The manyworlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse. The existence of the other worlds makes it possible to remove randomness and action at a distance from quantum theory and thus from all physics. Manyworlds implies that all possible alternate histories and futures are real, each representing an actual "world" (or "universe"). In layman's terms, the hypothesis states there is a very large—perhaps infinite^{[2]}—number of universes, and everything that could possibly have happened in our past, but did not, has occurred in the past of some other universe or universes. The theory is also referred to as MWI, the relative state formulation, the Everett interpretation, the theory of the universal wavefunction, manyuniverses interpretation, multiverse theory or just manyworlds.
The original relative state formulation is due to Hugh Everett in 1957.^{[3]}^{[4]} Later, this formulation was popularized and renamed manyworlds by Bryce Seligman DeWitt in the 1960s and 1970s.^{[1]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]} The decoherence approaches to interpreting quantum theory have been further explored and developed,^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[10]} becoming quite popular. MWI is one of many multiverse hypotheses in physics and philosophy. It is currently considered a mainstream interpretation along with the other decoherence interpretations, collapse theories (including the historical Copenhagen interpretation),^{[11]} and hidden variable theories such as the Bohmian mechanics.
Before manyworlds, reality had always been viewed as a single unfolding history. Manyworlds, however, views historical reality as a manybranched tree, wherein every possible quantum outcome is realised.^{[12]} Manyworlds reconciles the observation of nondeterministic events, such as random radioactive decay, with the fully deterministic equations of quantum physics.
In manyworlds, the subjective appearance of wavefunction collapse is explained by the mechanism of quantum decoherence, and this is supposed to resolve all of the correlation paradoxes of quantum theory, such as the EPR paradox^{[13]}^{[14]} and Schrödinger's cat,^{[1]} since every possible outcome of every event defines or exists in its own "history" or "world".
In Dublin in 1952 Erwin Schrödinger gave a lecture in which at one point he jocularly warned his audience that what he was about to say might "seem lunatic". He went on to assert that what the equation that won him a Nobel prize seems to be describing is several different histories, they are "not alternatives but all really happen simultaneously". This is the earliest known reference to the manyworlds.^{[15]}^{[16]}
Although several versions of manyworlds have been proposed since Hugh Everett's original work,^{[4]} they all contain one key idea: the equations of physics that model the time evolution of systems without embedded observers are sufficient for modelling systems which do contain observers; in particular there is no observationtriggered wave function collapse which the Copenhagen interpretation proposes. Provided the theory is linear with respect to the wavefunction, the exact form of the quantum dynamics modelled, be it the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation, relativistic quantum field theory or some form of quantum gravity or string theory, does not alter the validity of MWI since MWI is a metatheory applicable to all linear quantum theories, and there is no experimental evidence for any nonlinearity of the wavefunction in physics.^{[17]}^{[18]} MWI's main conclusion is that the universe (or multiverse in this context) is composed of a quantum superposition of very many, possibly even nondenumerably infinitely^{[2]} many, increasingly divergent, noncommunicating parallel universes or quantum worlds.^{[7]}
The idea of MWI originated in Everett's Princeton Ph.D. thesis "The Theory of the Universal Wavefunction",^{[7]} developed under his thesis advisor John Archibald Wheeler, a shorter summary of which was published in 1957 entitled "Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics" (Wheeler contributed the title "relative state";^{[19]} Everett originally called his approach the "Correlation Interpretation", where "correlation" refers to quantum entanglement). The phrase "manyworlds" is due to Bryce DeWitt,^{[7]} who was responsible for the wider popularisation of Everett's theory, which had been largely ignored for the first decade after publication. DeWitt's phrase "manyworlds" has become so much more popular than Everett's "Universal Wavefunction" or Everett–Wheeler's "Relative State Formulation" that many forget that this is only a difference of terminology; the content of both of Everett's papers and DeWitt's popular article is the same.
The manyworlds interpretation shares many similarities with later, other "postEverett" interpretations of quantum mechanics which also use decoherence to explain the process of measurement or wavefunction collapse. MWI treats the other histories or worlds as real since it regards the universal wavefunction as the "basic physical entity"^{[20]} or "the fundamental entity, obeying at all times a deterministic wave equation".^{[21]} The other decoherent interpretations, such as consistent histories, the Existential Interpretation etc., either regard the extra quantum worlds as metaphorical in some sense, or are agnostic about their reality; it is sometimes hard to distinguish between the different varieties. MWI is distinguished by two qualities: it assumes realism,^{[20]}^{[21]} which it assigns to the wavefunction, and it has the minimal formal structure possible, rejecting any hidden variables, quantum potential, any form of a collapse postulate (i.e., Copenhagenism) or mental postulates (such as the manyminds interpretation makes).
Decoherent interpretations of manyworlds using einselection to explain how a small number of classical pointer states can emerge from the enormous Hilbert space of superpositions have been proposed by Wojciech H. Zurek. "Under scrutiny of the environment, only pointer states remain unchanged. Other states decohere into mixtures of stable pointer states that can persist, and, in this sense, exist: They are einselected."^{[22]} These ideas complement MWI and bring the interpretation in line with our perception of reality.
Manyworlds is often referred to as a theory, rather than just an interpretation, by those who propose that manyworlds can make testable predictions (such as David Deutsch) or is falsifiable (such as Everett) or by those who propose that all the other, nonMW interpretations, are inconsistent, illogical or unscientific in their handling of measurements; Hugh Everett argued that his formulation was a metatheory, since it made statements about other interpretations of quantum theory; that it was the "only completely coherent approach to explaining both the contents of quantum mechanics and the appearance of the world."^{[23]} Deutsch is dismissive that manyworlds is an "interpretation", saying that calling it an interpretation "is like talking about dinosaurs as an 'interpretation' of fossil records."^{[24]}
As with the other interpretations of quantum mechanics, the manyworlds interpretation is motivated by behavior that can be illustrated by the doubleslit experiment. When particles of light (or anything else) are passed through the double slit, a calculation assuming wavelike behavior of light can be used to identify where the particles are likely to be observed. Yet when the particles are observed in this experiment, they appear as particles (i.e., at definite places) and not as nonlocalized waves.
