Manuel I[a] (European Portuguese: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; 31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese history distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and in the arts. In spite of Portugal's small size and population in comparison to the great European land powers of France, Italy and even Spain, the classical Portuguese Armada was the largest in the world at the time. During Manuel's reign Portugal was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions, the first in world history to reach global dimensions. The landmark symbol of the period was the Portuguese discovery of Brazil and South America in April 1500.
|King of Portugal|
|Reign||25 October 1495 – 13 December 1521|
|Acclamation||27 October 1495|
|Born||31 May 1469|
|Died||13 December 1521 (aged 52)|
|Father||Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu|
|Mother||Beatrice of Portugal|
Manuel's mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal, whereas his father was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal and the younger brother of King Afonso V of Portugal. In 1495, Manuel succeeded his first cousin, King John II of Portugal, who was also his brother-in-law, as husband to Manuel's sister, Eleanor of Viseu.
Manuel grew up amidst conspiracies of the Portuguese upper nobility against King John II. He was aware of many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, Duke of Viseu, was stabbed to death in 1484 by the king himself.
Manuel thus would have had every reason to worry when he received a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, but his fears were groundless: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne after the death of his son Prince Afonso and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck, he was nicknamed the Fortunate.
Manuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin John II for his support of Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following achievements were realized:
1498 – The discovery of a maritime route to India by Vasco da Gama.
1500 – The discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
1505 – The appointment of Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of India.
1503–1515 – The establishment of monopolies on maritime trade routes to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf by Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, for the benefit of Portugal.
The capture of Malacca in modern-day Malaysia in 1511 was the result of a plan by Manuel I to thwart the Muslim trade in the Indian Ocean by capturing Aden, blocking trade through Alexandria, capturing Ormuz to block trade through the Persian Gulf and Beirut, and capturing Malacca to control trade with China.
All these events made Portugal wealthy from foreign trade as it formally established a vast overseas empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the "Manueline" style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with Ming dynasty of China and the Persian Safavid dynasty. Pope Leo X received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign designed to draw attention to Portugal's newly acquired riches to all of Europe.
In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Portuguese Cortes (the assembly of the kingdom) met only three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights. During his reign, the laws in force in the kingdom of Portugal were recodified with the publication of the Manueline Ordinations.
Manuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to send missionaries to the new colonies, among them Francisco Álvares, and sponsor the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade against the Turks.
His relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of John II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (and widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492 and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence. In the marriage contract, Manuel I agreed to persecute the Jews of Portugal.
In December 1496, it was decreed that all Jews either convert to Christianity or leave the country without their children. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who tried to use coercion and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country.
This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later extended to end in 1534.
During the course of the Lisbon massacre of 1506, people invaded the Jewish Quarter and murdered thousands of accused Jews; the leaders of the riot were executed by Manuel.
Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, thus putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had harbored since the reign of King Ferdinand I (1367–1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 at the age of two years, ended these ambitions.
Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was his first wife's younger sister. Maria died in 1517 but the two sisters were survived by an older sister, Joanna of Castile, who was born in 1479 and had married the Archduke Philip (Maximilian I's son) and had a son, Charles V who would eventually inherit Spain and the Habsburg possessions.
Manuel I was awarded the Golden Rose by Pope Julius II in 1506 and by Pope Leo X in 1514. Manuel I became the first individual to receive more than one Golden Rose after Emperor Sigismund von Luxembourg.
Manuel died of unknown causes on December 13 of 1521 at age 52. The Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.
Negotiations for a marriage between Manuel and Elizabeth of York in 1485 were halted by the death of Richard III of England. He went on to marry three times. His first wife was Isabella of Aragon, princess of Spain and widow of the previous Prince of Portugal Afonso. Next, he married another princess of Spain, Maria of Aragon (his first wife's sister), and then Eleanor of Austria, a niece of his first two wives who married Francis I of France after Manuel's death.
