguous Marcel Aymé, Jean Anouilh and Colette. Further contributors included Paul Morand, Lucien Combelle and André Castelot, who was in charge of the theatre reviews. It was closely associated with the Groupe Collaboration, an initiative established by Châteaubriand in September 1940.La Gerbe was subsidized, and in some sense created, by the German embassy, with Châteaubriand serving as a front for the ambassador Otto Abetz. As the only French newspaper created by the German occupants, it was meant to replace Candide and Gringoire. Some of the newspaper's last editorials referred to the Allied bombings as terrorism. After the Liberation of Paris the police searched the offices of La Gerbe in Rue Chauchat, which were then taken over by a newspaper of the French Resistance.

René Binet (neo-Fascist)

René Valentin Binet (16 October 1913 in Darnétal, Seine-Maritime – 16 October 1957 in Pontoise) was a French militant political activist who was linked to both Trotskyism and fascism.

Saint-Loup

Saint Loup or Saint-Loup may refer to:

Lupus of Troyes (c. 383–c. 478), early bishop of Troyes

Lupus of Sens (c. 573-c. 623), bishop of Sens

Marc Augier (1908–1990), French writer and politician who used the pseudonym Saint-Loup

Robert de Saint-Loup, character in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time

Santa Inés Island

Santa Inés Island (Spanish: Isla Santa Inés) is an island in southern Chile, part of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and of Punta Arenas municipality, lying south west of the Brunswick Peninsula, from which is separated by the Strait of Magellan and minor islands. It is the largest island of Punta Arenas municipality and the third largest of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, after Isla Grande and Hoste Island. Its shoreline in this area is part of the Francisco Coloane Coastal and Marine Protected Area. The rest of the island is a part of the Alacalufes National Reserve, equalling that Desolación Island and the Córdova Peninsula. This latter is located in front of the island on the other side of the Strait of Magellan and is a peninsula of Riesco Island. The island belongs to the Tierra del Fuego archipelago.

The island hosts a small ice field named Grandes Ventisqueros. It has a deeply indented coastline with several fjords, one of which hid the German light cruiser Dresden in 1914 after the battle of the Falkland Islands.First explorer of Santa Inés Island inland was the French writer and mountaineer Marc Augier in 1951, as he related in his work Monts Pacifique.

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