Some versions of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics proposed a process of "collapse" in which an indeterminate quantum system would probabilistically collapse down onto, or select, just one determinate outcome to "explain" this phenomenon of observation. Wavefunction collapse was widely regarded as artificial and ad hoc, so an alternative interpretation in which the behavior of measurement could be understood from more fundamental physical principles was considered desirable.
Everett's Ph.D. work provided such an alternative interpretation. Everett stated that for a composite system – for example a subject (the "observer" or measuring apparatus) observing an object (the "observed" system, such as a particle) – the statement that either the observer or the observed has a welldefined state is meaningless; in modern parlance, the observer and the observed have become entangled; we can only specify the state of one relative to the other, i.e., the state of the observer and the observed are correlated after the observation is made. This led Everett to derive from the unitary, deterministic dynamics alone (i.e., without assuming wavefunction collapse) the notion of a relativity of states.
Everett noticed that the unitary, deterministic dynamics alone decreed that after an observation is made each element of the quantum superposition of the combined subject–object wavefunction contains two "relative states": a "collapsed" object state and an associated observer who has observed the same collapsed outcome; what the observer sees and the state of the object have become correlated by the act of measurement or observation. The subsequent evolution of each pair of relative subject–object states proceeds with complete indifference as to the presence or absence of the other elements, as if wavefunction collapse has occurred, which has the consequence that later observations are always consistent with the earlier observations. Thus the appearance of the object's wavefunction's collapse has emerged from the unitary, deterministic theory itself. (This answered Einstein's early criticism of quantum theory, that the theory should define what is observed, not for the observables to define the theory).^{[25]} Since the wavefunction merely appears to have collapsed then, Everett reasoned, there was no need to actually assume that it had collapsed. And so, invoking Occam's razor, he removed the postulate of wavefunction collapse from the theory.
According to Martin Gardner, the "other" worlds of MWI have two different interpretations: real or unreal; he claims that Stephen Hawking and Steven Weinberg both favour the unreal interpretation.^{[26]} Gardner also claims that the nonreal interpretation is favoured by the majority of physicists, whereas the "realist" view is only supported by MWI experts such as Deutsch and Bryce DeWitt. Hawking has said that "according to Feynman's idea", all the other histories are as "equally real" as our own,^{[27]} and Martin Gardner reports Hawking saying that MWI is "trivially true".^{[28]} In a 1983 interview, Hawking also said he regarded the MWI as "selfevidently correct" but was dismissive towards questions about the interpretation of quantum mechanics, saying, "When I hear of Schrödinger's cat, I reach for my gun." In the same interview, he also said, "But, look: All that one does, really, is to calculate conditional probabilities—in other words, the probability of A happening, given B. I think that that's all the many worlds interpretation is. Some people overlay it with a lot of mysticism about the wave function splitting into different parts. But all that you're calculating is conditional probabilities."^{[29]} Elsewhere Hawking contrasted his attitude towards the "reality" of physical theories with that of his colleague Roger Penrose, saying, "He's a Platonist and I'm a positivist. He's worried that Schrödinger's cat is in a quantum state, where it is half alive and half dead. He feels that can't correspond to reality. But that doesn't bother me. I don't demand that a theory correspond to reality because I don't know what it is. Reality is not a quality you can test with litmus paper. All I'm concerned with is that the theory should predict the results of measurements. Quantum theory does this very successfully."^{[30]} For his own part, Penrose agrees with Hawking that QM applied to the universe implies MW, although he considers the current lack of a successful theory of quantum gravity negates the claimed universality of conventional QM.^{[31]}
Kim Joris Boström has proposed a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical theory that combines elements of the de Broglie–Bohm mechanics and that of Everett’s many‘worlds’. In particular, the unreal MW interpretation of Hawking and Weinberg is similar to the Bohmian concept of unreal empty branch ‘worlds’:
The second issue with Bohmian mechanics may at first sight appear rather harmless, but which on a closer look develops considerable destructive power: the issue of empty branches. These are the components of the postmeasurement state that do not guide any particles because they do not have the actual configuration q in their support. At first sight, the empty branches do not appear problematic but on the contrary very helpful as they enable the theory to explain unique outcomes of measurements. Also, they seem to explain why there is an effective “collapse of the wavefunction”, as in ordinary quantum mechanics. On a closer view, though, one must admit that these empty branches do not actually disappear. As the wavefunction is taken to describe a really existing field, all their branches really exist and will evolve forever by the Schrödinger dynamics, no matter how many of them will become empty in the course of the evolution. Every branch of the global wavefunction potentially describes a complete world which is, according to Bohm’s ontology, only a possible world that would be the actual world if only it were filled with particles, and which is in every respect identical to a corresponding world in Everett’s theory. Only one branch at a time is occupied by particles, thereby representing the actual world, while all other branches, though really existing as part of a really existing wavefunction, are empty and thus contain some sort of “zombie worlds” with planets, oceans, trees, cities, cars and people who talk like us and behave like us, but who do not actually exist. Now, if the Everettian theory may be accused of ontological extravagance, then Bohmian mechanics could be accused of ontological wastefulness. On top of the ontology of empty branches comes the additional ontology of particle positions that are, on account of the quantum equilibrium hypothesis, forever unknown to the observer. Yet, the actual configuration is never needed for the calculation of the statistical predictions in experimental reality, for these can be obtained by mere wavefunction algebra. From this perspective, Bohmian mechanics may appear as a wasteful and redundant theory. I think it is considerations like these that are the biggest obstacle in the way of a general acceptance of Bohmian mechanics.^{[32]}
Attempts have been made, by manyworld advocates and others, over the years to derive the Born rule, rather than just conventionally assume it, so as to reproduce all the required statistical behaviour associated with quantum mechanics. There is no consensus on whether this has been successful.^{[33]}^{[34]}^{[35]}
Everett (1957) briefly derived the Born rule by showing that the Born rule was the only possible rule, and that its derivation was as justified as the procedure for defining probability in classical mechanics. Everett stopped doing research in theoretical physics shortly after obtaining his Ph.D., but his work on probability has been extended by a number of people. Andrew Gleason (1957) and James Hartle (1965) independently reproduced Everett's work^{[36]} which was later extended.^{[37]}^{[38]} These results are closely related to Gleason's theorem, a mathematical result according to which the Born probability measure is the only one on Hilbert space that can be constructed purely from the quantum state vector.^{[39]}
Bryce DeWitt and his doctoral student R. Neill Graham later provided alternative (and longer) derivations to Everett's derivation of the Born rule.^{[7]} They demonstrated that the norm of the worlds where the usual statistical rules of quantum theory broke down vanished, in the limit where the number of measurements went to infinity.