|By Isabella of Aragon (2 October 1470 – 28 August 1498; married in 1497)|
|Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal||23 August 1498||19 July 1500||1 year 10 months||Prince of Portugal, Prince of Asturias and heir to the crowns of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon.|
|By Maria of Aragon (19 June 1482 – 7 March 1517; married in 1500)|
|João, Prince of Portugal (John)||7 June 1502||11 June 1557||55 years||Succeeded the throne as John III, King of Portugal.|
|Infanta Isabel (Elizabeth)||24 October 1503||1 May 1539||35 years||Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.|
|Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice)||31 December 1504||8 January 1538||33 years||Duchess of Savoy by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Savoy.|
|Infante Luís (Louis)||3 March 1506||27 November 1555||49 years||Duke of Beja. Unmarried but had illegitimate descendants, one of them being António, Prior of Crato, a claimant of the throne of Portugal in 1580; see: Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.|
|Infante Fernando (Ferdinand)||5 June 1507||7 November 1534||27 years||Duke of Guarda. Married Guiomar (Guyomare) Coutinho, 5th Countess of Marialva and 3rd Countess of Loulé (died 1534). No surviving issue.|
|Infante Afonso (Alphonse)||23 April 1509||21 April 1540||30 years||Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church|
|Infante Henrique (Henry)||31 January 1512||31 January 1580||68 years||Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who succeeded his grandnephew, King Sebastian (Manuel I's great-grandson), as Cardinal Henry, King of Portugal. His death triggered the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.|
|Died immediately after birth.|
|Infante Duarte (Edward)||7 October 1515||20 September 1540||24 years||Duke of Guimarães and great-grandfather of John IV of Portugal. Married Isabel of Braganza, daughter of Jaime, Duke of Braganza.|
|Infante António (Anthony)||Died immediately after birth.|
|By Eleanor of Austria (15 November 1498 – 25 February 1558; married in 1518)|
|Infante Carlos (Charles)||18 February 1520||14 April 1521||1 year 1 month|
|Infanta Maria (Mary)||18 June 1521||10 October 1577||56 years||Unmarried|
Manuel I of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of BurgundyBorn: 31 May 1469 Died: 13 December 1521
| King of Portugal
| Prince of Portugal
Miguel de Paz
| Duke of Beja
Title next held byLuís
| Duke of Viseu
Title next held byMaria
Cardinal-Infante Afonso (23 April 1509–21 April 1540; Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu]; English: Alphonzo) was a Portuguese infante (prince), son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon.
Afonso was born in Évora on 23 April 1509 and during his life was archbishop of Lisbon (1523) and cardinal.
He died on 21 April 1540, in Lisbon and was buried in Lisbon Cathedral before he was moved to the Jerónimos Monastery.Casa Sommer
Casa Sommer (The Sommer House), the former residence of an entrepreneur, Henrique Sommer, functions as the Municipal Historical Archive of the town of Cascais in Lisbon District, Portugal. It also has space on two floors for occasional exhibitions related to the history of Cascais.
The house was constructed at the end of the 19th Century. It is considered the most important example of a neoclassical private residence in Cascais. The exterior features smooth and curved pediments, fluted pilasters, and triglyphs. The main façade features a rectangular portico, which frames the entrance and creates the balcony on the second floor, which is protected by a balustrade.
After it ceased to be a family home the house was for a time used as a language school and then a children's home, before falling into disrepair for a time. It was then restored by the Municipality of Cascais and officially opened on 7 December 2016. The work, led by the architect Paula Santos, which also included the building’s old coach house, succeeded in adding considerable internal floor space. It included construction of a new underground corridor linking the main building to the coach house, which now houses the Municipal Historical Archive.On display is the restored Foral of Cascais, which was a royal document signed by Manuel I of Portugal whose purpose was to establish a town or village Council and regulate its administration, borders and privileges. A community would need a Foral in order to function as a town. The second oldest book is the Livro de Posturas (Book of Regulations), which recorded the town's rules and regulations.Casa Sommer also runs the Municipal Library of Cascais, where it is possible to obtain publications supported by the municipality, with special emphasis on the town's archaeological, architectural, historical and cultural heritage. There is also a bookshop.Catarina, Duchess of Braganza
Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, Duchess of Braganza by marriage (Portuguese: Catarina; Portuguese pronunciation: [kɐtɐˈɾinɐ], 18 January 1540 – 15 November 1614) was a Portuguese infanta (princess) claimant to the throne following the death of King Henry of Portugal in 1580.
