Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel Ávila Camacho (Spanish pronunciation: [maˈnwel ˈaβila kaˈmatʃo]; 24 April 1897 – 13 October 1955) was a Mexican politician and military who served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946. Although he did participate in the Mexican Revolution and achieved a high rank, he came to the presidency of Mexico because of his direct connection to General Lázaro Cárdenas, as a right-hand man, serving as his Chief of his General Staff during the Mexican Revolution and afterwards.[1] He was called affectionately by Mexicans "The Gentleman President" (“El Presidente Caballero”).[2] As president, he pursued "national policies of unity, adjustment, and moderation."[3] His administration completed the transition from military to civilian leadership, ended confrontational anticlericalism, reversed the push for socialist education, and restored a working relationship with the U.S. during World War II.[4]

Manuel Ávila Camacho
Mexican President Avila Camacho in Monterrey, Mexico - NARA - 196060
Camacho in 1943.
45th President of Mexico
In office
1 December 1940 – 30 November 1946
Preceded byLázaro Cárdenas
Succeeded byMiguel Alemán Valdés
Personal details
Born24 April 1897
Teziutlán, Puebla, Mexico
Died13 October 1955 (aged 58)
Estado de México, Mexico
NationalityMexican
Political partyInstitutional Revolutionary Party
Spouse(s)Soledad Orozco
Military service
Allegiance Mexico
Branch/service Mexican Army
Years of service1914-1933
RankBrigadier General

Early life and education

Manuel Ávila was born in Teziutlán, a small but economically important town in Puebla, to middle-class parents, Manuel Ávila Castillo and Eufrosina Camacho Bello.[5] His older brother Maximino Ávila Camacho was a more dominant personality. There were several other siblings, among them a sister, María Jovita Ávila Camacho, and several brothers. Two of his brothers, Maximino Ávila Camacho and Rafael Ávila Camacho, served as governors of Puebla. Manuel Ávila Camacho did not receive a university degree, although he studied at the National Preparatory School.

Early career

He joined the revolutionary army in 1914 as a Second Lieutenant and reached the rank of colonel by 1920. The same year, he served as the Chief of Staff of the state of Michoacán under Lázaro Cárdenas and became his close friend. He opposed the 1923 rebellion of former revolutionary general Adolfo de la Huerta.[6] In 1929, he fought under General Cárdenas against the Escobar Rebellion, the last serious military rebellion of disgruntled revolutionary generals, and the same year, he achieved the rank of Brigadier General. He was married to Soledad Orozco García (1904-1996), who was born in Zapopan, Jalisco, and was a member of a prominent family in Jalisco.

After his military service, Ávila entered the public arena in 1933 as the executive officer of the Secretariat of National Defense and became Secretary of National Defense in 1937. In 1940, he was elected president of Mexico, after he had appointed to represent the party that later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party.

Camacho won the controversial presidential election over right-wing candidate and revolutionary-era General Juan Andreu Almazán.

Presidency

End of conflict between church and state

PRI logo (Mexico)
Institutional Revolutionary Party logo

Camacho was a professed Catholic and said, "I am a believer". Since the revolution, all presidents until 1940 had been anticlerical.[7] During Camacho's term, the conflict between the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico and the Mexican state largely ended.

Domestic policy

Domestically, he protected the working class, creating the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in 1943. He worked to reduce illiteracy. He continued land reform and declared a rent freeze to benefit low-income citizens.

He promoted election reform and passed a new electoral law passed in 1946 that made it difficult for opposition parties of the far right and the far left to operate legally. The law established the following criteria that needed to be fulfilled by any political organization in order to be recognized as a political party:

  • must have at least 10,000 active members in 10 states;
  • must exist at least three years before elections;
  • must agree with the principles established in the constitution;
  • must not form alliances or be subordinated to international organizations or foreign political parties.[8]

On January 18, 1946, he had the Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM) renamed to its current name, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The Mexican army had been a sector of the PRM; that sector was eliminated from the organization of the PRI.[9]