A decisiontheoretic derivation of the Born rule from Everettarian assumptions, was produced by David Deutsch (1999)^{[40]} and refined by Wallace (2002–2009)^{[41]}^{[42]}^{[43]}^{[44]} and Saunders (2004).^{[45]}^{[46]} Some reviews have been positive, although the status of these arguments remains highly controversial; some theoretical physicists have taken them as supporting the case for parallel universes.^{[47]} In the New Scientist article, reviewing their presentation at a September 2007 conference,^{[48]}^{[49]} Andy Albrecht, a physicist at the University of California at Davis, is quoted as saying "This work will go down as one of the most important developments in the history of science."^{[47]}
The Born rule and the collapse of the wave function have been obtained in the framework of the relativestate formulation of quantum mechanics by Armando V. D. B. Assis. He has proved that the Born rule and the collapse of the wave function follow from a gametheoretical strategy, namely the Nash equilibrium within a von Neumann zerosum game between nature and observer.^{[50]}
Wojciech H. Zurek (2005)^{[51]} has produced a derivation of the Born rule, where decoherence has replaced Deutsch's informatic assumptions.^{[52]} Lutz Polley (2000) has produced Born rule derivations where the informatic assumptions are replaced by symmetry arguments.^{[53]}^{[54]}
Charles Sebens and Sean M. Carroll, building on work by Lev Vaidman,^{[55]} proposed a similar approach based on selflocating uncertainty.^{[56]} In this approach, decoherence creates multiple identical copies of observers, who can assign credences to being on different branches using the Born rule.
In Everett's formulation, a measuring apparatus M and an object system S form a composite system, each of which prior to measurement exists in welldefined (but timedependent) states. Measurement is regarded as causing M and S to interact. After S interacts with M, it is no longer possible to describe either system by an independent state. According to Everett, the only meaningful descriptions of each system are relative states: for example the relative state of S given the state of M or the relative state of M given the state of S. In DeWitt's formulation, the state of S after a sequence of measurements is given by a quantum superposition of states, each one corresponding to an alternative measurement history of S.
For example, consider the smallest possible truly quantum system S, as shown in the illustration. This describes for instance, the spinstate of an electron. Considering a specific axis (say the zaxis) the north pole represents spin "up" and the south pole, spin "down". The superposition states of the system are described by (the surface of) a sphere called the Bloch sphere. To perform a measurement on S, it is made to interact with another similar system M. After the interaction, the combined system is described by a state that ranges over a sixdimensional space (the reason for the number six is explained in the article on the Bloch sphere). This sixdimensional object can also be regarded as a quantum superposition of two "alternative histories" of the original system S, one in which "up" was observed and the other in which "down" was observed. Each subsequent binary measurement (that is interaction with a system M) causes a similar split in the history tree. Thus after three measurements, the system can be regarded as a quantum superposition of 8 = 2 × 2 × 2 copies of the original system S.
The accepted terminology is somewhat misleading because it is incorrect to regard the universe as splitting at certain times; at any given instant there is one state in one universe.
In his 1957 doctoral dissertation, Everett proposed that rather than modeling an isolated quantum system subject to external observation, one could mathematically model an object as well as its observers as purely physical systems within the mathematical framework developed by Paul Dirac, von Neumann and others, discarding altogether the ad hoc mechanism of wave function collapse.
Since Everett's original work, there have appeared a number of similar formalisms in the literature. One such is the relative state formulation. It makes two assumptions: first, the wavefunction is not simply a description of the object's state, but that it actually is entirely equivalent to the object, a claim it has in common with some other interpretations. Secondly, observation or measurement has no special laws or mechanics, unlike in the Copenhagen interpretation which considers the wavefunction collapse as a special kind of event which occurs as a result of observation. Instead, measurement in the relative state formulation is the consequence of a configuration change in the memory of an observer described by the same basic wave physics as the object being modeled.
The manyworlds interpretation is DeWitt's popularisation of Everett's work, who had referred to the combined observer–object system as being split by an observation, each split corresponding to the different or multiple possible outcomes of an observation. These splits generate a possible tree as shown in the graphic below. Subsequently, DeWitt introduced the term "world" to describe a complete measurement history of an observer, which corresponds roughly to a single branch of that tree. Note that "splitting" in this sense is hardly new or even quantum mechanical. The idea of a space of complete alternative histories had already been used in the theory of probability since the mid1930s for instance to model Brownian motion.
Under the manyworlds interpretation, the Schrödinger equation, or relativistic analog, holds all the time everywhere. An observation or measurement is modeled by applying the wave equation to the entire system comprising the observer and the object. One consequence is that every observation can be thought of as causing the combined observer–object's wavefunction to change into a quantum superposition of two or more noninteracting branches, or split into many "worlds". Since many observationlike events have happened and are constantly happening, there are an enormous and growing number of simultaneously existing states.
If a system is composed of two or more subsystems, the system's state will be a superposition of products of the subsystems' states. Each product of subsystem states in the overall superposition evolves over time independently of other products. Once the subsystems interact, their states have become correlated or entangled and it is no longer possible to consider them independent of one another. In Everett's terminology each subsystem state was now correlated with its relative state, since each subsystem must now be considered relative to the other subsystems with which it has interacted.
