Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo

Manuel José de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo (November 29, 1806 – December 30, 1879), was a Brazilian Romantic writer, painter, architect, diplomat and professor, considered to be one of the first Brazilian editorial cartoonists ever. He is the patron of the 32nd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre
Porto-Alegre in an 1869 painting
Porto-Alegre in an 1869 painting
BornManuel José de Araújo Porto-Alegre
November 29, 1806
Rio Pardo, Colonial Brazil
DiedDecember 30, 1879 (aged 73)
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Pen nameTibúrcio do Amarante
OccupationWriter, painter, caricaturist, professor, diplomat, architect
Alma materEscola Nacional de Belas Artes
Period19th century
GenrePoetry, theatre, painting, drawing, editorial cartoon
Literary movementRomanticism
SpouseAna Paulina Delamare
ChildrenCarlota Porto-Alegre, Paulo Porto-Alegre


Porto-Alegre was born Manuel José de Araújo in Rio Pardo, Rio Grande do Sul, to Francisco José de Araújo and Francisca Antônia Viana. He would change his name to Manuel de Araújo Pitangueira during the independence of Brazil, due to nativist causes. Later on, he finally changed it to its definitive form: Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre.

In 1826, he moved to Rio de Janeiro, in order to study painting with Jean-Baptiste Debret at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes (at the time called the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes). He also studied at what is now the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras and took a Medicine course and Philosophy. In 1831, he left Brazil along with Debret to Europe, in order to improve his painting techniques. In 1835, he went to Italy, where he met Gonçalves de Magalhães, another Brazilian poet. He and Magalhães would create in France, in the year of 1837, a short-lived magazine named Niterói, alongside Francisco de Sales Torres Homem. Also in 1837, he becomes history painting teacher at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, in a post that would last until 1848, when he would become a drawing teacher at the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras, and starts doing his first caricatures. In 1838, he married Ana Paulina Delamare, having with her two children: Carlota Porto-Alegre (the future wife of painter Pedro Américo) and future diplomat Paulo Porto-Alegre.

Barão de Santo Ângelo
A herma of Porto-Alegre in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

In 1840 he is named the official painter and decorator of Emperor Pedro II's palace. He decorated the imperial palace in Petrópolis, the wedding of Pedro II with Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies and the aforementioned emperor's coronation. He was decorated with the Order of Christ and the Order of the Rose.

COA Baron of Santo Ângelo
The coat of arms of the Baronage of Santo Ângelo, the same worn by the Araújo family

Reuniting with Gonçalves de Magalhães and Torres Homem, he founded a periodic named Minerva Brasiliense, that lasted from 1843 to 1845. He would publish in this periodic his poem Brasiliana. In 1844, alongside Torres Homem, he founded the humoristic magazine Lanterna Mágica, where he published his caricatures.

In 1849, Porto-Alegre founded the magazine Guanabara, alongside Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Gonçalves Dias. The magazine, considered the official journal of the Romantic movement in Brazil, lasted until 1856.

In 1852, he enters the political career, assuming a position as a substitute councilman in the Municipal Chamber of Rio de Janeiro, lending service in the areas of urbanism and public health. He would exerce this post until 1854, the year when he became the headmaster of the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, lasting until 1857.

In 1860, Porto-Alegre entered the diplomatic career, where he served as the consul of Brazil in the Kingdom of Prussia, in the Kingdom of Saxony and later in Portugal, where he died. (Porto-Alegre's remains were brought to Brazil in 1922.)

He was proclaimed Baron of Santo Ângelo by Emperor Pedro II in 1874, and was a member of the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute.


While in Dresden in 1865, Porto-Alegre wrote a letter to Joaquim Manuel de Macedo, then-tutor of Princess Isabel's children, in which he reveals that he became a Spiritist and was able to psycograph messages from the Underworld, and Isabel would ask him "who was [her] guardian spirit". The letter, now being kept at the Brazilian National Archives, has 12 pages.[1]

Literary works


  • Ode Sáfica (1830 — dedicated to Jean-Baptiste Debret)
  • Canto Inaugural (1855)
  • Brasiliana (1863)
  • Colombo (epic poem — 1866)
Three brazilian writers 1858
From left to right: Gonçalves Dias, Porto-Alegre and Gonçalves de Magalhães, on a picture dating from circa 1858

Theater plays

  • Prólogo Dramático (1837)
  • Angélica e Firmino (1845)
  • A Destruição das Florestas (1845)
  • A Estátua Amazônica (1851)
  • A Restauração de Pernambuco (1852)
  • A Noite de São João (1857)
  • Cenas de Penafiel (1858)
  • Os Judas (1859)
  • O Prestígio da Lei (1859)
  • Os Lobisomens (1862)
  • Os Voluntários da Pátria (1877)


  • Excertos das Memórias e Viagens do Coronel Bonifácio do Amarante (under pen name Tibúrcio do Amarante) (1848)


Famous paintings


Brazilian Jungle, watercolor painting


Study for a Decorative Panel, oil and nankeen



Manuel de Araújo Porto-alegre - estudo para a sagração de Dom Pedro II - c. 1840

Study for Pedro II's Sagration, oil painting


Self-portrait, oil painting; circa 1823

1837 first caricature in Brazil - Regency

This caricature that satirizes the Regency period of the Empire of Brazil (1831–1840) was made by Porto-Alegre, and is considered to be the first Brazilian editorial cartoon ever


  1. ^ Além da Vida magazine, 30th edition. Brazilian National Archives, Rio de Janeiro.

External links

Preceded by
New creation
Coat of arms of the Baron of Santo Ângelo
Baron of Santo Ângelo

1874 — 1879
Succeeded by
Preceded by
New creation
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 32nd chair
Succeeded by
Carlos de Laet (founder)

Araújo or Araujo or Arauxo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐɾɐˈuʒu], Galician pronunciation: [aɾaˈuʃʊ], Spanish: [aɾaˈuxo]) is a Galician and Portuguese surname. The surname Araújo is of toponymic origin derived from a place in the vicinity of the Miño River where a Crusader Knight of French Noble descent, Don Rodrigo Anes, was rewarded with reconquered Iberian lands during the Reconquista. The poisonous plant with white fragrant flowers known in Latin as Araujia sericifera was named after the botanist António de Araújo e Azevedo, 1st Count of Barca (1754–1817). The surname Araújo seems to be a habitational name in Portugal and can be found in and around Portuguese cities such as Coimbra, Elvas, Estremoz, Lisbon, Torre de Moncorvo, Monção, Serpa, Setúbal, and Vila Verde.

Carlos de Laet

Carlos Maximiliano Pimenta de Laet (October 3, 1847 – December 7, 1927) was a journalist, professor and poet from Brazil.

December 30

December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. One day remains until the end of the year.

Patrons and members of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
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