Economically, he pursued the country's industrialization, which benefited only a small group, and income inequality increased.[10] World War II stimulated Mexican industry, which grew by approximately 10% annually between 1940 and 1945, and Mexican raw materials fueled the US war industry.[11] In agriculture, his administration invited the Rockefeller Foundation to introduction Green Revolution technology to bolster Mexico's agricultural productivity.[12]

In education, Camacho reversed Lázaro Cárdenas's policy of socialist education in Mexico and had the constitutional amendments that mandated it repealed.[13]

Foreign policy

Franklin D Roosevelt Manuel Avila Camacho Monterrey
Manuel Ávila Camacho, in Monterrey, having dinner with US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
BraceroProgram
The first braceros arriving in Los Angeles, California by train in 1942. Photograph by Dorothea Lange.
P47 Escuadron 201 mexico
Mexico provided military support for the Allies in World War II, with air Squadron 201

During his term, Camacho faced the difficulty of governing during World War II. After two of Mexico's ships (Potrero del Llano and Faja de Oro) carrying oil were destroyed by German submarines in the Gulf of Mexico,[14] Camacho declared war against the Axis powers on 22 May 1942. Mexican participation in World War II was mainly limited to an airborne squadron, the 201st (Escuadrón 201), to fight the Japanese in the Pacific. The squadron consisted of 300 men, and after receiving training in Texas, it was sent to the Philippines on 27 March 1945. On 7 June 1945, its missions started. By the end of the war, 5 Mexican soldiers had lost their lives in combat. However, with its short participation in the war, Mexico belonged to the victorious nations and had thus gained the right to participate in the postwar international conferences.[15]

Mexico's joining the conflict on the side of the Allies improved relations with the United States. Mexico provided both raw material for the conflict and also 300,000 guest workers under the Bracero program to replace some of the Americans who had left to fight in the war. Mexico also resumed diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, which had been broken off during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas. In 1945, Mexico signed the United Nations Charter and the following year, it became the headquarters of the Inter-American Conference about War and Peace.

Conflicts with the United States that had existed in the decades before his presidential term were resolved. Especially in the early years of World War II, Mexican-US relations were excellent. The United States provided Mexico with financial aid for improvements on the railway system and the construction of the Pan American Highway. Moreover, Mexican foreign debt was reduced.[16]

Later years and death

When his term ended in 1946, Camacho retired to work on his farm.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Krauze, Enrique. Mexico: Biography of Power. New York: Harper Collins 1997, p. 494.
  2. ^ Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power, chapter title, 491.
  3. ^ Howard F. Cline Mexico: Revolution to Evolution: 1940-1960. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1963, p. 153.
  4. ^ Roderic Ai Camp, "Manuel Avila Camacho" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 1, p. 244. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
  5. ^ LaFrance, David G. "Manuel Ávila Camacho" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, p. 116.
  6. ^ Camp, "Manuel Avila Camacho", p. 244.
  7. ^ Tuck, Jim. "Mexico's marxist guru: Vicente Lombardo Toledano (1894–1968)". Mexconnect. 9 October 2008.
  8. ^ Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2003). Historia de México II. Pearson Educación. p. 250.
  9. ^ Cline, Howard F. Mexico, 1940-1960: Revolution to Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press 1963, p. 153.
  10. ^ Beezley, William (2010). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. p. 501.
  11. ^ Beezley, William (2010). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. p. 500.
  12. ^ Cotter, Joseph. Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico 1880-2002. Westport CT: Prager 2003.
  13. ^ Camp, "Manuel Avila Camacho," p. 244.
  14. ^ http://uboat.net/allies/merchants/1690.html. Retrieved 17 November 2013. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2003). Historia de México II. Pearson Educación. pp. 257–258.
  16. ^ Beezley, William (2010). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press. p. 537.
  17. ^ Camp, "Manel Avila Camacho", p. 244.