MWI removes the observerdependent role in the quantum measurement process by replacing wavefunction collapse with quantum decoherence. Since the role of the observer lies at the heart of most if not all "quantum paradoxes," this automatically resolves a number of problems; see for example Schrödinger's cat thought experiment, the EPR paradox, von Neumann's "boundary problem" and even waveparticle duality. Quantum cosmology also becomes intelligible, since there is no need anymore for an observer outside of the universe.
MWI is a realist, deterministic, arguably local theory, akin to classical physics (including the theory of relativity), at the expense of losing counterfactual definiteness. MWI achieves this by removing wavefunction collapse, which is indeterministic and nonlocal, from the deterministic and local equations of quantum theory.^{[57]}
MWI (or other, broader multiverse considerations) provides a context for the anthropic principle which may provide an explanation for the finetuned universe.^{[58]}^{[59]}
MWI, being a decoherent formulation, is axiomatically more streamlined than the Copenhagen and other collapse interpretations; and thus favoured under certain interpretations of Occam's razor.^{[60]} Of course there are other decoherent interpretations that also possess this advantage with respect to the collapse interpretations.
One of the salient properties of the manyworlds interpretation is that it does not require an exceptional method of wave function collapse to explain it. "It seems that there is no experiment distinguishing the MWI from other nocollapse theories such as Bohmian mechanics or other variants of MWI... In most nocollapse interpretations, the evolution of the quantum state of the Universe is the same. Still, one might imagine that there is an experiment distinguishing the MWI from another nocollapse interpretation based on the difference in the correspondence between the formalism and the experience (the results of experiments)."^{[61]}
However, in 1985, David Deutsch published three related thought experiments which could test the theory vs the Copenhagen interpretation.^{[62]} The experiments require macroscopic quantum state preparation and quantum erasure by a hypothetical quantum computer which is currently outside experimental possibility. Since then Lockwood (1989), Vaidman and others have made similar proposals.^{[61]} These proposals also require an advanced technology which is able to place a macroscopic object in a coherent superposition, another task which it is uncertain will ever be possible to perform. Many other controversial ideas have been put forward though, such as a recent claim that cosmological observations could test the theory,^{[63]} and another claim by Rainer Plaga (1997), published in Foundations of Physics, that communication might be possible between worlds.^{[64]}
In the Copenhagen interpretation, the mathematics of quantum mechanics allows one to predict probabilities for the occurrence of various events. When an event occurs, it becomes part of the definite reality, and alternative possibilities do not. There is no necessity to say anything definite about what is not observed.
Any event that changes the number of observers in the universe may have experimental consequences.^{[65]} Quantum tunnelling to a new vacuum state would reduce the number of observers to zero (i.e., kill all life). Some cosmologists argue that the universe is in a false vacuum state and that consequently the universe should have already experienced quantum tunnelling to a true vacuum state. This has not happened and is cited as evidence in favor of manyworlds. In some worlds, quantum tunnelling to a true vacuum state has happened but most other worlds escape this tunneling and remain viable. This can be thought of as a variation on quantum suicide.
The manyminds interpretation is a multiworld interpretation that defines the splitting of reality on the level of the observers' minds. In this, it differs from Everett's manyworlds interpretation, in which there is no special role for the observer's mind.^{[64]}
The manyworlds interpretation is very vague about the ways to determine when splitting happens, and nowadays usually the criterion is that the two branches have decohered. However, present day understanding of decoherence does not allow a completely precise, selfcontained way to say when the two branches have decohered/"do not interact", and hence manyworlds interpretation remains arbitrary. This objection is saying that it is not clear what is precisely meant by branching, and point to the lack of selfcontained criteria specifying branching.
MWI states that there is no special role, or need for precise definition of measurement in MWI, yet Everett uses the word "measurement" repeatedly throughout its exposition.
The splitting of worlds forward in time, but not backwards in time (i.e., merging worlds), is time asymmetric and incompatible with the time symmetric nature of Schrödinger's equation, or CPT invariance in general.^{[71]}
There is circularity in Everett's measurement theory. Under the assumptions made by Everett, there are no 'good observations' as defined by him, and since his analysis of the observational process depends on the latter, it is void of any meaning. The concept of a 'good observation' is the projection postulate in disguise and Everett's analysis simply derives this postulate by having assumed it, without any discussion.^{[73]}
Talk of probability in Everett presumes the existence of a preferred basis to identify measurement outcomes for the probabilities to range over. But the existence of a preferred basis can only be established by the process of decoherence, which is itself probabilistic^{[75]} or arbitrary.^{[76]}
We cannot be sure that the universe is a quantum multiverse until we have a theory of everything and, in particular, a successful theory of quantum gravity.^{[31]} If the final theory of everything is nonlinear with respect to wavefunctions then manyworlds would be invalid.^{[1]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}
Conservation of energy is grossly violated if at every instant nearinfinite amounts of new matter are generated to create the new universes.
Occam's razor rules against a plethora of unobservable universes – Occam would prefer just one universe; i.e., any nonMWI.
Unphysical universes: If a state is a superposition of two states and , i.e., , i.e., weighted by coefficients a and b, then if , what principle allows a universe with vanishingly small probability b to be instantiated on an equal footing with the much more probable one with probability a? This seems to throw away the information in the probability amplitudes.
Violation of the principle of locality, which contradicts special relativity: MWI splitting is instant and total: this may conflict with relativity, since an alien in the Andromeda galaxy can't know I collapse an electron over here before she collapses hers there: the relativity of simultaneity says we can't say which electron collapsed first – so which one splits off another universe first? This leads to a hopeless muddle with everyone splitting differently. Note: EPR is not a getout here, as the alien's and my electrons need never have been part of the same quantum, i.e., entangled.