She was the second daughter of Infante Edward, 4th Duke of Guimarães (sixth son of Manuel I of Portugal) and Isabella of Braganza, she was married to John, 6th Duke of Braganza, a descendant of earlier Portuguese monarchs, and head of the most important aristocratic House in Portugal. The duchess had several children, of whom Teodósio of Braganza, was her eldest surviving son.
When King Henry died (1580), Edward's issue were the only surviving legitimate heirs of any of the sons of King Manuel I of Portugal. As the male line is preferred in Portuguese succession before the female one, descendants of Manuel I's daughters (such as king Philip II of Spain) had, in principle, only a weaker claim to the throne than Edward's descendants, to whom Catherine belonged.
Following this principle, the first in line to the throne would have been Catherine's nephew Ranuccio I Farnese of Parma, as that 11-year-old Italian boy was the heir of her elder sister Maria of Guimarães. Catherine was an ambitious, cunning and power-hungry woman who participated in court intrigues, hoping to become the ruler of Portugal and reinforce the position of the House of Braganza as the most powerful noble family in the Iberian Peninsula.
Her cousin, King Philip II of Spain, used his descent as son of Infanta Isabella, eldest daughter of king Manuel I. Her other cousin Anthony, Prior of Crato was a male, though illegitimate. Anthony had already in 1578 claimed the throne.
Catherine had married the Duke of Braganza, John, who himself as a grandson of the late James, Duke of Braganza, was a legitimate heir of Portugal. The Duchess' son, Teodósio of Braganza, would have been their royal heir and successor to the throne.
The duchess's claim was relatively strong, as it was reinforced by her husband's position as one of the legitimate heirs; thus they would both be entitled to hold the kingship. Her claim was also strengthened by the fact that she was living in Portugal, and was a mature woman of forty. However, Portugal had not yet had a generally recognized queen regnant, but only males on the throne. Moreover, she was a younger daughter, thus there was a genealogically senior claimant, her nephew Ranuccio.
Philip II of Spain tried to bribe Catherine's husband, the Duke of Braganza, to abandon his wife's pretensions, offering him the Vice-Kingdom of Brazil, the post of Grand-Master of the Order of Christ, a license to send a personal ship to India every year, and the marriage of one of his daughters to Diego, Prince of Asturias, Philip's heir at that time. The Duke of Braganza, influenced by Catherine, refused the proposal.
She failed in the struggle: the strongest claimant was her cousin Philip II of Spain who wanted to unite Portugal in a personal union with the other Spanish kingdoms under himself. The nationalist party, those who desired Portugal to remain independent, supported her illegitimate cousin Anthony of Crato, not Catherine. Anthony lost the final competition to Philip in the Battle of Alcântara in 1580.
In a couple of years, she lost her husband John of Braganza (1543–1583). She lived on as a widowed lady under the rule of her Castilian cousin and worked hard to pave the way for her descendants to take the Portuguese throne, which finally happened in 1640.
In 1640, Catherine's grandson and direct heir, the then Duke of Braganza, became King John IV of Portugal. The Duchess was then retrospectively acknowledged as the legitimate heir, as result of her descendants obtaining the throne, although in her own lifetime she was only one of several possible heirs. By the unanimous voice of the people John was raised to the throne of Portugal during the revolution effected on December 1, 1640 against the Spanish king, Philip IV.Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal
The Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal, of the House of Aviz, left a lasting mark on Portuguese history and royalty, and European history and royalty as a whole. Manuel married three times, each time providing children. He first married Isabel of Aragon and Castille, followed by Maria of Aragon and Castille and lastly Eleanor of Austria.
His descendants can be found in both reigning and non-reigning royal families all over Europe.
This article deals with the children of Manuel I and in turn their senior heirs.Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães
Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães (October 7, 1515 in Lisbon – September 20, 1540 in Lisbon) was a Portuguese infante (prince); the sixth son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon.Ferdinand of Portugal, Duke of Guarda
Ferdinand of Portugal, Duke of Guarda, (5 June 1507 – 7 November 1534; Portuguese: Fernando; Portuguese pronunciation: [fɨɾˈnɐ̃du]) was a Portuguese infante (prince), the son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his second wife, Maria of Aragon.Gavião, Portugal
Gavião (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɡɐviˈɐ̃w]) is a Portuguese municipality in the District of Portalegre, in the historical region of Alentejo. The population in 2011 was 4,132, in an area of 294.59 km².The municipality is bounded by Mação to the West and North, Nisa to the East, Crato to the Southeast, Ponte de Sor to the Southwest and Abrantes to the West.