Further reading

  • Camp, Roderic Ai. Mexican Political Biographies. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1982.
  • Krauze, Enrique. Mexico: Biography of Power. New York: Harper Collins 1997, chapter 17: "Manuel Ávila Camacho: The Gentleman President", pp. 491–525.
  • Medina, Luis. Historia de la Revolución Mexicana, periodo 1940-1952: Del cardenismo al avilacamachismo. Mexico City: Colegio de México 1978.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Lázaro Cárdenas
President of Mexico
1940–1946
Succeeded by
Miguel Alemán Valdés
1940 Mexican general election

General elections were held in Mexico on 7 July 1940. The presidential elections were won by Manuel Ávila Camacho, who received 93.9% of the vote. In the Chamber of Deputies election, the Party of the Mexican Revolution won all but one of the 173 seats.The campaign was very intense, with clashes between Camacho's and Almazán's supporters becoming common throughout the electoral process.

The 7 July election was the most violent election in Mexican history, as violent clashes between Camacho's and Almazán's supporters on election day ended with at least 47 deaths and 400 people injured.

1946 Mexican general election

General elections were held in Mexico on 7 July 1946. The presidential elections were won by Miguel Alemán Valdés, who received 77.9% of the vote. In the Chamber of Deputies election, the Institutional Revolutionary Party won 141 of the 147 seats.

1955 in Mexico

Events in the year 1955 in Mexico.

Camacho

Camacho is a Spanish surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Alicia Sánchez-Camacho, a Spanish politician

Carlos Camacho, a Guamanian politician

Carlos Camacho (actor), a Colombian actor

Carlos S. Camacho, a Northern Mariana Islands politician

Diego Camacho, a Bolivian tennis player

Diego Camacho Quesada, a Spanish football player

Eliodoro Camacho, a Bolivian politician

Ernie Camacho, an American baseball player

Felix Perez Camacho, a Guamanian politician and the son of Carlos Camacho

Guilherme Camacho, a Brazilian football player, currently playing for Corinthians

Héctor Camacho ("Macho" Camacho), a Puerto Rican boxer

Héctor Camacho, Jr., a Puerto Rican boxer and the son of Héctor Camacho

Ignacio Camacho, a Spanish football player, currently playing for Wolfsburg

Jessica Camacho, American actress

Joaquín Camacho, Colombian politician

Jorge Camacho (disambiguation), multiple people

José Antonio Camacho, a former Spanish football player and former Spanish national team manager

Juan Camacho (disambiguation), multiple people

Manuel Ávila Camacho, President of Mexico 1940-1946

Manuel Camacho Solís, a Mexican politician

Mark Camacho, a Canadian actor

Nemesio Camacho, a Colombian businessman and politician.

Richard Camacho, a Dominican singer-songwriter and dancer

Rodolfo Camacho, a Colombian road cyclist

Salvador Camacho, a Colombian economist

Sidronio Camacho, a Mexican soldier

Steve Camacho, a West Indian cricketer

Yashua Camacho, a Dominican singer-songwriter and dancer

Camacho (wrestler), a Tongan-American professional wrestler

Campo Marte

Campo Marte is a venue under the administration of the Secretariat of National Defense. It is used for military and government events, as well as equestrian events. Campo Marte is located next to the National Auditorium in Chapultepec Park, Mexico City.

Carlos A. Madrazo

Carlos Alberto Madrazo Becerra (July 7, 1915 – June 4, 1969) was a reformist Mexican politician.

Madrazo was born on the ranchería of Parrilla, in the state of Tabasco, to Píoquinto Madrazo López, a businessman, and Concepción Becerra, a schoolteacher. His childhood was marked by poverty, but his mother taught him the will to overcome adversity. He was an avid learner, studying at the José N. Rovirosa Institute, where his oratory skills led to his being selected to give a speech on Benito Juárez on the hero's birthday. Tabasco governor Ausencio Conrado Cruz and Tomás Garrido Canabal, president of the pro-Calles Central Resistance League, both present as the event, were impressed with his eloquence. Following the event, Garrido Canabal invited Madrazo on his statewide speaking tours, where he became known as "the young tribune".

Madrazo received a scholarship from the state government of Tabasco and studied at Juárez University where he organized the Confederation of Southeastern Socialist Students (Confederación de Estudiantes Socialistas del Sureste), which also drew support from peasants and labor. He also wrote for the newspaper Rendición.

