The maravedí (Spanish pronunciation: [maɾaβeˈði]) was the name of various Iberian coins of gold and then silver between the 11th and 14th centuries and the name of different Iberian accounting units between the 11th and 19th centuries.
The word maravedí comes from marabet or marabotin, a variety of the gold dinar struck in Spain by, and named after, the Moorish Almoravids (Arabic المرابطون al-Murābitũn, sing. مرابط Murābit). The Spanish word maravedí is unusual in having three documented plural forms: maravedís, maravedíes and maravedises. The first one is the most straightforward, the second is a variant plural formation found commonly in words ending with a stressed -í, whereas the third is the most unusual and the least recommended (Real Academia Española's Diccionario panhispánico de dudas labels it "vulgar in appearance").
The gold dinar was first struck in Spain under Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir of Córdoba (912–961). During the 11th century, the dinar became known as the morabit, morabotin or morabetino throughout Europe. In the 12th century, it was copied by the Christian rulers Ferdinand II of León (1157–1188) and Alfonso VIII of Castile (1158–1214) as the maravedí. Alfonso's gold marabotin or maravedí retained inscriptions in Arabic but had the letters ALF at the bottom. It weighed about 3.8 grams.
The gold content of the maravedí fell to a gram during the reign of James I of Aragon (1213–1276), and it kept falling, eventually becoming a silver coin under Alfonso X of Castile (1252–1284). By this time the word maravedí was being used for a specific coin officially, for any coin colloquially, and as a synonym for money itself, resulting in a certain confusion in interpreting 13th-century references to money, values, and coinage.
Alfonso X, for example, made three issues of vellón, in each of which the new coin was called a maravedí. His basic silver coin of 1258–1271 was also called a maravedí (maravedí de plata). It weighed 6.00 g and contained 3.67 g of fine silver. It was worth 30 dineros. At that time, the money of account was the Maravedí of 15 Sueldos or 180 Dineros, so that one maravedí as an accounting unit was worth six silver maravedí coins.
The silver maravedí money of account represented (according to one interpretation) about 22 g of silver in 1258. This had fallen to 11 g by 1271, to 3 g by 1286, and to 1.91 g in 1303. The gold maravedí had disappeared as a money of account by 1300. The maravedí de plata (silver maravedí) gradually came to be used as money of account for larger sums, for the value of gold coins, and for the mint price of silver, and eventually it supplanted the sueldo as the main accounting unit. Alfonso XI (1312–1350) did not call any of his coins a maravedí, and henceforth the term was used only as a unit of account and not as the name of a coin.
In 1537 it became the smallest Spanish unit of account, the thirty-fourth part of a real. In the new world, nonetheless, there are documents which testify to the reduction of their value to less than the thirtieth part of a real. This reduction was on account of the cost and risk of their transportation from Spain, before the establishment of the first mint houses of Mexico and Santo Domingo. The maravedí remained a money of account in Spain until 1847.
After Spain's discovery of the Americas, copper maravedís, along with silver reales, were the first coins struck in Spain for the purpose of circulation in the New World colonies. These coins, minted with a special design for specific use of the Americas, were first coined in Seville in 1505 for shipment to the colonial island of Hispaniola the following year, thus giving these coins their distinction as the first coins for the New World. By 1531 these coins were still being minted, by now in both Seville and Burgos. These maravedís were used as Spanish Colonial change for smaller transactions and after mints were later established in the New World, in both Mexico (ordered in 1535, production began in 1536) and Santo Domingo (ordered in 1536, production began in 1542), coins of this type were also minted there.
The 1490s decade ran from January 1, 1490, to December 31, 1499.1497
Year 1497 (MCDXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Berengaria of Castile
Berengaria (Castilian: Berenguela; nicknamed the Great (Castilian: la Grande); 1179 or 1180 – 8 November 1246) was queen regnant of Castile in 1217 and queen consort of León from 1197 to 1204. As the eldest child and heir presumptive of Alfonso VIII of Castile, she was a sought after bride, and was engaged to Conrad, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. After his death, she married her cousin, Alfonso IX of León, to secure the peace between him and her father. She had five children with him before their marriage was voided by Pope Innocent III.
When her father died, she served as regent for her younger brother Henry I in Castile until she succeeded him on his untimely death. Within months, she turned Castile over to her son, Ferdinand III, concerned that as a woman she would not be able to lead Castile's forces. However, she remained one of his closest advisors, guiding policy, negotiating, and ruling on his behalf for the rest of her life. She was responsible for the re-unification of Castile and León under her son's authority, and supported his efforts in the Reconquista. She was a patron of religious institutions and supported the writing of a history of the two countries.Carlos César Delía
Carlos César Delía (January 21, 1923 Concordia Entre Ríos province – October 6, 2014) was an Argentine equestrian and a brigade general in the Argentine Army.Cornado
Cornado is the common name of several Castilian coins made of copper or billon (an alloy of silver and copper), minted from the time of Sancho IV of Castile (13th century) until that of the Catholic Monarchs (16th century).
