Manuel de la Peña y Peña

José Manuel de la Peña y Peña (10 March 1789 – 2 January 1850) was a Mexican politician and lawyer, interim president of Mexico from 26 September 1847 to 13 November 1847 and president from 8 January 1848 to 3 June 1848.

Manuel de la Peña y Peña
Manuel de la Peña y Peña
Portrait of Manuel de la Peña y Peña
18th President of Mexico
In office
16 September 1847 – 13 November 1847
Preceded byAntonio López de Santa Anna
Succeeded byPedro María de Anaya
In office
8 January 1848 – 3 June 1848
Preceded byPedro María de Anaya
Succeeded byJosé Joaquín de Herrera
Personal details
Born10 March 1789
Tacubaya, New Spain
Died2 January 1850 (aged 60)
Mexico City, Mexico

Early life and education

Manuel de la Peña y Peña was born in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial México). He was a scholarship student at Seminario Conciliar. He graduated in civil and ecclesiastical jurisprudence on 16 December 1811 as valedictorian of his class.

Career

Mexico

On 26 December 1813, he was named a trustee of the Mexico City government. On 23 February 1820, he was named by the Crown to the Audiencia of Quito, a position he was unable to fill because of the 1821 independence of Mexico.

From 10 April 1822, he was a public prosecutor, at a very young age for this position. On 21 October 1822, Emperor Agustín de Iturbide named him minister plenipotentiary to Colombia, but he was unable to occupy this position either, because of the fall of the empire. After the promulgation of the federal constitution, which created the Mexican Supreme Court, he was named to a seat in that body (25 December 1824). Except for a few short gaps, he retained this position until his death.

On 22 April 1837, he was named Minister of the Interior, and on 16 November 1838 he was appointed to the Supremo Poder Conservador. He was also a law professor at Universidad Nacional de México, president of the Academy of Jurisprudence, and rector of the College of Lawyers. On 4 December 1841, he was named to edit the Civil Code.

On 3 October 1843, he was designated a senator of the Republic, and he was reelected to that position on 19 November 1845. In 1845, he was also Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of the Interior, and plenipotentiary to negotiate an extradition treaty with the Spanish envoy.

Presidency

In 1847, because of the governmental chaos after the United States occupation of the capital, Peña y Peña assumed the interim presidency of the country in his capacity as president of the Supreme Court and by act of Congress. He served from 26 September to 13 November 1847, when he was replaced by Pedro María Anaya. The government was at that time in Querétaro. He was later named president in his own right (not interim) from 8 January to 3 June 1848. The state of Yucatán had seceded from the federation, Michoacán declared sovereignty, and many other states were ignoring the federal government.

During his term of office, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war with the United States, was negotiated and signed. Negotiations began on 2 January 1848 and concluded on 2 February. Mexico ceded Texas, New Mexico and Alta California to the United States and received a payment of 15 million dollars.

The treaty had much opposition in Congress, which was meeting in Querétaro, but considering the state of the country and the inability to continue the war, Congress ratified it on 13 May 1848. With the conclusion of the treaty, Peña y Peña resigned the presidency and returned to the Supreme Court. Congress elected General José Joaquín de Herrera president.

See also

References

  • (in Spanish) "Peña y Peña, Manuel de la", Enciclopedia de México, v. 11. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
  • (in Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrúa, 1984.
  • (in Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Antonio López de Santa Anna
President of Mexico
16 September - 13 November 1847
Succeeded by
Pedro María de Anaya
Preceded by
Pedro María de Anaya
President of Mexico
8 January – 3 June 1848
Succeeded by
José Joaquín de Herrera
1847 in Mexico

Events in the year 1847 in Mexico.

1848 in Mexico

Events in the year 1848 in Mexico.

Celedonio Dómeco de Jarauta

Celedonio Dómeco de Jarauta, (1814-1848), was a Spanish soldier, Catholic priest and later a Mexican guerrilla leader in the Mexican American War.

