Mantellisaurus

Mantellisaurus is a genus of iguanodontian dinosaur that lived in the Barremian and early Aptian ages of the Early Cretaceous Period of Europe. Its remains are known from Belgium (Bernissart), England and possibly Germany. The type and only species is M. atherfieldensis. Formerly known as Iguanodon atherfieldensis, the new genus Mantellisaurus was erected for the species by Gregory Paul in 2007. According to Paul, Mantellisaurus was more lightly built than Iguanodon and more closely related to Ouranosaurus, making Iguanodon in its traditional sense paraphyletic. It is known from many complete and almost complete skeletons. The genus name honours Gideon Mantell, the discoverer of Iguanodon.

Mantellisaurus
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous, Aptian 125 Ma
Isle of Wight Mantellisaurus
Holotype skeleton, Natural History Museum, London
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Ornithopoda
Superfamily: Hadrosauroidea
Genus: Mantellisaurus
Paul, 2007
Species:
M. atherfieldensis
Binomial name
Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis
Hooley, 1925
Synonyms

Description

Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis Steveoc
Restoration based on the holotype specimen, NHMUK R5764.

Mantellisaurus was a lightly constructed iguanodont. Compared to Iguanodon bernissartensis, Mantellisaurus was smaller, estimated at 750 kilograms (1,650 lb) in weight. Its forelimbs were proportionally shorter than those of I. bernissartensis. In Mantellisaurus the forelimbs were about half the length of the hindlimbs whereas they were about 70 percent the length of the hindlimbs in I. bernissartensis. Due to the short length of its forelimbs and the shortness of its body, Paul proposed that it was primarily bipedal, only going on all fours when standing still or moving slowly.[1]

Discovery

Mantellisaurus
Drawing of the holotype skull from Hooley's original description

The holotype fossil, NHMUK R5764, was originally discovered by Reginald Walter Hooley in 1914 in the upper Vectis Formation of southern England and reported upon in 1917. He posthumously named it Iguanodon atherfieldensis in 1925. Atherfield is the name of a village on the southwest shore of the Isle of Wight where the fossil was found. Synonyms include Dollodon and possibly Proplanicoxa.[2]

Specimen IRSNB 1551

Dollodon bampingi Steveoc86
Restoration based on specimen IRSNB 1551

Specimen IRSNB 1551 from the Sainte-Barbe Clays, Belgium, became the second mounted skeleton of a non-avian dinosaur made primarily out of actual bone when put on display by Louis Dollo in 1884. This specimen was originally assigned to Iguanodon mantelli by George Albert Boulenger in 1881, but was in 1986 thought to pertain to Iguanodon atherfieldensis by David Bruce Norman. The specimen was assigned to its own genus and species, Dollodon bampingi, by Gregory S. Paul in 2008. The genus was named after Dollo, who first described the remains, and the specific name was in honour of popular science writer Daniel Bamping, who assisted Paul in his investigations.

Dollodon
One of the first-ever mounted dinosaur specimens (IRSNB 1551), Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

Paul noted several differences between the Mantellisaurus type (NHMUK R5764) and IRSNB 1551. The Mantellisaurus type had proportionally shorter forelimbs with a larger pelvis and he argued it was probably more bipedal, whereas IRSNB 1551 was more likely to be quadrupedal. Paul also noted that the snout and trunk of IRSNB 1551 were proportionally longer than the Mantellisaurus type specimen.[1]

The validity of Dollodon has since been disputed. In 2010, Kenneth Carpenter and Yusuke Ishida synonymized Dollodon bampingi with Iguanodon seelyi, a species based on BMNH R 28685 from Wessex Formation, England.[3] Likewise, David B. Norman and Andrew McDonald do not consider Dollodon a valid genus or species and instead include it with Mantellisaurus.[4][5][6]

Classification

The cladogram below follows an analysis by Andrew McDonald, 2012.[7]