He moved to Mexico City to continue his studies at the National Preparatory School, and in 1937 represented the Society of National Preparatory School Students as their president at the Second Congress of Mexican Socialist Students in Uruapan, Michoacán. In the same year, he earned his law degree from the National Autonomous University and joined the Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM, later renamed PRI), becoming its president from 1938 to 1939. He also presided over the Confederation of Mexican Youth. In 1942 he was appointed General Director of Social Action of the Mexican Federal District (DF) and in 1944 became Director of the National School of Archivists and Librarians.

In 1943, he became a federal deputy of the second electoral district of the DF, but as a supporter of Javier Rojo Gómez, who aspired to succeed President Manuel Ávila Camacho, he was targeted by Rojo Gómez's rivals, who implicated him in a scheme to disperse fraudulent Bracero Program cards to would-be migrants. As a result, he was imprisoned.

In 1952, Madrazo was named Chief of the Legal Departament of the Sugarcane Commission. The same year his son Roberto Madrazo, who would later go on to represent the PRI in the 2006 Mexican presidential election, was born. In 1954 he wrote Anécdotas de Personajes Famosos ("Anecdotes of Famous People"). He represented the Tabasco state government in Mexico City, and supported Adolfo López Mateos's successful bid for the presidency, campaigning on his behalf. When López Mateos arrived in Tabasco, he proposed the development of the Southeast of Mexico as a possibility for the country's prime source of income.

On April 20, 1958, Madrazo took the oath of candidacy for the office of Governor of Tabasco, and was elected in 1959. His governorship saw public improvements such as 100 kilometers of roadway and the opening of hundreds of schools and hospitals in addition to private developments such as milk rehydration and pasteurization plants and the industrialization of the cacao industry at Cárdenas.

Following his governorship, President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz appointed Madrazo to the presidency of the PRI, hoping that his energetic but loyal leadership would placate the youthful faction of the party without disrupting the old guard's control of the party. But Madrazo took his appointment as a mandate to democratize the party. He replaced old and corrupt party officials with dynamic members of the new generation, and tried to institute such reforms as open primaries for local offices, and a "Commission of Honor" to investigate and punish political corruption. These proposals lay bare the empty nature of Mexican "democracy" and earned him enemies within the PRI, and in 1965 he was forced to resign his leadership of the party.

After being relieved of his duties, he returned to his position as the head of the national librarian school. He continued to be active in the PRI, beginning "an unprecedented campaign of sniping at the government from the sidelines", whence he "gathered a considerable body of opinion behind him".In 1969 he died in the Mexicana Flight 704 plane crash on Pico del Fraile Hill in Monterrey, Nuevo León, with his wife Graciela Pintado.

Ezequiel Padilla Peñaloza

Ezequiel Padilla Peñaloza (December 31, 1890 – September 6, 1971) was a Mexican statesman. Born in Coyuca de Catalán, Guerrero, he served in the Senate, as Attorney General in 1928, as Secretary of Education from 1928 to 1930, as ambassador to Hungary from 1930 to 1932, and as Secretary of Foreign Affairs from 1940 to 1945.

His appointment to the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs by President Manuel Ávila Camacho marked an end to the Post-Revolutionary domination of politicians from the North of the country. With his co-cabinet member Miguel Alemán Valdés (Secretary of the Interior), he "gave Mexico the most progressive foreign policy and the most orderly internal government in the nation's history." By 1941, he had successfully settled all foreign claims against the government stemming from the Cárdenas-era expropriations. He negotiated a favorable economic treaty, fixed the peso to the United States dollar, and secured loans for industrial development from the Export-Import Bank of the United States.

During World War II, he was a strong proponent of inter-American unity and led conferences of the foreign ministers of countries of the Americas to this end. He was criticized by some for being too pro-American.

He emerged alongside Alemán as a prime contender for the presidency in 1946. He was better-known abroad than his rival, and was considered to have stronger tendencies toward democracy. However, his association with the United States made him unpopular in the left wing of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and Alemán won the party's nomination. He ran as an independent candidate for the presidency in 1946, receiving 443,537 votes. Though Alemán received over three times the number of votes, Padilla's total was respectable, considering the PRI's hegemony at the time. Also, the fact that he was not exiled after the campaign is considered something of a victory for Mexican democracy, which had been intolerant of opposition parties and candidates since solidification of the PRI.

