Mannie Garcia

Mannie Garcia is an American freelance photojournalist currently based in Washington, D.C. His photos have been in many publications including TIME, The Washington Post and USA Today.

Garcia's photos of the Ramstein airshow disaster in West Germany won a World Press Photo Award in 1989. During the disaster, he narrowly escaped death when a flying chunk of one of the jet's wings nearly hit him in the head. One of his cameras was smashed by shrapnel, preventing it from hitting him instead. After shooting photos of the crashing jets and fleeing spectators, Garcia helped the wounded.[4] Sixty-seven spectators and three pilots died in the disaster, and 346 spectators sustained serious injuries in the resulting explosion and fire.

In the early 1990s, Garcia shot photos of the Somali Civil War. In the mid 1990s he photographed the Bosnian War for The New York Times.

Garcia's photograph of President George W. Bush surveying the damage from Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 from the high remove of Air Force One became a symbol of his administration's slow and detached reaction to the human suffering and wreckage below.[5]

In April 2006, Garcia took the photograph of Barack Obama that was later used uncredited by artist Shepard Fairey as the basis of Fairey's Barack Obama HOPE poster.[6]

In 2011, Garcia was arrested by a police officer in Wheaton, Maryland. According to Garcia, after he began taking pictures of a police incident across the street, one of the officers grabbed him by the neck, struck him, slammed his head onto a police car, and removed the memory chip from his camera. Garcia was charged with disorderly conduct and the police report claimed that he "threw himself to the ground, attempting to injure himself." He was acquitted of the charge several months later. His White House press credentials were not renewed because of the outstanding charge, but were renewed after the acquittal. On December 7, 2012, Garcia reinstated a lawsuit against Montgomery County, Maryland, its chief of police and several officers of the Montgomery County Police Department seeking among other things, compensatory and punitive damages.[7] On March 4, 2013 the Justice Department filed a statement of interest with the district court hearing the lawsuit, asserting its position that citizens have a First Amendment right to peacefully photograph law enforcement officers in the exercise of their duties, and urging the court to rule against a motion to dismiss filed by the defendants.[8][9]

Fairey poster photo source?, by stevesimula
The AP photo by Mannie Garcia (upper left), was shown to be a near perfect match, in contrast with a Reuters photograph (lower left) earlier purported to be the source.[1][2][3]


  1. ^ Tom Gralish, "MYSTERY SOLVED! The Obama Poster Photographer ID'd Archived 2009-01-21 at the Wayback Machine", Scene on the Road, January 14, 2009. Accessed January 17, 2009.
  2. ^ stevesimula, fairey poster photo source?, Flickr, January 20, 2009. Accessed January 20, 2009.
  3. ^ Tom Gralish, "Found - AGAIN - the Poster Source Photo Archived 2009-01-23 at the Wayback Machine", Scene on the Road, January 21, 2009. Accessed January 22, 2009.
  4. ^ Time Magazine, December 26, 1988, Pg. 43
  5. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (2006-08-28). "Year After Katrina, Bush Still Fights for 9/11 Image". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
  6. ^ Carnwath, Ally (2009-02-15). "The man who made an icon". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
  7. ^ "Mannie Garcia Reinstates Federal Civil Rights Lawsuit". NPPA. National Press Photographers Association. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  8. ^ "Justice Department Statement Supports Mannie Garcia's Federal Civil Rights Lawsuit". NPAA. National Press Photographers Association. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  9. ^ The statement that the Justice Department filed with the federal Maryland district court in Garcia's lawsuit.

External links

Alvin Hellerstein

Alvin Kenneth Hellerstein (born December 28, 1933) is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and has been involved in several high-profile cases.

Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its standards and practices.The AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917.

The AP has counted the vote in U.S. elections since 1848, including national, state and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish, city and town across the U.S., and declares winners in over 5,000 contests.

The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English, Spanish and Arabic. AP content is also available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher.As of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters. The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials.

Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.

Barack Obama "Hope" poster

The Barack Obama "Hope" poster is an image of Barack Obama designed by artist Shepard Fairey, which was widely described as iconic and came to represent his 2008 presidential campaign. It consists of a stylized stencil portrait of Obama in solid red, beige and (light and dark) blue, with the word "progress", "hope" or "change" below (and other words in some versions).

The design was created in one day and printed first as a street poster. When the Obey Giant team found out the poster they had made were being sold on eBay for profit they issued a poster set that would be sold and all profits would go to the Obama campaign. Fairey sold 290 of the posters on the street immediately after printing them. It was then more widely distributed—both as a digital image and other paraphernalia—during the 2008 election season, initially independently but with the approval of the official Obama campaign. The image became one of the most widely recognized symbols of Obama's campaign message, spawning many variations and imitations, including some commissioned by the Obama campaign. This led The Guardian's Laura Barton to proclaim that the image "acquired the kind of instant recognition of Jim Fitzpatrick's Che Guevara poster, and is surely set to grace T-shirts, coffee mugs and the walls of student bedrooms in the years to come."In January 2009, after Obama had won the election, Fairey's mixed-media stenciled portrait version of the image was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution for its National Portrait Gallery. Later in January 2009, the photograph on which Fairey based the poster was revealed: a June 2006 shot by former Associated Press freelance photographer Mannie Garcia. In response to claims by the Associated Press for compensation, Fairey sued for a declaratory judgment that his poster was a fair use of the original photograph. The parties settled out of court in January 2011, with details of the settlement remaining confidential.

On February 29, 2012, Fairey pleaded guilty in a New York federal court to destroying and fabricating documents during his legal battle with the Associated Press. Fairey had sued the news service in 2008 after it claimed that the famous poster was based on one of its photos. Fairey claimed that he used a different photograph for the poster. But he admitted that, in fact, he was wrong and tried to hide the error by destroying documents and manufacturing others, which is the source of the one count of criminal contempt to which he pleaded guilty. In September, Fairey was sentenced to two years of probation, 300 hours of community service, and a fine of $25,000.In 2009 Fairey's Obama portrait was featured in the book Art For Obama: Designing Manifest Hope and the Campaign for Change which Fairey also edited.In an interview with Esquire in 2015 Fairey said that Obama had not lived up, "not even close," to his expectations. He continued, "Obama has had a really tough time, but there have been a lot of things that he's compromised on that I never would have expected. I mean, drones and domestic spying are the last things I would have thought [he'd support]."

García (surname)

Garcia or García is an Iberian surname common throughout Spain, Portugal, parts of France, the Americas, and the Philippines. It is a surname of patronymic origin; García was a very common first name in early medieval Iberian Peninsula.

Possibly a Basque surname called "Gaztea", and later was Castilianized, into the medieval Kingdom of Castile, becoming "García".

It is attested since the high Middle Ages north and south of the Pyrenees (Basque Culture Territories), with the surname (sometimes first name too) thriving especially on the Kingdom of Navarre and spreading out to Castile and other Spanish regions.


Mannie is a given name. Notable people with the name include:

Mannie Fresh, (born 1974), currently an artist and hip-hop producer who records for Def Jam South

Mannie Garcia, American freelance photojournalist currently based in Washington, D.C.