Styracosterna

Uteodon aphanoecetes

Hippodraco scutodens

Theiophytalia kerri

Iguanacolossus fortis

Lanzhousaurus magnidens

Kukufeldia tilgatensis

Barilium dawsoni

Hadrosauriformes

Iguanodon bernissartensis

Hadrosauroidea

Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis

Other hadrosauroids

References

  1. ^ a b Paul, Gregory S. (2008). "A revised taxonomy of the iguanodont dinosaur genera and species". Cretaceous Research. 29 (2): 192–216. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2007.04.009.
  2. ^ McDonald, Andrew T. (2012). "The status of Dollodon and other basal iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the upper Wealden beds (Lower Cretaceous) of Europe". Cretaceous Research. 33: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.03.002.
  3. ^ Carpenter, K. & Ishida, Y. (2010). "Early and "Middle" Cretaceous Iguanodonts in Time and Space" (PDF). Journal of Iberian Geology. 36 (2): 145–164. doi:10.5209/rev_JIGE.2010.v36.n2.3.
  4. ^ Norman, David. (2010). "A taxonomy of iguanodontian (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the lower Wealden Group (Cretaceous: Valanginian) of southern England" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2489: 47–66.
  5. ^ McDonald, Andrew T. (2012). "The status of Dollodon and other basal iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the upper Wealden beds (Lower Cretaceous) of Europe". Cretaceous Research. 33: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.03.002.
  6. ^ Norman, D.B., 2012, "Iguanodontian Taxa (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of England and Belgium". In: Pascal Godefroit (ed.), Bernissart Dinosaurs and Early Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. Indiana University Press. 464 pp. http://www.iupress.indiana.edu/product_info.php?products_id=800408
  7. ^ McDonald, A. T. (2012). Farke, Andrew A (ed.). "Phylogeny of Basal Iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): An Update". PLoS ONE. 7 (5): e36745. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036745. PMC 3358318. PMID 22629328.

Literature

  • Cornuel, M., 1850, Note sur des ossements fossiles decouvertes dans le calcaire neocomien de Wassy (Haute-Marne): Bulletin de la societie geologiques de France, 2nd series, v. 7, p. 702-704.
  • Hooley, W., 1925, On the skeleton of Iguanodon atherfieldensis sp. nov., from the Wealden Shales of Atherfield (Isle of Wight): Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 81, p. 1-61.
  • Hulke, J. W., 1879, Vectisaurus valdensis, a new Wealden Dinosaur: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 35, p. 421-424.
  • Owen, R., 1842, Report on British Fossil Reptiles. Part II: Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, v. 11, p. 60-204.
  • Lydekker, R., 1888, Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamta, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria: British Museum of Natural History, London, 309pp.
  • Norman, D.B., 2012. "Iguanodontian Taxa (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of England and Belgium". In: Pascal Godefroit (ed.), Bernissart Dinosaurs and Early Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. Indiana University Press. 464 pp. http://www.iupress.indiana.edu/product_info.php?products_id=800408
  • Paul, G.S. 2007. Turning the old into the new: a separate genus for the gracile iguanodont from the Wealden of England; pp. 69–77 in K. Carpenter (ed.), Horns and Beaks: Ceratopsian and Ornithopod Dinosaurs. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Ankylopollexia

Ankylopollexia is an extinct clade of ornithischian dinosaurs that lived from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. It is a derived clade of iguanodontian ornithopods and contains the subgroup Styracosterna.

The name stems from the Greek word, “ankylos”, mistakenly taken to mean stiff, fused (in fact the adjective means bent or curved; used of fingers, it can mean hooked), and the Latin word, “pollex”, meaning thumb. Originally described in 1986 by Sereno, this most likely synapomorphic feature of a conical thumb spine defines the clade.First appearing around 156 million years ago, in the Jurassic, Ankylopollexia became an extremely successful and widespread clade during the Cretaceous, and were found around the world. The group died out at the end of the Maastrichtian. Even though they grew to be quite large, comparable to some carnivorous dinosaurs, they were universally herbivorous. Most ankylopollexians were bipedal.

Aptian

The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago), approximately. The Aptian succeeds the Barremian and precedes the Albian, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous.The Aptian partly overlaps the upper part of the regionally used (in Western Europe) stage Urgonian.

The Selli Event, also known as OAE1a, was one of two oceanic Anoxic events in the Cretaceous period, which occurred around 120 Ma and lasted approximately 1 to 1.3 million years. The Aptian extinction was a minor extinction event hypothesized to have occurred around 116 to 117 Ma.

Aralosaurini

Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).

Cumnoria

Cumnoria is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It was a basal iguanodontian that lived during the Late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian age) in what is now Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.

Darwinsaurus

Darwinsaurus (meaning "Darwin's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.

In the early nineteenth century dinosaur remains were discovered in the Shornden Quarry at Shorden near Hastings in East Sussex. These were first reported by Richard Owen in 1842. In 1889 they were referred to Iguanodon fittoni by Richard Lydekker. They were then assigned to Hypselospinus fittoni by David Bruce Norman in 2010.

