Many-colored rush tyrant

The many-colored rush tyrant (Tachuris rubrigastra) or many-coloured rush tyrant, is a small passerine bird of South America belonging to the tyrant flycatcher family. It is the only member of the genus Tachuris and its relationships with the other members of the family are uncertain, and it may constitute a separate monotypic family. It inhabits marshland and reedbeds around lakes and rivers. It is particularly associated with stands of Scirpus. The nest is built among plant stems.[2]

Many-colored rush tyrant
Tachuris rubrigastra Many-colored Rush-tyrant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Tyrannidae
Genus: Tachuris
Lafresnaye, 1836
Species:
T. rubrigastra
Binomial name
Tachuris rubrigastra
(Vieillot, 1817)

Taxonomy and systematics

A 2013 DNA study of South American suboscines suggested that this species does not belong in the tyrant-flycatcher family but is a monotypic family, separated from other suboscines for at least 25 million years. They proposed the family name Tachurididae,[3] although it has also been suggested that the name should be Tachurisidae.[4] This elevation to family hasn't been adopted by any authorities yet, however, pending further research.[5]

There are four subspecies: T. r. rubrigastra is the most widespread, occurring from south-east Brazil to southern Argentina and central Chile. T. r. alticola is found in the Andes of south-east Peru, west Bolivia and north-west Argentina. T. r. libertatis is found in coastal Peru while T. r. loaensis is restricted to Antofagasta Region in northern Chile.

Description

Tachuris rubigastra (nest)
Many-colored rush tyrant nest

It is a small bird, 10.5 cm in length. The tail is short, the wings are short and rounded and the bill is slender. As the bird's name suggests, the plumage is very colourful. The back and rump are green while the underparts are yellow apart from the white throat, black breastband and red undertail-coverts. The face is dark blue-grey, there is a yellow stripe over the eye and the crown is dark with a red patch that is often concealed. The wings and tail are dark with a white wingbar and white outer tail-feathers. Juveniles are considerably duller than the adults.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Tachuris rubrigastra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Jaramillo, Alvaro; Burke, Peter & Beadle, David (2003) Field Guide to the Birds of Chile. Christopher Helm, London.
  3. ^ Ohlson, J; Irestedt, M; Ericson, P; Fjeldså, J (2013). "Phylogeny and classification of the New World suboscines (Aves, Passeriformes)". Zootaxa. 3613 (1): 1–35.
  4. ^ Franz, I (2015). "A family-group name correction in Aves: Tachurisidae instead of Tachurididae Ohlson, Irestedt, Ericson & Fjeldså, 2013". Zootaxa. 3941 (4): 593–594. PMID 25947533.
  5. ^ South American Classification Committee. "Part 8. Suboscine Passeriformes, C (Tyrannidae to Tityridae)". A Classification of the Bird Species of South America. Retrieved 28 February 2017.

External links

Lake Titicaca

Titicaca (Spanish: Lago Titicaca, pronounced [ˈlaɣo titiˈkaka], "Lake Titicaca"; Quechua: Titiqaqa Qucha, "Titiqaqa Lake") is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru, often called the "highest navigable lake" in the world. By volume of water and by surface area, it is the largest lake in South America. Lake Maracaibo has a larger surface area, but it is a tidal bay, not a lake.

Lake Titicaca has a surface elevation of 3,812 m (12,507 ft). The "highest navigable lake" claim is generally considered to refer to commercial craft. Numerous smaller bodies of water around the world are at higher elevations. For many years, the largest vessel afloat on the lake was the 2,200-ton (2,425 U.S. tons), 79-metre (259 ft) SS Ollanta. Today, the largest vessel is most likely the similarly sized train barge/float Manco Capac, operated by PeruRail.

Other cultures lived on Lake Titicaca prior to the arrival of the Incas. In 2000, a team of international archaeologists found the ruins of an underwater temple, thought to be between 1,000 and 1,500 years old, perhaps built by the Tiwanaku people. The ruins have been measured to be 200 by 50 m (660 by 160 ft).

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds of Argentina

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Argentina. The avifauna of Argentina has 1006 confirmed species, of which 16 are endemic, eight have been introduced by humans, 41 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 58 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Argentina

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Argentina

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Argentina as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Bolivia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bolivia. The avifauna of Bolivia has 1384 confirmed species. Fifteen are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, and 20 are rare or vagrants. An additional 38 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bolivia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Bolivia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bolivia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Brazil

Brazil has one of the richest bird diversities in the world. The avifauna of Brazil include a total of 1806 confirmed species, of which 235 are endemic. Four have been introduced by humans, 70 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 24 species are hypothetical (see below).

Brazil hosts about 60% of the bird species recorded for all of South America. These numbers are still increasing almost every year, due to new occurrences, new species being described, or splits of existing species. About 10% of the bird species found in Brazil are, nonetheless, threatened.