The name cornado was derived from the fact that the coin's obverse depicted the crowned head of the king.
In 1286, ten cornados were equivalent to one maravedí, and eight cornados to a sueldo. Later versions were coined with a lower alloy quality. This led to the proverb no vale un cornado, equivalent to the English expression "not worth a farthing".Currency of Spain
This is a list of currency of Spain. The current currency since 2002 is the Euro.Currency of Spanish America
This article provides an outline of the currency of Spanish America (las Indias, the Indies) from Spanish colonization in the 15th century until Spanish American independencies in the 19th. This great realm was divided into the Viceroyalty of New Spain (capital: Mexico City), which came to include all Spanish territory north of Panama, the West Indies, Venezuela, and the Philippines, and the Viceroyalty of Peru (capital: Lima), which included Panama and all Spanish territory in South America except Venezuela. The monetary system of Spanish America, originally identical to that of Spain, soon diverged and took on a distinctive character of its own, which it passed on to the independent nations that followed after.Cusco School
The Cusco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) or Cuzco School, was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. It was not limited to Cuzco only, but spread to other cities in the Andes, as well as to present day Ecuador and Bolivia.There are high amount of Cusco School's paintings preserved, currently most of them are located at Cusco, but also currently there are in the rest of Peru and in museums of Brazil, England and United States.Dobla
The dobla (plural: doblas), including dobla castellana (excelente), gran dobla, dobla de la Banda, dobla cruzada, dobla alfonsi and dobla almohade, was the name of various Iberian gold coins between the 11th and 16th centuries, ranging in value from 2-870 maravedis, depending on the year. The name originated as the "double maravedi" (hence "dobla"), a term used by Castilians for the Muslim dinar, when the maravedí was re-valued as equivalent to the Muslim half-dinar, or masmudina, by Ferdinand III. However, years later, the dobla became various new coins, and at times, a dobla was the same as the newer coins enrique or castellano (but the dobla castellana became double their value in 1475). In general, a dobla was a valuable gold coin, while the maravedi was de-valued into silver (c. 1258) or rarely copper forms. In the 16th century, the dobla was replaced by the ducado, then by the escudo (in 1537) as the standard gold coin of Spain.Hernán Venegas Carrillo
Hernán Venegas Carrillo Manosalvas (c.1513 – 2 February 1583) was a Spanish conquistadorfor who participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and Panche people in the New Kingdom of Granada, present-day Colombia. Venegas Carrillo was mayor of Santa Fe de Bogotá for two terms; in 1542 and from 1543 to 1544.List of currencies
A list of all currencies, current and historic. The local name of the currency is used in this list, with the adjectival form of the country or region.Murabitun
Murabitun (Arabic مرابطون murābiṭūn) or murabit (مرابط murābiṭ) may refer to
Sa`ada and Murabtin, a social class among the Arabized Berber Bedouins of the Maghreb
Almoravid dynasty, a medieval Moroccan dynasty
Maravedí, a currency in medieval Spain
Marabout (marbūṭ), an Islamic "holy man" in the Maghreb
Al-Mourabitoun, a Lebanese political movement founded in 1957
Murabitun World Movement, an Islamic movement founded in the 1980s
Al-Mourabitoun (jihadist group), an African Islamist group formed in 2013
Murabitat political activists at the Temple Mount in JerusalemNational Mint of Xuvia
The National Mint of Xuvia (Spanish: Casa de Moneda de Jubia, Galician: Real Casa da Moeda de Xuvia) was a Spanish mint of copper coins from 1812 to 1868.The mint was established in 1790 in Xuvia (or Jubia in Spanish spelling), a civil parish in the municipality of Neda, next to Ferrol in the province of A Coruña under the name of Fábrica Nacional de Cobrería, as a copper foundry. The foundry's original purpose was to support boat constructing in the shipyard at Ferrol, but during the war against the French in the Peninsular War, the site became a standard mint producing copper coins. The Casa de Moneda de Segovia was in French control at the time, minting coins in the name of Joseph Bonaparte. Xuvia, in Spanish territory, would produce coins in name of the king, Ferdinand VII of Spain.