There is a wide range of claims that are considered "manyworlds" interpretations. It was often claimed by those who do not believe in MWI^{[82]} that Everett himself was not entirely clear^{[83]} as to what he believed; however, MWI adherents (such as DeWitt, Tegmark, Deutsch and others) believe they fully understand Everett's meaning as implying the literal existence of the other worlds. Additionally, recent biographical sources make it clear that Everett believed in the literal reality of the other quantum worlds.^{[24]} Everett's son reported that Hugh Everett "never wavered in his belief over his manyworlds theory".^{[84]} Also Everett was reported to believe "his manyworlds theory guaranteed him immortality".^{[85]}
One of MWI's strongest advocates is David Deutsch.^{[86]} According to Deutsch, the single photon interference pattern observed in the double slit experiment can be explained by interference of photons in multiple universes. Viewed in this way, the single photon interference experiment is indistinguishable from the multiple photon interference experiment. In a more practical vein, in one of the earliest papers on quantum computing,^{[87]} he suggested that parallelism that results from the validity of MWI could lead to "a method by which certain probabilistic tasks can be performed faster by a universal quantum computer than by any classical restriction of it". Deutsch has also proposed that when reversible computers become conscious then MWI will be testable (at least against "naive" Copenhagenism) via the reversible observation of spin.^{[69]}
Asher Peres was an outspoken critic of MWI. For example, a section in his 1993 textbook had the title Everett's interpretation and other bizarre theories. Peres not only questioned whether MWI is really an "interpretation", but rather, if any interpretations of quantum mechanics are needed at all. An interpretation can be regarded as a purely formal transformation, which adds nothing to the rules of the quantum mechanics. Peres seems to suggest that positing the existence of an infinite number of noncommunicating parallel universes is highly suspect per those who interpret it as a violation of Occam's razor, i.e., that it does not minimize the number of hypothesized entities. However, it is understood that the number of elementary particles are not a gross violation of Occam's razor, one counts the types, not the tokens. Max Tegmark remarks that the alternative to manyworlds is "many words", an allusion to the complexity of von Neumann's collapse postulate. On the other hand, the same derogatory qualification "many words" is often applied to MWI by its critics who see it as a word game which obfuscates rather than clarifies by confounding the von Neumann branching of possible worlds with the Schrödinger parallelism of many worlds in superposition.
MWI is considered by some to be unfalsifiable and hence unscientific because the multiple parallel universes are noncommunicating, in the sense that no information can be passed between them. Others^{[69]} claim MWI is directly testable. Everett regarded MWI as falsifiable since any test that falsifies conventional quantum theory would also falsify MWI.^{[23]}
Advocates of MWI often cite a poll of 72 "leading cosmologists and other quantum field theorists" ^{[88]} conducted by the American political scientist David Raub in 1995 showing 58% agreement with "Yes, I think MWI is true".^{[89]}
However, the poll is controversial. For example, Victor J. Stenger remarks that Murray GellMann's published work explicitly rejects the existence of simultaneous parallel universes. Collaborating with James Hartle, GellMann is working toward the development a more "palatable" postEverett quantum mechanics. Stenger thinks it's fair to say that most physicists dismiss the manyworld interpretation as too extreme, while noting it "has merit in finding a place for the observer inside the system being analyzed and doing away with the troublesome notion of wave function collapse".^{[90]}
Max Tegmark also reports the result of a "highly unscientific" poll taken at a 1997 quantum mechanics workshop.^{[91]} According to Tegmark, "The many worlds interpretation (MWI) scored second, comfortably ahead of the consistent histories and Bohm interpretations." Such polls have been taken at other conferences, for example, in response to Sean Carroll's observation, "As crazy as it sounds, most working physicists buy into the manyworlds theory" ^{[92]} Michael Nielsen counters: "at a quantum computing conference at Cambridge in 1998, a manyworlder surveyed the audience of approximately 200 people... Manyworlds did just fine, garnering support on a level comparable to, but somewhat below, Copenhagen and decoherence." However, Nielsen notes that it seemed most attendees found it to be a waste of time: Asher Peres "got a huge and sustained round of applause… when he got up at the end of the polling and asked 'And who here believes the laws of physics are decided by a democratic vote?'" ^{[93]}
A 2005 poll of fewer than 40 students and researchers taken after a course on the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics at the Institute for Quantum Computing University of Waterloo found "Many Worlds (and decoherence)" to be the least favored.^{[94]}
A 2011 poll of 33 participants at an Austrian conference found 6 endorsed MWI, 8 "Informationbased/informationtheoretical", and 14 Copenhagen;^{[95]} the authors remark that the results are similar to the previous Tegmark's 1998 poll.
Speculative physics deals with questions which are also discussed in science fiction.
Quantum suicide, as a thought experiment, was published independently by Hans Moravec in 1987^{[96]}^{[97]} and Bruno Marchal in 1988^{[98]}^{[99]} and was independently developed further by Max Tegmark in 1998.^{[100]} It attempts to distinguish between the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Everett manyworlds interpretation by means of a variation of the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment, from the cat's point of view. Quantum immortality refers to the subjective experience of surviving quantum suicide regardless of the odds.^{[101]}
Another speculation is that the separate worlds remain weakly coupled (e.g., by gravity) permitting "communication between parallel universes". A possible test of this using quantumoptical equipment is described in a 1997 Foundations of Physics article by Rainer Plaga.^{[64]} It involves an isolated ion in an ion trap, a quantum measurement that would yield two parallel worlds (their difference just being in the detection of a single photon), and the excitation of the ion from only one of these worlds. If the excited ion can be detected from the other parallel universe, then this would constitute direct evidence in support of the manyworlds interpretation and would automatically exclude the orthodox, "logical", and "manyhistories" interpretations. The reason the ion is isolated is to make it not participate immediately in the decoherence which insulates the parallel world branches, therefore allowing it to act as a gateway between the two worlds, and if the measure apparatus could perform the measurements quickly enough before the gateway ion is decoupled then the test would succeed (with electronic computers the necessary time window between the two worlds would be in a time scale of milliseconds or nanoseconds, and if the measurements are taken by humans then a few seconds would still be enough). R. Plaga shows that macroscopic decoherence timescales are a possibility. The proposed test is based on technical equipment described in a 1993 Physical Review article by Itano et al.^{[102]} and R. Plaga says that this level of technology is enough to realize the proposed interworld communication experiment. The necessary technology for precision measurements of single ions already exists since the 1970s, and the ion recommended for excitation is ^{199}Hg^{+}. The excitation methodology is described by Itano et al. and the time needed for it is given by the Rabi flopping formula.^{[103]}