Folks-Ligue

The Jewish People's League in Mexico (Yiddish: אידישע פאָלקס ליגע אין מעקסיקא‎, Idishe Folks-Ligue in Meksike, popularly known as Folks-Ligue, Spanish: Liga Popular Israelita de México) was a communist Jewish organization in Mexico. The organization was founded by members of Gezbir in 1942, in response to the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Initially the name of the organization was Jewish League to Help the Soviet Union (Yiddish: אידישע ליגע פארן סאוועטן פארבאנד‎, Idishe Ligue farn Sovetn Farband, Spanish: Liga Israelita pro Ayuda a la Unión Soviética, abbreviated LIPAUS). It was commonly known as Di Ligue in the Jewish community. The organization had good relationship with the Jewish Central Committee of Mexico, as several members of Di Ligue were also part of the Central Committee. Di Ligue organized bazaars for fundraising to support Soviet orphans and families affected by the war. Di Ligue published the newspaper Fraivelt ('Free World').In January 1945 the name was changed to Idishe Folks-Ligue, a move that indicated the organization would be open to Jews of different political tendencies. At the time the communists sought to broaden their base in the struggle against fascism. Mordkhe Korona, a Zionist, was the chairman of the organization during this period. The Fraivelt editor Boris Rosen represented Folks-Ligue in the Jewish Central Committee.Representatives of the Jewish Central Committee, World Jewish Congress, Nidkhei Israel Congregation, the United Zionist Organization and Histadrut participated in the inaugural ceremony of Folks-Ligue at its new office on Paseo de la Reforma 503 on January 21, 1945. The Soviet ambassador Konstantin Umansky held a speech at the meeting (his last public speech before his death). Portraits of Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin and Mexican president Manuel Ávila Camacho decorated the meeting hall. During this period three flags were displayed at Folks-Ligue meetings; the Mexican, Soviet and Zionist, and the Hatikva was played alongside Mexican and Soviet national anthems at ceremonies of the movement.Artist Fanny Rabel had her first exhibition at the Folks-Ligue office in 1945. Frida Kahlo wrote the presentation for the exhibition of twenty four oils, thirteen drawings and eight engravings.After the end of the Second World War, the influence of Folks-Ligue declined sharply as European Jewish refugees began leaving Mexico. The organization pulled out of the Jewish Central Committee, in response to Zionist hegemony in that body. As of the 1950s the office of Folks-Ligue was located at Pino Suarez, 27.

Jaime Torres Bodet

Jaime Mario Torres Bodet (17 April 1902 – 13 May 1974) was a prominent Mexican politician and writer who served in the executive cabinet of three Presidents of Mexico.

A native of Mexico City, in the 1920s he was a prominent member of the literary group Los Contemporáneos.

Torres Bodet was appointed Secretary of Public Education (1943–46) by President Manuel Ávila Camacho; he then served as the Secretary of Foreign Affairs (1946–1951) under President Miguel Alemán Valdés. Later, in 1958–64, he was again appointed to serve as Secretary of Public Education, this time under President Adolfo López Mateos.

Between 1929 and the outbreak of the Second World War, Torres Bodet held diplomatic positions in Madrid, The Hague, Paris, Buenos Aires and Brussels.

He served as director-general of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) from 1948 to 1952.

From 1955 to 1958 he was Ambassador to France.

He received the Medal of Honor Belisario Domínguez from the Senate in 1971.

He was also a member of the Mexican Language Academy (the national correspondent agency to the Spanish Royal Academy) and of the National College.

Gravely ill, Torres Bodet committed suicide in Mexico City on 13 May 1974.

Luis Enrique Erro

Luis Enrique Erro (January 7, 1897 – January 18, 1955) was a Mexican astronomer, politician, and educational reformer.

Born in Mexico City, Erro studied civil engineering and accounting, among other subjects. He occupied the post of head of the Department of Technical Education until 1934. He revamped Mexico’s system of technical education in 1932, when he established the Advanced School of Mechanical Engineers and Electricians (Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Mecánicos y Electricistas) and the Advanced School of Construction (Escuela Superior de Construcción). He also helped create the National Polytechnic Institute in 1936.