Gavião received a foral from King D. Manuel I of Portugal on November the 23rd of 1519, nowadays, that day is celebrated as municipal holiday.Hanno (elephant)
Hanno (Italian: Annone; c. 1510 – 8 June 1516) was the pet white elephant given by King Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X (born Giovanni de' Medici) at his coronation. Hanno, an Asian elephant, came to Rome in 1514 with the Portuguese ambassador Tristão da Cunha and quickly became the Pope's favorite animal. Hanno died two years later from complications of a treatment for constipation with gold-enriched laxative.Infanta Maria of Guimarães
Infanta Maria of Guimarães (12 August 1538 – 7 September 1577) was a Portuguese infanta, daughter of Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães (son of King Manuel I of Portugal), and Isabel of Braganza. She married Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza on November 11, 1565. She was Hereditary Princess of Parma by marriage.Infante Duarte, 5th Duke of Guimarães
The Infante Duarte, 5th Duke of Guimarães (March 1541, in Almeirim – 28 November 1576, in Évora) was a Portuguese infante (prince), son of Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães and his wife, Isabella of Braganza.
Through his father, he was a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal; through his mother, he was a grandson of James, 4th Duke of Braganza.
He was born posthumously and he inherited his father’s titles and estates: the Dukedom of Guimarães. He was one of the most influential nobles during the reigns of Kings John III and Sebastian.
As member of the State Council he voted, in 1569, for the marriage of King Sebastian to Margaret of Valois (who later became Henry IV's first wife) and, in 1574, he escorted King Sebastian in his first trip to Tangiers, in north Africa.
In 1557, when King John III died, Duarte was one of the three legitimate surviving male descendants of King Manuel I of Portugal (together with King Sebastian and Cardinal-Infante Henry).
King Sebastian was jealous of this and several times showed disrespect for Duarte's rank. When the King didn’t invite Duarte to a royal bullfight, in Xabregas (Lisbon), Duarte was quite upset and, finally, he retired to Évora where, some months later, he died single and without issue.
Duarte had two sisters, both married to remarkable Renaissance princes:
Infanta Maria of Guimarães (1538–1577), also known as Maria de Portugal, married to the Italian prince Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza;
Infanta Catherine of Guimarães (1540–1614), also known as Catarina de Portugal, married to the Portuguese prince John, 6th Duke of Braganza.Once she was married to a Portuguese, Infanta Catherine of Guimarães inherited her brother estates and rights to the Dukedom of Guimarães. During the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis, Catherine and her husband, John I of Braganza, were important claimants to the Portuguese throne.João da Silveira
João da Silveira (also known as João da Silva) was the first Captain of Portuguese Ceylon. Silveira was appointed in 1518 under Manuel I of Portugal. He was succeeded by Lopo de Brito.Lopo de Brito
Lopo de Brito was the second Captain of Portuguese Ceylon. Brito succeeded João da Silveira and was appointed in 1518 under Manuel I of Portugal, he was Captain until 1522. He was succeeded by Fernão Gomes de Lemos.Luís of Portugal, Duke of Beja
Infante Luís of Portugal, Duke of Beja (3 March 1506, in Abrantes – 27 November 1555, in Marvila, in Lisbon) was the second son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his second wife Maria of Aragon (the third daughter of the Catholic Monarchs). He participated in the Conquest of Tunis.Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu
Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu (18 June 1521 – 10 October 1577 in Lisbon; Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈɾiɐ]) was an Infanta of Portugal, the only daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal and Eleanor of Austria. A noted patron of the arts, Maria's personal wealth rivaled that of the king, her brother (John III of Portugal), making her the richest woman in Portugal and one of the richest in Europe.Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal
Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Prince of Asturias (Portuguese: Miguel da Paz de Trastâmara e Avis, Portuguese pronunciation: [mi ɡɛɫ dɐ ˈpaʃ]; Spanish: Miguel de la Paz de Avís y Trastámara, "Michael of Peace") (23 August 1498 – 19 July 1500) was a Portuguese royal prince, son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his first wife, Isabella of Aragon, Princess of Asturias (1470-1498).Mustafa Bayram
Mustafa Bayram was from Yemen and Selman Reis' nephew. After Selman Reis fell into a dispute with Hayreddin al-Rumi in 1528, he was murdered later on by al-Rumi. The two had fights because Selman Reis was relieved of the duty to lead the Ottoman Navy in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. However he refused to step down and continued to lead the navy. Nonetheless, the post had been given to al-Rumi. Before Selman Reis was killed, he had given an order to Mustafa Bayram and Hoca Sefer. Under Mustafa Bayram's supervision, they would go to Diu and help Bahadur Shah of Gujarat to fight against the Portuguese Empire.