Celedonio Dómeco de Jarauta was born in Zaragoza, Spain, on March 3, 1814. He fought as a Carlist in the First Carlist War. He emigrated to Havana, Cuba, and took Holy Orders becoming a priest. In 1844 was granted a parish in Veracruz, and immigrated to Mexico. In 1847, when the Americans landed near Veracruz was appointed chaplain of the 2nd Infantry Regiment, then head of the field hospital. After the fall of the city he went into the countryside and organized companies of guerrillas then commanded a force of them, harassing American convoys, small parties and couriers between Vera Cruz and Puebla especially in the Sotovento region, the coastal plain of the state of Vera Cruz.

After the fall of Mexico City, on January 19, 1848, Jarauta published a broadside, in Puebla, Viva la Republica Mexicana : Mexicanos, a patriotic call for continuing resistance to the U.S. forces in Mexico. After the peace treaty of Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo was concluded February 2, 1848, Jarauta refused to acknowledge it and disband his troops. On February 25, 1848, an American force under Gen. Joseph Lane made a forced march which surprised and defeated the force of Padre Jarauta at Zacualtipan in the Action of Sequalteplan.

Opposed to the treaty and the policies of President Manuel de la Peña y Peña, he joined General Mariano Paredes, Manuel Doblado and others in armed revolt, but they were defeated by the remaining Mexican Army under General Anastasio Bustamante at Guanajuato on July 18, 1848. Jarauta was captured while on a reconnaissance of the neighborhoods of Mellado and La Valenciana and shot for revolutionary activities on Bustamante's order the next day by Mexican troops in the La Valenciana Mine on July 19, 1848.

De la Peña

De La Peña or Peña is a surname of Spanish origin.

Diódoro Carrasco Altamirano

Diódoro Humberto Carrasco Altamirano (born 30 January 1954) is a Mexican economist and politician from the National Action Party (formerly from the Institutional Revolutionary Party) who has served as Governor of Oaxaca from 1992 to 1998 and as Secretary of the Interior during the last year of Ernesto Zedillo's government.He also has served as Senator of the LV Legislature of the Mexican Congress and as Deputy during the LX Legislature.

Eliseo Arredondo

Eliseo Arredondo de la Garza (5 May 1870 – 18 October 1923) was a Mexican politician and diplomat who briefly served as secretary of the Interior in the government of President Venustiano Carranza; his cousin and father-in-law. Arredondo also served as a federal congressman in the Chamber of Deputies, negotiated on behalf of Carranza with revolutionary leader, Pancho Villa, and, while working as chargé d'affaires in Washington, D.C., he secured diplomatic recognition for Carranza's administration from the United States government.

Emilio Chuayffet

Emilio Chuayffet Chemor KBE (born 3 October 1951) is a Mexican lawyer and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party since 1969.

He previously held the office of Governor of the State of Mexico from 1993 to 1995 and Secretary of the Interior during the government of Ernesto Zedillo. He served as Secretary of Public Education under President Enrique Peña Nieto.

First Lady of Mexico

The First Lady of Mexico (Spanish: Primera Dama de Mexico, Primera Dama de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is the unofficial title of the wife of the President of Mexico. The post is highly ceremonial and in fact once caused severe controversy when it was thought that the First Lady took too much involvement in their husband's post. Beatriz Gutiérrez Müller is the wife of current president Andrés Manuel López Obrador.

María Flores de Lascuráin, spouse of President Pedro Lascuráin, was Mexico's and the world's briefest ever First Lady, since her husband served as president for less than an hour.

José Joaquín de Herrera

José Joaquín Antonio de Herrera (23 February 1792 – 10 February 1854), a moderate Mexican politician, served as president of Mexico three times (1844, 1844–45 and 1848–51), and as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican–American War of 1846-1848.

List of Presidents of Mexico by longevity

This is a list of Presidents of Mexico, in order of longevity. See the article on List of heads of state of Mexico for more information about Presidents. There are currently sixty-four Presidents on the list and seven living Presidents since Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador was inaugurated as the 58th President of Mexico on December 1, 2018. The list is in descending order and is correct as of May 20, 2019. The oldest living former president is Luis Echeverría, born January 17, 1922 (aged 97 years, 123 days). He is also the longest-lived president since April 1, 2018 when he tied Pedro Lascuráin, who died at the age of 96 years, 74 days.