In June 2013 a simultaneous discovery of fifteen bird species in Brazil was announced, the first such since 1871, when August von Pelzeln described forty new species. The birds were from the families Corvidae, Thamnophilidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Tyrannidae, and Polioptilidae. Eleven of the new species are endemics of Brazil and four also inhabit Peru and Bolivia.Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The notes of population status, for instance (endangered), are those of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The status notes apply to the worldwide population, not solely the Brazilian population except for endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Brazil

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Brazil

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Brazil as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Chile

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Chile. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The SACC list includes species recorded in mainland Chile, on the Chilean islands of the Cape Horn area, on other islands and waters near the mainland, and on and around the Juan Fernández Islands. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The avifauna of Chile has 498 confirmed species, of which 12 are endemic, 107 are rare or vagrants, five have been introduced by humans, and two are extinct or extirpated. An additional seven species are hypothetical (see below). Thirty-five of the species on the Chilean SACC list are globally threatened.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Chile

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Chile

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Chile as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Paraguay

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Paraguay. The avifauna of Paraguay has 694 confirmed species, of which two have been introduced by humans, 39 are rare or vagrants, and five are extirpated or extinct. An additional 27 species are hypothetical (see below). None are endemic.

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Paraguay

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Paraguay

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Paraguay as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Peru

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Peru. The avifauna of Peru has 1802 confirmed species, of which 106 are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, and 44 are rare or vagrants. An additional 54 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Peru

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Peru

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Peru as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Uruguay

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Uruguay. The avifauna of Uruguay has 448 confirmed species, of which seven have been introduced by humans, 39 are rare or vagrants, and six are extirpated or believed extinct. An additional 20 species are hypothetical (see below). None are endemic.

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Uruguay

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Uruguay as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of tyrant flycatcher species

The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes 436 species in family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers. The IOC list includes genus Piprites, which the Clements taxonomy places in family Pipridae (manakins) and the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society considers incertae sedis. The list does not include the several species in genera Myiobius, Onychorhynchus, and Terenotriccus which Clements and the SACC do include in Tyrannidae.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 10

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Tyrant flycatcher

The tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae) are a family of passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They are considered the largest family of birds, with more than 400 species. They are the most diverse avian family in every country in the Americas, except for the United States and Canada. As could be expected from a family this large, the members vary greatly in shape, patterns, size and colors. Some tyrant flycatchers superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers which they are named after but are not related to. They are members of suborder Tyranni (suboscines), which do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of most other songbirds.Most, but not all, species are rather plain, with various hues of brown, gray and white commonplace. Obvious exceptions include the bright red vermilion flycatcher, blue, black, white and yellow many-colored rush-tyrant and some species of tody-flycatchers or tyrants, which are often yellow, black, white and/or rufous, from the Todirostrum, Hemitriccus and Poecilotriccus genera. Several species have bright yellow underparts, from the ornate flycatcher to the great kiskadee. Some species have erectile crests. Several of the large genera (i.e. Elaenia, Myiarchus or Empidonax) are quite difficult to tell apart in the field due to similar plumage and some are best distinguished by their voices. Behaviorally they can vary from species such as spadebills which are tiny, shy and live in dense forest interiors to kingbirds, which are relatively large, bold, inquisitive and often inhabit open areas near human habitations. As the name implies, a great majority of tyrant flycatchers are entirely insectivorous (though not necessarily specialized in flies). Tyrant flycatchers are largely opportunistic feeders and often catch any flying or arboreal insect they encounter. However, food can vary greatly and some (like the large great kiskadee) will eat fruit or small vertebrates (e.g. small frogs). In North America, most species are associated with a "sallying" feeding style, where they fly up to catch an insect directly from their perch and then immediately return to the same perch. Most tropical species however do not feed in this fashion and several types prefer to glean insects from leaves and bark. Tropical species are sometimes found in mixed-species foraging flocks, where various types of passerines and other smallish birds are found feeding in proximity.

The smallest family members are the closely related short-tailed pygmy tyrant and black-capped pygmy tyrant from the genus Myiornis (the first species usually being considered marginally smaller on average). These species reach a total length of 6.5–7 cm (2.6–2.8 in) and a weight of 4–5 grams. By length, they are the smallest passerines on earth, although some species of Old World warblers apparently rival them in their minuscule mean body masses if not in total length. The minuscule size and very short tail of the Myiornis pygmy tyrants often lend them a resemblance to a tiny ball or insect. The largest tyrant flycatcher is the great shrike-tyrant at 29 cm (11 in) and 99.2 grams (0.219 pounds). A few species such as the streamer-tailed tyrant, scissor-tailed flycatcher and fork-tailed flycatcher have a larger total length (up to 41 cm (16 in)), but this is mainly due to their extremely long tails; the fork-tailed flycatcher has relatively the longest tail feathers of any known bird.A number of species previously included in this family are now placed in the family Tityridae (see Systematics). Sibley and Alquist in their 1990 bird taxonomy had the genera Mionectes, Leptopogon, Pseudotriccus, Poecilotriccus, Taenotriccus, Hemitriccus, Todirostrum and Corythopis as a separate family Pipromorphidae, but although it is still thought that these genera are basal to most of the family, they are not each other's closest relatives.

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