Mannheim

Mannheim (German pronunciation: [ˈmanhaɪm] (listen); Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants. The city is at the centre of the larger densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region which has a population of 2,400,000[3] and is Germany's eighth-largest metropolitan region.

Mannheim is located at the confluence of the Rhine and the Neckar in the northwestern corner of Baden-Württemberg. The Rhine separates Mannheim from the city of Ludwigshafen, just to the west of it in Rhineland-Palatinate, and the border of Baden-Württemberg with Hesse is just to the north. Mannheim is downstream along the Neckar from the city of Heidelberg.

Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its streets and avenues are laid out in a grid pattern, leading to its nickname "die Quadratestadt" ("The City of Squares"). The eighteenth century Mannheim Palace, former home of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate, now houses the University of Mannheim.

The city is home to major corporations including Daimler, John Deere, Caterpillar, ABB, Fuchs Petrolub, IBM, Roche, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever, Phoenix Group, Siemens, and several other well-known companies. In addition, Mannheim's SAP Arena is not only the home of the German ice hockey record champions the Adler Mannheim, but also the well-known handball team, the Rhein-Neckar Löwen. According to the Forbes magazine, Mannheim is known for its exceptional inventive power and was ranked 11th among the Top 15 of the most inventive cities worldwide.[4][5] The New Economy Magazine elected Mannheim under the 20 cities that best represent the world of tomorrow emphasizing Mannheim's positive economic and innovative environment.[6] Since 2014, Mannheim has been a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and holds the title of "UNESCO City of Music".[7] Mannheim is a Smart City; the city's electrical grid is installed with a power-line communication network.[8]

The city's tourism slogan is "Leben. Im Quadrat." (Life. Squared.). The civic symbol of Mannheim is der Wasserturm, a Romanesque water tower completed in 1886 that rises to 60 metres (200 feet) above the highest point of the art nouveau area Friedrichsplatz. Mannheim is the starting and finishing point of the Bertha Benz Memorial Route.

Mannheim
Der Friedrichsplatz und der Wasserturm
Die Jesuitenkirche
Luisenpark Mannheim Gondolettas
Mannheim wasserspiele
MA-Friedrichsplatz-0329
Friedrichsplatz, Jesuit Church, Luisenpark, Wasserturm, Augustaanlage
Flag of Mannheim

Flag
Coat of arms of Mannheim

Coat of arms
Location of Mannheim in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg MA
Mannheim is located in Germany
Mannheim
Mannheim
Mannheim is located in Baden-Württemberg
Mannheim
Mannheim
Coordinates: 49°29′20″N 8°28′9″E / 49.48889°N 8.46917°ECoordinates: 49°29′20″N 8°28′9″E / 49.48889°N 8.46917°E
CountryGermany
StateBaden-Württemberg
Admin. regionKarlsruhe
Districturban district
Government
 • Lord MayorPeter Kurz (SPD)
Area
 • City144.96 km2 (55.97 sq mi)
Elevation
97 m (318 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31)[2]
 • City307,997
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,362,046[1]
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
68001–68309
Dialling codes0621
Vehicle registrationMA
Websitewww.mannheim.de
Mannheim on the rivers Rhine and Neckar
Red pog.svg
Mannheim on the rivers Rhine and Neckar
Mannheim Innenstadt
Aerial view of Mannheim, showing the grid layout

History

Early history

The name of the city was first recorded as Mannenheim in a legal transaction in 766, surviving in a twelfth-century copy in the Codex Laureshamensis from Lorsch Abbey. The name is interpreted as "the home of Manno", a short form of a Germanic name such as Hartmann or Hermann.[9] Mannheim remained a mere village throughout the Middle Ages.

Early Modern Age

In 1606, Frederick IV, Elector Palatine started building the fortress of Friedrichsburg and the adjacent city centre with its grid of streets and avenues. On January 24, 1607, Frederick IV gave Mannheim the status of a "city", whether it really was one by then or not.

Mannheim was mostly levelled during the Thirty Years War around 1622 by the forces of Johan Tilly. After being rebuilt, it was again severely damaged by the French Army in 1689 during the Nine Years' War.