In 1940, he was invited to become a member of the administration of President Manuel Ávila Camacho, with whom he collaborated on a project to build an observatory in Tonantzintla, Puebla, where there existed atmospheric conditions favorable for astronomical studies. He renounced his post as director of this observatory in 1947 and returned to Mexico City, where he dedicated himself to writing articles on astronomy for the newspaper Excélsior. As an amateur astronomer, he is also noted for his study of southern variable stars.Due to a heart condition, he was interned for several weeks, during which time he wrote a novel, Los pies descalzos ("Bare feet"), which concerns Emiliano Zapata. He died soon after completing this work.

Planetario Luis Enrique Erro, in Mexico City, is named after him, as is lunar crater Erro.

Lázaro Cárdenas

Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (Local Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlasaɾo ˈkaɾðenas] (listen); May 21, 1895 – October 19, 1970) was a general in the Constitutionalist Army during the Mexican Revolution and a statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940. He is best known for nationalization of the oil industry in 1938 and the creation of Pemex, the government oil company. He also revived agrarian reform in Mexico, expropriating large landed estates and distributing land to small holders in collective holdings (ejidos).

Although he was not from the state of Sonora, whose generals had dominated Mexican politics in the 1920s, Cárdenas was loyal to Sonoran general and former president Plutarco Elías Calles (1924–28). Calles had founded the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), in the wake of the assassination of Sonoran general Alvaro Obregón, who served as president (1920–24) and was president-elect in 1928. Cárdenas was Calles's hand-picked candidate in 1934 to run for the presidency. While Calles did not hold the title of president, he had remained the power behind the presidency, and expected to maintain that role when Cárdenas took office. However, Cárdenas out-maneuvered him politically and eventually forced the former president into exile, establishing Cárdenas's legitimacy and power in his own right during his remaining time in office. In 1938, Cárdenas transformed the structure of the party Calles founded, creating the Partido de la Revolución Mexicana (PRM), based on sectoral representation of peasants via peasant leagues, unionized workers, professionals, and the Mexican army. Cárdenas's incorporation of the army into the party structure was a deliberate move to diminish the power of the military and prevent their traditional intervention in politics through coups d'état. An important political achievement of Cárdenas was his complete surrender of power in December 1940 to his elected successor, Manuel Ávila Camacho, who was a political moderate without a distinguished military record.

Cárdenas has been revered as "the greatest constructive radical of the Mexican Revolution," for reviving its ideals, but he has also been criticized as an "authoritarian populist." According to numerous opinion polls and analysts, Cárdenas is considered as the most popular Mexican president of the 20th century.

Manuel Uribe y Troncoso

Manuel Uribe y Troncoso (17 June 1867, Toluca, Estado de México – 21 January 1959, New York City, United States) was a Mexican ophthalmologist. A joint founder of the Mexican Ophthalmology Society, he was a renowned expert on the physiology and diseases of the eye. In 1943 President Manuel Ávila Camacho appointed him one of the founding members of the Colegio Nacional.

Maximino Fernández Ávila

Maximino Alejandro Fernández Ávila (30 April 1968 – july 26 2018) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico. As of 2014 he served as Deputy of the LIX Legislature of the Mexican Congress as a plurinominal representative.Nieto de Maximino Ávila Camacho quien es hermano del ex presidente de la República Manuel Ávila Camacho.

Su trayectoria inicia en el ámbito administrativo, con el cargo de secretario particular en la dirección de adquisiciones de almacenes e inventatrios de la SEGOB en 1990, depués en 1997 al 2000 fungió como Asesor de la LVI legislatura federal.

En 2002 se integró al congreso como diputado Local en la ALDF por el distrito VIII en la delegación Gustavo A. Madero. Al mismo tiempo, fungió como presidente de la Mesa Directiva en la Asamblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal y como presidente de la Comisión de Protección al Empleo y Previsión Social; además de ser integrante de la Comisión de Desarrollo Urbano y Reservas Territoriales.