To account for the different number of leap days within the life of each president, two measures of longevity are given. The first is the number of whole years the president lived, and the number of days past their last birthday. The second list the total number of days lived by the president, accounting for differing numbers of leap years within the lifespan of each president.

List of heads of state of Mexico

The Head of State in Mexico is the person who controls the executive power in the country. Under the current constitution, this responsibility lies with the President of the United Mexican States, who is head of the supreme executive power of the Mexican Union. Throughout its history, Mexico has had several forms of government. Under the federal constitutions, the title of President was the same as the current one. Under the Seven Laws (centralist), the chief executive was named President of the Republic. In addition, there have been two periods of monarchical rule, during which the executive was controlled by the Emperor of Mexico.

The chronology of the heads of state of Mexico is complicated due to the country's political instability during most of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. With few exceptions, most of the Mexican presidents elected during this period did not complete their terms. Until the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, each president had remained in office an average of fifteen months.This list also includes the self-appointed presidents during civil wars and the collegiate bodies that performed the Mexican Executive duties during periods of transition.

List of people with surname Peña

This is a list of persons with the surname Peña.

List of state leaders in 1847

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1847.

List of state leaders in 1848

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1848.

Luis Gonzaga Cuevas

Luis Gonzaga Cuevas Inclán (Lerma de Villada, 10 July 1799 – City of Mexico, 12 January 1867) was a Mexican politician and diplomat. He studied law at the Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City and worked as a lawyer. He began to hold public office at age 25 and in 1826 entered as an official in the Secretariat (Ministry) of Interior and Exterior Relations. He was chargé d'affaires of Mexican embassies in Prussia and Britain, and briefly served as Secretary (Minister) of Foreign Affairs on two occasions during the second government of President Anastasio Bustamante (April–October 1837 and January–November 1838).

Appointed plenipotentiary for Bustamante to negotiate with France, he could not end the so-called Pastry War. Also in the presidential cabinet he had to occupy temporarily the Ministry of Interior twice over 1838. Jose Joaquin de Herrera, interim president of the Republic, reappointed him Foreign Secretary in December 1844, a position he held until August the following year.

He defended before the Mexican Congress the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which he took part in negotiations as one of the three Mexican representatives and by which peace was agreed on 2 February 1848 after the Mexican–American War. Herrera, already as constitutional president, called him again to exercise the portfolio of Interior and Exterior Relations between November 1848 and May 1849. He was the first Foreign Minister appointed by the interim president Felix Maria Zuloaga, but resigned in July 1858 (six months after taking office) before the confrontation that involved the Reform War. He was prosecuted after the 1861 triumph of the liberal forces led by Benito Juarez. He rejected the appointments and charges for those who had been appointed by Emperor Maximilian I from 1864 and died three years later in Mexico City.

Pedro María de Anaya

Pedro Bernardino María de Anaya y de Álvarez (20 May 1795 – 21 March 1854) was a military officer who served twice as interim president of Mexico from 1847 to 1848. He also played an important role during the Mexican–American War.

Peña (surname)

Peña or de la Peña is a Spanish habitation surname. The origin of the surname can be traced directly to the Middle Ages. The earliest public record of the surname dates to the 13th century in the Valley de Mena (Burgos) in the Kingdom of Castile. The origin of the last name is in present-day Galicia, Spain. The Peñas lived, originally, near a cliff or rocky land. Records indicate that the name derives from the Spanish word peña meaning "rock," "crag" or "cliff."The bearers of this surname proved their noble descent in the Order of Saint James of the Sword in 1626, 1629, 1651 and 1657; in the Order of Calatrava, in 1657, 1687, 1688, 1700 and 1785; in the Order of Alcántara in 1644 and 1693 and in the Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Carlos III, in 1790 and 1838; and many times in the Royal Audiencia and Chancillería of Valladolid; in the Royal Audience of Oviedo, in 1788 and 1795; and in the Royal Company of Midshipmen in 1767.

The Peñas have a great presence in Mexico. There are two towns most notably that are full of Peña families. One is in the town called Talpa, Jalisco and the other is Las Varas, Nayarit. They have been known to be wealthy property owners.

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