Such a test as described by R. Plaga would mean that energy transfer is possible between parallel worlds. This does not violate the fundamental principles of physics because these require energy conservation only for the whole universe and not for the single parallel branches.^{[64]} Neither the excitation of the single ion (which is a degree of freedom of the proposed system) leads to decoherence, something which is proven by Welcher Weg detectors which can excite atoms without momentum transfer (which causes the loss of coherence).^{[104]}
The proposed test would allow for lowbandwidth interworld communication, the limiting factors of bandwidth and time being dependent on the technology of the equipment. Because of the time needed to determine the state of the partially decohered isolated excited ion based on Itano et al.'s methodology, the ion would decohere by the time its state is determined during the experiment, so Plaga's proposal would pass just enough information between the two worlds to confirm their parallel existence and nothing more. The author contemplates that with increased bandwidth, one could even transfer television imagery across the parallel worlds.^{[64]} For example, Itano et al.'s methodology could be improved (by lowering the time needed for state determination of the excited ion) if a more efficient process were found for the detection of fluorescence radiation using 194 nm photons.^{[64]}
A 1991 article by J. Polchinski also supports the view that interworld communication is a theoretical possibility.^{[105]} Other authors in a 1994 preprint article also contemplated similar ideas.^{[106]}
The reason interworld communication seems like a possibility is because decoherence which separates the parallel worlds is never fully complete,^{[107]}^{[108]} therefore weak influences from one parallel world to another can still pass between them,^{[107]}^{[109]} and these should be measurable with advanced technology. Deutsch proposed such an experiment in a 1985 International Journal of Theoretical Physics article,^{[110]} but the technology it requires involves humanlevel artificial intelligence.^{[64]}
Many MWI proponents assert that every physically possible event has to be represented in the multiversal stack, and by definition this would include highly unlikely scenarios and timelines. Bryce Seligman DeWitt has stated that "[Everett, Wheeler and Graham] do not in the end exclude any element of the superposition. All the worlds are there, even those in which everything goes wrong and all the statistical laws break down." ^{[111]} Borrowing a phase from T.H. White's The Once and Future King, Murray GellMann describes the implications of his Totalitarian principle, as "Everything not forbidden is compulsory."^{[112]} Max Tegmark has affirmed in numerous statements that absurd or highly unlikely events are inevitable under the MWI interpretation. To quote Tegmark, "Things inconsistent with the laws of physics will never happen  everything else will... it's important to keep track of the statistics, since even if everything conceivable happens somewhere, really freak events happen only exponentially rarely".^{[113]} Frank J. Tipler, although a strong advocate for the manyworlds interpretation, has expressed some skepticism regarding this aspect of the theory. In a 2015 interview he stated "We simply don't know...it might be that the modulus over the wavefunction of that possibility [i.e. an extremely absurd yet physically possible event] is zero in which case there is no such world...There are universes out there, which you could imagine which...would not be actualized." ^{[114]}
The manyworlds interpretation has some similarity to modal realism in philosophy, which is the view that the possible worlds used to interpret modal claims exist and are of a kind with the actual world. Unlike the possible worlds of philosophy, however, in quantum mechanics counterfactual alternatives can influence the results of experiments, as in the Elitzur–Vaidman bombtesting problem or the Quantum Zeno effect. Also, while the worlds of the manyworlds interpretation all share the same physical laws, modal realism postulates a world for every way things could conceivably have been.
The manyworlds interpretation could be one possible way to resolve the paradoxes^{[86]} that one would expect to arise if time travel turns out to be permitted by physics (permitting closed timelike curves and thus violating causality). Entering the past would itself be a quantum event causing branching, and therefore the timeline accessed by the time traveller simply would be another timeline of many. In that sense, it would make the Novikov selfconsistency principle unnecessary.
58% believed that the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI) was true, including Stephen Hawking and Nobel Laureates Murray GellMann and Richard Feynman
[the poll was] published in the French periodical Sciences et Avenir in January 1998
GellMann and collaborator James Hartle, along with a score of others, have been working to develop a more palatable interpretation of quantum mechanics that is free of the problems that plague all the interpretations we have considered so far. This new interpretation is called, in its various incarnations, postEverett quantum mechanics, alternate histories, consistent histories, or decoherent histories. I will not be overly concerned with the detailed differences between these characterizations and will use the terms more or less interchangeably.
This idea was first proposed by Austrian mathematician Hans Moravec in 1987...
The actual performance of this experiment, involving as it does fairly detailed adjustments inside an observer's brain and sense organs, is far beyond presentday technology, but perhaps not quite as far as it might seem at first sight.
David Elieser Deutsch (; born 18 May 1953) is a British physicist at the University of Oxford. He is a Visiting Professor in the Department of Atomic and Laser Physics at the Centre for Quantum Computation (CQC) in the Clarendon Laboratory of the University of Oxford. He pioneered the field of quantum computation by formulating a description for a quantum Turing machine, as well as specifying an algorithm designed to run on a quantum computer. He is a proponent of the manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.In 2009 Deutsch expounded a new criterion for scientific explanation, which is to formulate invariants: 'State an explanation [publicly, so that it can be dated and verified by others later] that remains invariant [in the face of apparent change, new information, or unexpected conditions]'.
A bad explanation is easy to vary. —David Deutsch
The search for hard to vary explanations is the origin of all progress. —David Deutsch
That "the truth consists of hard to vary assertions about reality" is the most important fact about the physical world. —David Deutsch
Death and What Comes Next"Death and What Comes Next" is a fantasy short story by British writer Terry Pratchett, part of his Discworld series. It tells the story of a discussion between Death and a philosopher, in which the philosopher attempts to use the manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics to argue death is not a certainty.
The story was originally written in 2002 for the nowdefunct online puzzle game TimeHunt and the text contains a hidden word puzzle, also devised by Pratchett, which provided a codeword for the game.
Like "Theatre of Cruelty", another of his short stories, Pratchett allowed it to be put on the LSpace Web.