Se ha desempeñado en campañas sobre el ambiente organizadas por el PVEM en el DF, como promotor, y también ha participadó en campañas electorales del PVEM como en 1994.

Miembro activo del partido desde 1994,se desempeñó como coordinador de la elección local del Estado de México en 2003, en dicho año fungió como secretario de organización B de la Comisión Ejecutiva Nacional de PVEM.

No obstante ha colaborado en programas de concientización sobre el cuidadao del medio ambiente en el DF, en la elaboración de proyectos ambientales en diferentes estados de la república mexicana y en diversos eventos nacionales referentes al tema del medio ambiente eincluso como asesor de Inbursa.

Maximino Ávila Camacho

Maximino Ávila Camacho (1891 in Teziutlán, Puebla – 1945 in Mexico City) was a Constitutionalist Army in the Mexican Revolution and afterwards politician who served as governor of Puebla from 1937 to 1941 and as secretary of Public Works in the cabinet of his brother, President Manuel Ávila Camacho.

Miguel Alemán Valdés

Miguel Alemán Valdés (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel aleˈman]; September 29, 1900 – May 14, 1983) was a Mexican politician who served a full term as the President of Mexico from 1946 to 1952, the first civilian president after a string of revolutionary generals. His administration was characterized by Mexico's rapid industrialization, often called the Mexican Miracle, but also for a high level of personal enrichment for himself and his associates. His presidency was the first of a new generation of Mexican leaders, who had not directly participated in the Mexican Revolution, and many in his cabinet were also young, university-educated civilians.

Pascual Ortiz Rubio

Pascual Ortiz Rubio (Spanish pronunciation: [pasˈkwal oɾˈtis ˈruβjo]; 10 March 1877 – 4 November 1963) was a Mexican politician and the President of Mexico from 1930 to 1932. He was one of three Mexican presidents to serve out the six-year term (1928-1934) of assassinated president-elect Álvaro Obregón, while former president Plutarco Elías Calles retained power in a period known as the Maximato. Calles was so blatantly in control of the government that Ortiz Rubio resigned the presidency in protest in 1932.

Tonalá, Chiapas

Tonalá is one of the 119 municipalities of Chiapas, in southern Mexico.

As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 84,594, up from 78,438 as of 2005. It covers an area of 1766.2 km².

As of 2010, the city of Tonalá had a population of 35,322. Other than the city of Tonalá, the municipality had 960 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: Paredón (6,126), Tres Picos (4,403), Cabeza de Toro (3,413), classified as urban, and Manuel Ávila Camacho (Ponte Duro) (1,778), Ignacio Ramírez (1,689), Huizachal (1,421), Doctor Belisario Domínguez (La Barra) (1,043), San Luqueño (1,016), and Morelos (Mojarras) (1,010), classified as rural.

Toreo Parque Central

Toreo Parque Central (literally, "Central Park Bullring") is an enclosed shopping center in Greater Mexico City built on the site of the former bullring Toreo de Cuatro Caminos. It is located just outside the Mexico City limits at Blvd. Manuel Ávila Camacho 5 in the Lomas de Sotelo neighborhood, in Naucalpan de Juárez, State of Mexico. It is not anchored by a department store, however at 70,000 square metres (750,000 sq ft) it is still one of the largest malls in the metro area containing a Selecto Chedraui hypermarket, Sanborn's, H&M, and Cinepolis.

Villa Corzo

Villa Corzo is a city and one of the 119 municipalities of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. The city of Villa Corzo (the municipal seat is located at (16 ° 11'N 93 ° 16'W / 16,183, 93,267 and 580 meters.)

As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 74,477, up from 68,685 as of 2005. It covers an area of 4,026.7 km².

As of 2010, the city of Villa Corzo had a population of 10,841. Other than the city of Villa Corzo, the municipality had 1,985 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: El Parral (10,865), San Pedro Buenavista (8,969), Revolución Mexicana (7,989), Valle Morelos (3,328), Nuevo Vicente Guerrero (2,906), classified as urban, and Jericó (Porvenir) (2,467), 1ro. de Mayo (2,381), Emiliano Zapata (1,496), Manuel Ávila Camacho (1,362), and Monterrey (1,086), classified as rural.

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