In 2012 Gregory S. Paul named them as a separate genus and species. The type species is Darwinsaurus evolutionis. The generic name honours Charles Darwin for his theory of evolution. The specific name refers to evolution in general and specifically to the strong evolutionary radiation that iguanodonts, according to Paul, are a prime example of. The holotype, as indicated by Paul, is an associated skeleton that includes material catalogued under the numbers NHMUK R1831, R1833, and R1835 (Paul mistakenly included NHMUK R1836 in the genus, unaware that it came from the younger Wessex Formation). Included by Lydekker and Norman was also specimen NHMUK R1832, lower arm elements.

Paul in 2012 provided a short diagnosis of Darwinsaurus. The dentary, the front bone of the lower jaw, is straight. An elongated diastema is present between the beak and the row of teeth. The dentary is shallow below the diastema and deeper below the teeth. The foremost dentary teeth are smaller. The arm is very robust. The olecranon of the ulna is well-developed. Some carpalia are very large. The metacarpals are rather elongated. The thumb spike, the claw of the first finger, is massive.Paul and Norman are in disagreement about the form of the diastema. According to Paul, an illustration in Lydekker (1889) shows that the fossil originally possessed a long and low gap between the tooth battery and the beak; subsequent damage would have removed three or four very small teeth in front of the main row. Norman, however, disputes this and thinks damage has considerably lowered the jaw, the front teeth originally having been large, resulting in a narrow diastema.Paul considered Darwinsaurus a basal member of the Iguanodontia.Norman (2013) considered Paul's description of Darwinsaurus to be inadequate, treating D. evolutionis as a junior synonym of Hypselospinus fittoni, and noting that NHMUK 1836, an associated partial skeleton from the late Barremian of the Isle of Wight, can referred to the species Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis. In a recent SVP abstract, Karen Poole considered Darwinsaurus a possible junior synonym of Huxleysaurus based on unpublished cladistic results.

Edmontosaurini

Edmontosaurini are a tribe of saurolophine hadrosaurs that lived in the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Cretaceous period. It currently contains Edmontosaurus (from the United States and Canada), Ugrunaaluk (from Alaska, U.S.), and Shantungosaurus (from Shandong, China), though Anatosaurus might be a distinct genus. Kerberosaurus and Kundurosaurus from Russia could also be members though are more likely saurolophins.

Elasmaria

Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Galleonosaurus

Galleonosaurus (meaning "galleon lizard" as the upper jaw bone resembles an upturned galleon) is a genus of basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Wonthaggi Formation of the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. The type and only species is G. dorisae, described by Herne et al. in 2019.

Hadrosauroidea

Hadrosauroidea is a clade or superfamily of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the "duck-billed" dinosaurs, or hadrosaurids, and all dinosaurs more closely related to them than to Iguanodon. Many primitive hadrosauroids, such as the Asian Probactrosaurus and Altirhinus, have traditionally been included in a paraphyletic (unnatural grouping) "Iguanodontidae". With cladistic analysis, the traditional Iguanodontidae has been largely disbanded, and probably includes only Iguanodon and perhaps its closest relatives.

Iguanodon

Iguanodon ( i-GWAH-nə-don; meaning "iguana-tooth") is a genus of ornithopod dinosaur that existed roughly halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous. While many species have been classified in the genus Iguanodon, dating from the late Jurassic Period to the early Cretaceous Period of Asia, Europe, and North America, research in the first decade of the 21st century suggests that there is only one well-substantiated species: I. bernissartensis, which lived from the late Barremian to the earliest Aptian ages (Early Cretaceous) in Belgium, Spain, England and possibly elsewhere in Europe, between about 126 and 113 million years ago. Iguanodon were large, bulky herbivores. Distinctive features include large thumb spikes, which were possibly used for defense against predators, combined with long prehensile fifth fingers able to forage for food.

The genus was named in 1825 by English geologist Gideon Mantell but discovered by William Harding Bensted, based on fossil specimens found in England, some of which were subsequently assigned to Mantellodon. Iguanodon was the second type of dinosaur formally named based on fossil specimens, after Megalosaurus. Together with Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, it was one of the three genera originally used to define Dinosauria. The genus Iguanodon belongs to the larger group Iguanodontia, along with the duck-billed hadrosaurs. The taxonomy of this genus continues to be a topic of study as new species are named or long-standing ones reassigned to other genera.