Elitzur–Vaidman bomb testerThe Elitzur–Vaidman bombtester is a quantum mechanics thought experiment that uses interactionfree measurements to verify that a bomb is functional without having to detonate it. It was conceived in 1993 by Avshalom Elitzur and Lev Vaidman. Since their publication, realworld experiments have confirmed that their theoretical method works as predicted.The bomb tester takes advantage of two characteristics of elementary particles, such as photons or electrons: nonlocality and waveparticle duality. By placing the particle in a quantum superposition, the experiment can verify that the bomb works without ever triggering its detonation, although there is a 50% chance that the bomb will explode in the effort.
Hugh Everett IIIHugh Everett III (; November 11, 1930 – July 19, 1982) was an American physicist who first proposed the manyworlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics, which he termed his "relative state" formulation.
Discouraged by the scorn of other physicists for MWI, Everett ended his physics career after completing his Ph.D. Afterwards, he developed the use of generalized Lagrange multipliers for operations research and applied this commercially as a defense analyst and a consultant. He was married to Nancy Everett née Gore. They had two children: Elizabeth Everett and Mark Oliver Everett, who became frontman of the musical band Eels.
Internal measurementThe internal measurement refers to the quantum measurement realized by the endoobserver. Quantum measurement represents the action of a measuring device on the measured system. When the measuring device is a part of measured system, the measurement proceeds internally in relation to the whole system. This theory was introduced by Koichiro Matsuno and developed by YukioPegio Gunji. They further expanded the original ideas of Robert Rosen and Howard Pattee on the quantum measurement in living systems viewed as natural internal observers that belong to the same scale of the observed objects. According to Matsuno, the internal measurement is accompanied by the redistribution of probabilities that leave them entangled in accordance with the manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics by Everett. However, this form of quantum entanglement does not survive in the external measurement in which the mapping to real numbers takes place and the result is revealed in the classical timespace as the Copenhagen interpretation suggests. This means that the internal measurement concept unifies the alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics.
Interpretations of quantum mechanicsAn interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics "corresponds" to reality. Although quantum mechanics has held up to rigorous and extremely precise tests in an extraordinarily broad range of experiments (not one prediction from quantum mechanics is found to be contradicted by experiments), there exist a number of contending schools of thought over their interpretation. (These views on interpretation differ on such fundamental questions as whether quantum mechanics is deterministic or random, which elements of quantum mechanics can be considered "real", and what is the nature of measurement, among other matters.)
Despite nearly a century of debate and experiment, no consensus has been reached amongst physicists and philosophers of physics concerning which interpretation best "represents" reality.
Jeffrey A. BarrettJeffrey A. Barrett is Chancellor's Professor in Logic and Philosophy of Science at the University of California, Irvine.
He is known for his work on the measurement problem of quantum mechanics
(why and how quantum systems collapse when one measures them),
and particularly on the manyworlds interpretation of Hugh Everett.
His book The Quantum Mechanics of Minds and Worlds (Oxford University Press, 2000) concerns this problem and its solutions,
and his book with Peter Byrne, The Everett Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Collected Works 19551980 with Commentary (Princeton University Press, 2012)
collects the works of Everett himself on this problem.
Lev VaidmanLev Vaidman (born 4 September 1955) is a RussianIsraeli physicist and Professor at Tel Aviv University, Israel. He is noted for his theoretical work in the area of fundamentals of quantum mechanics, which includes quantum teleportation, the Elitzur–Vaidman bomb tester, and the weak values. He was a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of The American Journal of Physics from 2007 to 2009. His work and the experiments which they have inspired have lent support to the manyworlds interpretation of quantum physics. In 2010, their experiment was chosen as one of the "Seven Wonders of the Quantum World" by New Scientist Magazine.
Manyminds interpretationThe manyminds interpretation of quantum mechanics extends the manyworlds interpretation by proposing that the distinction between worlds should be made at the level of the mind of an individual observer. The concept was first introduced in 1970 by H. Dieter Zeh as a variant of the Hugh Everett interpretation in connection with quantum decoherence, and later (in 1981) explicitly called a many or multiconsciousness interpretation. The name manyminds interpretation was first used by David Albert and Barry Loewer in 1988.
Multiple historiesThe concept of multiple histories is closely related to the manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. In the same way that the manyworlds interpretation regards possible futures as having a real existence of their own, the theory of multiple histories reverses this in time to regard the many possible past histories of a given event as having real existence.
This concept was introduced by Richard Feynman, whose Feynman path integral is integrated over the set of all possible histories.
The idea of multiple histories has also been applied to cosmology, in a theoretical interpretation in which the universe has multiple possible cosmologies, and in which reasoning backwards from the current state of the universe to a quantum superposition of possible cosmic histories makes sense.
MultiverseThe multiverse is a hypothetical group of multiple universes including the universe in which we live. Together, these universes comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, energy, and the physical laws and constants that describe them. The different universes within the multiverse are called "parallel universes", "other universes", or "alternate universes".
Parallel Worlds, Parallel LivesParallel Worlds, Parallel Lives is a BAFTAwinning television documentary broadcast in 2007 on BBC Scotland and BBC Four, in which American rock musician Mark Oliver Everett talks with physicists and the former colleagues of his father—Hugh Everett—about his father's manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. The documentary was shot and directed by Louise Lockwood and edited by Folko Boermans.
The American premiere screening was at the 2008 inaugural World Science Festival in New York City.The documentary was shown in full before each concert during the Eels' 2008 world tour.
A petition was started to persuade the BBC to issue the documentary on DVD.Parallel Worlds, Parallel Lives was broadcast in the United States on the PBS program Nova on 21 October 2008. The US version of the documentary features American voice actors for the narration. This version was available in DVD but has fallen out of print. The British version of the documentary is narrated by Annie Mac. The NOVA version was narrated by journalist Stefanie E. Frame.
Everett called making the film "the single most rewarding experience of my life in many ways."