Mannie Heymans (born 1971), Namibian cyclist

Mannie Jackson (born 1939), the chairman and owner of the Harlem Globetrotters, for whom he played from 1962 to 1964

Mannie Rodriguez (born 1950), member of the Democratic National Committee from Colorado

Professional wrestling in Puerto Rico

Professional wrestling in Puerto Rico has been considered one of the most popular forms of entertainment in Puerto Rico for more than fifty years. It's considered the highest source of income in the sports entertainment industry on the island; a minor industry within its tertiary sector in its overall economy. After sports commentator José Antonio Géigel and a group of wrestlers founded the first promotion based in Puerto Rico, the discipline has consistently remained being broadcast in local television. Originally a mixture of foreign wrestling styles, the Puerto Rican wrestling style developed into a unique form of performing. Most notably, local promotions relied on unusual matches, often involving foreign objects or odd arenas. Local wrestling is considered to be one of the pillars that contributed to modern hardcore wrestling, being the territory where the first "fire" and "death" matches took place. Local promotions exploited the innovation and held their cards in large stadiums, eventually becoming an element of popular culture. During the course of six decades, Carlos Colón, Sr. has developed over 70 scars in his forehead that are product of this method of performing, becoming the main symbol of the style's nature. The storylines in Puerto Rico have historically revolved around the "foreign heel" formula, with local wrestlers obtaining victories over notable figures that include Ric Flair, Harley Race, Hulk Hogan, Terry Funk, Diamond Dallas Page, Scott Hall, Booker T, Samoa Joe and Curt Hennig among several others.

Women's wrestling has been historically inconsistent due to the lack of participants, with the division's championships being activated and inactivated depending on the quorum available. Despite this, some performers have achieved local success, such as Soldelina "La Tigresa" Vargas and "La Rosa Negra" Nilka García. Internationally, there is a stark contrast to this situation, with Puerto Rican women successfully establishing a presence in the major promotions in both the United States and Mexico. Sparse attempts have been made to popularize women's wrestling, including the foundation of women-only promotions. As a popular form of entertainment, professional wrestling has impacted several aspects of Puerto Rican popular culture, including sports, politics and television. Due to its ambiguous status as a form of "sports entertainment", local professional wrestling has been monitored by government commissions that regulate both legitimate sports and spectacles such as cockfighting throughout the years. Led by Carlos Colón, Sr. and Victor Jovica, the World Wrestling Council is the oldest active promotion in Puerto Rico. Historically, counter-promotions emerged to challenge WWC's monopoly, with the most successful attempt being made by Victor Quiñones's International Wrestling Association. The World Wrestling League is the only company that began with an international scope instead of first attempting to establish a local presence. An unorganized independent circuit also operates on a lower tier, confronting problems with clandestine wrestling promotions.

Shepard Fairey

Frank Shepard Fairey (born February 15, 1970) is an American contemporary street artist, graphic designer, activist, illustrator and founder of OBEY Clothing who emerged from the skateboarding scene. He first became known for his "Andre the Giant Has a Posse" (...OBEY...) sticker campaign while attending the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), which appropriated images from the comedic supermarket tabloid Weekly World News.

He became widely known during the 2008 U.S. presidential election for his Barack Obama "Hope" poster. The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston has described him as one of the best known and most influential street artists. His work is included in the collections at The Smithsonian, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C., the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress

The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, about a lunar colony's revolt against rule from Earth. The novel expresses and discusses libertarian ideals. It is respected for its credible presentation of a comprehensively imagined future human society on both the Earth and the Moon.Originally serialized in Worlds of If (December 1965, January, February, March, April 1966), the book was nominated for the Nebula Award in 1966. It received the Hugo Award for best science fiction novel in 1967.

Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (; 13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name, Robert.In his 1798 book An Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the well-being of the populace, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words, mankind had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the "Malthusian trap" or the "Malthusian spectre". Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship, want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease, a view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe. Malthus wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. He saw population growth as being inevitable whenever conditions improved, thereby precluding real progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man". As an Anglican cleric, Malthus saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour. Malthus wrote:

That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence,That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase, and,That the superior power of population is repressed by moral restraint, vice and misery.

Malthus criticized the Poor Laws for leading to inflation rather than improving the well-being of the poor. He supported taxes on grain imports (the Corn Laws), because food security was more important than maximizing wealth. His views became influential, and controversial, across economic, political, social and scientific thought. Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. He remains a much-debated writer.

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