After Mustafa Bayram had received the order from Selman Reis, he did all necessary preparations and led his fleet to Diu with Hoca Sefer. Selman Reis could not trust anyone else but except for Mustafa Bayram, his nephew and Hoca Sefer, his disciple because the Battle of Diu (1509) had not been successful and in this way they had to come back with a great victory. It was not only Diu and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat were in danger. Manuel I of Portugal threatened the whole Muslim world with destroying Mecca and Jeddah.In the Siege of Diu (1531), Nuno da Cunha was leading the Portuguese Empire's navy and Mustafa Bayram was leading the Ottoman Empire's navy and the defenders of the Gujarat Sultanate. Mustafa Bayram had defended Diu and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat to be able to fulfill his uncle's, Selman Reis', last order with Hoca Sefer. The Portuguese Empire was in this way defeated by Muslim firepower.Mustafa Bayram refused all positions, assets and properties that they wanted to give him. He went back to Yemen and made his plan with Hoca Sefer to take revenge. Mustafa Bayram ordered his men to hunt down and kill al-Rumi. Then he claimed to be Selman Reis' successor. However the political situation forced him to abandon Yemen and disappear. Mustafa Bayram, the hero of Diu and the man who saved Islam's honor from Manuel I of Portugal, then sailed away and continued his life as a pirate.Persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal
On 5 December 1496, King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims to take effect by the end of October of the next year.Prince of Portugal
Prince of Portugal (Portuguese: Príncipe de Portugal), officially Hereditary Prince of Portugal (Príncipe Herdeiro de Portugal), or Princess of Portugal, was the title held by the heirs apparent and heirs presumptive to the Kingdom of Portugal, from 1433 to 1645.
The title differs from the title Infante of Portugal, which is the title given to all children of the monarch except the first in the line of succession, and is often translated into English as "prince".Ribeira Palace
Ribeira Palace (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʀiˈbɐi̯ɾɐ]; Portuguese: Paço da Ribeira) was the main residence of the Kings of Portugal, in Lisbon, for around 250 years. Its construction was ordered by King Manuel I of Portugal when he found the Royal Alcáçova of São Jorge unsuitable. The palace complex underwent numerous reconstructions and reconfigurations from the original Manueline design, ending with its final Mannerist and Baroque form.
The Ribeira Palace, as well as most of the city of Lisbon, was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. After the earthquake, the reigning monarch, King José I, suffered from claustrophobia and chose to live the rest of his life in a group of pavilions in the hills of Ajuda, and thus the palace was never rebuilt.
Today, Lisbon's primary square, the Praça do Comércio, is situated on the site of the former palace. The square is still popularly referred to as the Terreiro do Paço ("Palace Yard/Square"), reminiscent of the now destroyed royal residence.
|Ancestors of Manuel I of Portugal|
|House of Burgundy (1139–1383)|
|House of Aviz (1385–1580)|
|House of Habsburg (1581–1640)|
|House of Braganza (1640–1910)|
Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.
* also an infante of Castile and León, Aragon, Sicily and Naples, § also an infante of Spain and an archduke of Austria, # also an infante of Spain, ‡ also an imperial prince of Brazil, ¶ also a prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke in Saxony, ¤ title removed in 1920 as their parents' marriage was deemed undynastic, ƒ claimant infante