Principle of locality
In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is directly influenced only by its immediate surroundings. A theory which includes the principle of locality is said to be a "local theory". This is an alternative to the older concept of instantaneous "action at a distance". Locality evolved out of the field theories of classical physics. The concept is that for an action at one point to have an influence at another point, something in the space between those points such as a field must mediate the action. To exert an influence, something, such as a wave or particle, must travel through the space between the two points, carrying the influence.
The special theory of relativity limits the speed at which all such influences can travel to the speed of light, . Therefore, the principle of locality implies that an event at one point cannot cause a simultaneous result at another point. An event at point cannot cause a result at point in a time less than , where is the distance between the points.
In 1935 Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen in their EPR paradox theorised that quantum mechanics might not be a local theory, because a measurement made on one of a pair of separated but entangled particles causes a simultaneous effect, the collapse of the wave function, in the remote particle (i.e. an effect exceeding the speed of light). But because of the probabilistic nature of wave function collapse, this violation of locality cannot be used to transmit information faster than light. In 1964 John Stewart Bell formulated the "Bell inequality", which, if violated in actual experiments, implies that quantum mechanics violates either locality or realism, another principle which relates to the value of unmeasured quantities. The two principles are commonly referred to as a single principle, local realism.
Experimental tests of the Bell inequality, beginning with Alain Aspect's 1972 experiments, show that quantum mechanics seems to violate the inequality, so it must violate either locality or realism. However, critics have noted these experiments contained "loopholes", which prevented a definitive answer to this question. This might now be resolved: in 2015 Dr Ronald Hanson at Delft University performed what has been called the first loopholefree experiment. On the other hand, some loopholes might persist, and may continue to persist to the point of being fundamentally untestable.
Quantum suicide and immortalityIn quantum mechanics, quantum suicide is a thought experiment, originally published independently by Hans Moravec in 1987 and Bruno Marchal in 1988 and independently developed further by Max Tegmark in 1998. It attempts to distinguish between the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Everett manyworlds interpretation by means of a variation of the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment, from the cat's point of view. Quantum immortality refers to the subjective experience of surviving quantum suicide regardless of the odds.Keith Lynch recalls that Hugh Everett took great delight in paradoxes such as the unexpected hanging. Everett did not mention quantum suicide or quantum immortality in writing, but his work was intended as a solution to the paradoxes of quantum mechanics. Lynch said "Everett firmly believed that his manyworlds theory guaranteed him immortality: his consciousness, he argued, is bound at each branching to follow whatever path does not lead to death"; Tegmark explains, however, that life and death situations do not normally hinge upon a sequence of binary quantum events like those in the thought experiment.
Schrödinger's catSchrödinger's cat is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935. It illustrates what he saw as the problem of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to everyday objects. The scenario presents a hypothetical cat that may be simultaneously both alive and dead, a state known as a quantum superposition, as a result of being linked to a random subatomic event that may or may not occur.
The thought experiment is also often featured in theoretical discussions of the interpretations of quantum mechanics. Schrödinger coined the term Verschränkung (entanglement) in the course of developing the thought experiment.
The Garden of Forking Paths"The Garden of Forking Paths" (original Spanish title: "El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan") is a 1941 short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. It is the title story in the collection El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan (1941), which was republished in its entirety in Ficciones (Fictions) in 1944. It was the first of Borges's works to be translated into English by Anthony Boucher when it appeared in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine in August 1948.
The story's theme has been said to foreshadow the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. It may have been inspired by work of the philosopher and science fiction author Olaf Stapledon.Borges's vision of "forking paths" has been cited as inspiration by numerous new media scholars, in particular within the field of hypertext fiction. Other stories by Borges that express the idea of infinite texts include "The Library of Babel" and "The Book of Sand".
Time travelTime travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person, typically using a hypothetical device known as a time machine. Time travel is a widelyrecognized concept in philosophy and fiction. The idea of a time machine was popularized by H. G. Wells' 1895 novel The Time Machine.
It is uncertain if time travel to the past is physically possible. Forward time travel, outside the usual sense of the perception of time, is an extensivelyobserved phenomenon and wellunderstood within the framework of special relativity and general relativity. However, making one body advance or delay more than a few milliseconds compared to another body is not feasible with current technology. As for backwards time travel, it is possible to find solutions in general relativity that allow for it, but the solutions require conditions that may not be physically possible. Traveling to an arbitrary point in spacetime has a very limited support in theoretical physics, and usually only connected with quantum mechanics or wormholes, also known as EinsteinRosen bridges.
Totalitarian principleIn quantum mechanics, GellMann's totalitarian principle states: "Everything not forbidden is compulsory." Physicist Murray GellMann borrowed this expression from T. H. White's The Once and Future King to describe the state of particle physics around the time he was formulating the Eightfold Way, a precursor to the quarkmodel of hadrons.The statement is in reference to a surprising feature of particle interactions: that any interaction which is not forbidden by a small number of simple conservation laws is not only allowed, but must be included in the sum over all "paths" which contribute to the outcome of the interaction. Hence if it isn't forbidden, there is some probability amplitude for it to happen.
In the manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, the principle has a more literal meaning: that every possibility at every interaction which is not forbidden by such a conservation law will actually happen (in some branch of the wavefunction).
Universal wavefunctionThe universal wavefunction (or wave function) is a term introduced by Hugh Everett in his PhD thesis The Theory of the Universal Wave Function, and forms a core concept in the relative state interpretation or manyworlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has also received more recent investigation from James Hartle and Stephen Hawking in which they derive a specific solution to the WheelerdeWitt equation to explain the initial conditions of the Big Bang cosmology.
Everett's thesis introduction reads:
Since the universal validity of the state function description is asserted, one can regard the state functions themselves as the fundamental entities, and one can even consider the state function of the entire universe. In this sense this theory can be called the theory of the "universal wave function," since all of physics is presumed to follow from this function alone.
The universal wave function is the wavefunction or quantum state of the totality of existence, regarded as the "basic physical entity" or "the fundamental entity, obeying at all times a deterministic wave equation."
General terms and concepts  

Time travel in fiction  
Temporal paradoxes  
Parallel timelines 

Philosophy of space and time  
Spacetimes in general relativity that can contain closed timelike curves 
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