The first coins were minted in 1812, namely coins of eight Spanish maravedís. In later years, coins of two and four maravedís were minted in addition to one maravedí in 1824. After 1815, the Xuvia mint began to lose importance as a direct result of the Casa de Moneda de Segovia beginning to re-mint coins in the name of Fernando VII. In 1819, the mint returned to manufacturing plates for the ships in the Spanish Navy and minting was brought to a complete standstill between 1827 and 1835, with manufacturing efforts directed to production of tin plates.The first decimal coinage of the monetary system entered into effect in 1850, having been officially agreed on in 1848. On August 28, 1850, Xuvia was instructed to finalize its manufacture of coinage. The last coins left the mint in September of that year. Notwithstanding, coins of 1, ½, 2½ and 5 céntimos were minted between 1866 and 1868. The mint was closed indefinitely in 1868, along with the mint of Segovia, and was sold at auction in 1873, later becoming a textile factory.Over half of the mint's surrounding land consists of a dense forest of eucalyptus trees, meadows and industrial areas. Various original structures have been preserved, particularly a water wheel and a canal over 900 metres (2,953 ft) in length. The building itself is currently closed to the public.Portuguese dinheiro
The dinheiro was the currency of Portugal from around the late 12th century until approximately 1502. For accounting purposes, twelve dinheiros equalled one soldo and twenty soldos equal one libra. The basis of the monetary system was that of the Roman Empire (denarii, solidi, librae).
The first Portuguese coins were issued by the first king, Afonso I. Some time after 1179, he ordered the issue of coins in denominations of half a dinheiro (called a mealha) and one dinheiro. They were copied from the Spanish dinero and were consequently minted in billon. These circulated alongside E$L Byzantine siliquae and Moorish dirhem and dinar.
Around 1200, Sancho I also introduced the gold morabitino (cf. Spanish maravedí), worth 15 soldos. A century later, in the reign of King Denis, the silver tornês was introduced, worth 5½ soldos.
In 1380, King Ferdinand I introduced several new coins. There were gold dobra, worth 6 libras, silver real worth 10 soldos and various billon denominations, some of whose names related to war equipment used by the French who helped Portugal in the war against Castile, such as the pilarte worth seven dinheiros.
During the reign of King João I, a new real was introduced, known either as the "real of 3½ libras" or the "real branco". With a value of 70 soldos, this was to become the unit of account by the beginning of the reign of João I's successor (King Duarte I) in 1433.
Note that in modern Portuguese, the word "dinheiro" means "money".Quito School
The Quito School (Escuela Quiteña) is a Latin American artistic tradition that constitutes essentially the whole of the professional artistic output developed in the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito — from Pasto and Popayán in the north to Piura and Cajamarca in the south — during the Spanish colonial period (1542-1824). It is especially associated with the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the realistic and by the degree to which indigenous beliefs and artistic traditions are evident, these productions were among of the most important activities in the economy of the Royal Audience of Quito. Such was the prestige of the movement even in Europe that it was said that King Carlos III of Spain (1716–1788), referring to one of its sculptors in particular, opined: "I am not concerned that Italy has Michelangelo; in my colonies of America I have the master Caspicara".Sobrescobio
Sobrescobio (Spanish pronunciation: [so.βɾes.ˈko.βi̯o]; Asturian: Sobrescubiu) is a municipality in the Autonomous Community of the Principality of Asturias, Spain. It is bordered on the north by Piloña, on the east by Caso, on the south by Aller, and on the west by Laviana. It is situated in the southeast section of Asturias, at the eastern limit of the Nalón mineral basin.
It forms part of the Communal Valley of Nalón, together with Langreo, San Martín del Rey Aurelio, Laviana and Caso. With Caso, it forms part of the Parque Natural de Redes.Spanish dinero
The dinero was the currency of the Christian states of Spain from the 10th century. It was copied from the French denier and served in turn as the model for the Portuguese dinheiro.
In most of Spain, the dinero was superseded by the maravedí and then the real as the unit of account. However, in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands, the currency system based on the dinero continued, with twelve dineros to the sou and six sous the peseta.
Note that in modern Spanish, "dinero" means "money".Spanish peseta
The peseta (, Spanish: [peˈseta]) was the currency of Spain between 1868 and 2002. Along with the French franc, it was also a de facto currency used in Andorra (which had no national currency with legal tender).Spanish real
The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century, but changed in value relative to other units introduced. In 1864, the real was replaced by a new escudo, then by the peseta in 1868, when a real came to mean a quarter of a peseta. The most common denomination for the currency was the Real de Ocho or Spanish dollar used throughout Europe, America and Asia during the height of the Spanish Empire.