Scientific understanding of Iguanodon has evolved over time as new information has been obtained from fossils. The numerous specimens of this genus, including nearly complete skeletons from two well-known bone beds, have allowed researchers to make informed hypotheses regarding many aspects of the living animal, including feeding, movement, and social behaviour. As one of the first scientifically well-known dinosaurs, Iguanodon has occupied a small but notable place in the public's perception of dinosaurs, its artistic representation changing significantly in response to new interpretations of its remains.

Iguanodontia

Iguanodontia (the iguanodonts) is a clade of herbivorous dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. Some members include Camptosaurus, Dryosaurus, Iguanodon, Tenontosaurus, and the hadrosaurids or "duck-billed dinosaurs". Iguanodontians were one of the first groups of dinosaurs to be found. They are among the best known of the dinosaurs, and were among the most diverse and widespread herbivorous dinosaur groups of the Cretaceous period.

Iguanodontidae

Iguanodontidae is a family of iguanodontians belonging to Styracosterna, a derived clade within Ankylopollexia.

Characterized by their elongated maxillae, they were herbivorous and typically large in size. This family exhibited locomotive dynamism; there exists evidence for both bipedalism and quadrupedalism within iguanodontid species, supporting the idea that individual organisms were capable of both locomoting exclusively with their hind limbs and locomoting quadrupedally. Iguanodontids possess hoof-like second, third, and fourth digits, and in some cases, a specialized thumb spike and an opposable fifth digit. Their skull construction allows for a strong chewing mechanism called a transverse power stroke. This, paired with their bilateral dental occlusion, made them extremely effective as herbivores. Members of Iguanodontidae are thought to have had a diet that consisted of both gymnosperms and angiosperms, the latter of which co-evolved with the iguanodontids in the Cretaceous period.There is no consensus on the phylogeny of the group. Iguanodontidae is most frequently characterized as paraphyletic with respect to Hadrosauridae, although some researchers advocate for a monophyletic view of the family.

Lambeosaurinae

Lambeosaurinae is a group of crested hadrosaurid dinosaurs.

Lanzhousaurus

Lanzhousaurus is a genus of dinosaur. Lanzhousaurus lived in the Gansu region of what is now China during the Early Cretaceous (Barremian). A partial skeleton has been recovered. It was described by You, Ji and Li in 2005 and the type and only species is Lanzhousaurus magnidens.

List of dinosaur genera

This list of dinosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the superorder Dinosauria, excluding class Aves (birds, both living and those known only from fossils) and purely vernacular terms.

The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered dinosaurs. Many listed names have been reclassified as everything from birds to crocodilians to petrified wood. The list contains 1559 names, of which approximately 1192 are considered either valid dinosaur genera or nomina dubia.

Mantellodon

Mantellodon (meaning "Gideon Mantell's tooth") is a genus of styracosternan ornithopod. The type species is Mantellodon carpenteri. The holotype specimen is NHMUK R3741 consisting of a partial associated postcranial skeleton. It was formerly referred to Iguanodon.

Parasaurolophini

Parasaurolophini is a tribe of derived lambeosaurine hadrosaurids that are native to Asia, N. America, and probably Europe. It is defined as everything closer to Parasaurolophus walkeri than to Lambeosaurus lambei. It currently contains Charonosaurus (from China), Parasaurolophus (from Utah, New Mexico, China and Alberta), and possibly Blasisaurus and Arenysaurus (both from Spain)

Proplanicoxa

Proplanicoxa is a genus of iguanodont dinosaur which existed in what is now England during the Early Cretaceous period (late Barremian stage, around 126 mya).The holotype and only specimen of Proplanicoxa, BMNH R 8649, is composed of thirteen dorsals, a sacrum with ilia, parts of the pubis and ischium. The fossils were found in 1916 by Reginald Walter Hooley on the Isle of Wight from the upper Wessex Formation of England. BMNH R 8649 was originally assigned to Vectisaurus valdensis Hulke 1879 (=Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis) by Galton in 1976. The specimen was assigned to its own genus and species by Kenneth Carpenter and Yusuke Ishida in 2010, and the type species is Proplanicoxa galtoni. The generic name is derived from “before” (pro in Greek) and Planicoxa in reference to the postacetabular process of the ilium trending towards the horizontal as seen even stronger in Planicoxa, and the specific name honors Peter Galton. It may be synonymous with Mantellisaurus.

Xuwulong

Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.

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