After the rebuilding of Mannheim that began in 1698, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate was moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720 when Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church; they were completed in 1760.

18th and 19th centuries

Mannheim 1758
Mannheim in 1758
Stadtplan Mannheim 1880
Historical map of Mannheim in 1880

During the eighteenth century, Mannheim was the home of the "Mannheim School" of classical music composers. Mannheim was said to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of the conductor Carlo Grua. The royal court of the Palatinate left Mannheim in 1778. Two decades later, in 1802, Mannheim was removed from the Palatinate and given to the Grand Duchy of Baden.

In 1819, Norwich Duff wrote of Mannheim:

In 1819, August von Kotzebue was assassinated in Mannheim.

The climate crisis of 1816-17 caused famine and the death of many horses in Mannheim. That year Karl Drais invented the first bicycle.

Infrastructure improvements included the establishment of Rhine Harbour in 1828 and construction of the first Baden railway, which opened from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840. Influenced by the economic rise of the middle class, another golden age of Mannheim gradually began. In the March Revolution of 1848, the city was a centre for political and revolutionary activity.

In 1865, Friedrich Engelhorn founded the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik (Baden Aniline and Soda Factory, BASF) in Mannheim, but the factory was constructed across the Rhine in Ludwigshafen because Mannheim residents feared air pollution from its operations. From this dye factory, BASF has developed into the largest chemical company in the world. After opening a workshop in Mannheim in 1871 and patenting engines from 1878, Karl Benz patented the first motor car in 1886. He was born in Mühlburg (now part of Karlsruhe).

Early 20th century and World War I

The Schütte-Lanz company, founded by Karl Lanz and Johann Schütte in 1909, built 22 airships. The company's main competitor was the Zeppelin works.

When World War I broke out in 1914, Mannheim's industrial plants played a key role in Germany's war economy. This contributed to the fact that, on 27 May 1915, Ludwigshafen was the world's first civilian settlement behind the battle lines to be bombed from the air. French aircraft attacked the BASF plants, thereby killing twelve people. The precedent was set for this attack by Germany's repeated air raids against British civilian populations throughout southeastern Britain during the first half of 1915.

When Germany lost the war in 1918, according to the peace terms, the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by French troops. The French occupation lasted until 1930, and some of Ludwigshafen's most elegant houses were erected for the officers of the French garrison.

Inter-war period

After the First World War, the Heinrich Lanz Company built the Bulldog, an advanced tractor, powered by heavy oil. As a result of the invention of the pre-combustion chamber by Prosper L'Orange, Benz & Cie. developed the world's first compact diesel-powered car at its motor works in Mannheim in 1923. In 1922, the Grosskraftwerk Mannheim (Mannheim large power station) was opened. By 1930, the city, along with its sister city of Ludwigshafen, which had developed out of the old Mannheim Rheinschanze, had a population of 385,000.

World War II

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1971-053-59, Mannheim, US-Truppen im Straßenkampf
US troops in street fighting in Mannheim, 1945

During WW2, Air raids on Mannheim completely destroyed the city centre during the Second World War. Mannheim was heavily damaged during aerial bombing by the RAF and the U.S. Air Force. The RAF razed the city center of Mannheim with nighttime area bombing killing thousands of civilians. 2,262 of Mannheim's Jews were sent to concentration camps. Some sources state that the first deliberate terror bombing of the war occurred at Mannheim on December 16, 1940.[10]

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Mannheim in late March 1945, which was potentially well-defended by German forces. However, the German forces suddenly abandoned the city and the U.S. 44th Infantry Division entered unopposed on 29 March 1945.[11] There had been a large American military occupation presence in the Mannheim area with up to 10 barracks. The first one shut down in 2007 going on until 2013 when the last one closed. (See United States military installations below).

United States Military Installations

A number of U.S. Army Europe installations were located in and near Mannheim during the Cold War. The following locations provided services to and housed the "U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim" and other units of the U.S. Army. The U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim was formally deactivated on 31 May 2011.[12]

  • The Benjamin Franklin Village (Mannheim-Käfertal), housing. Also, it was the home of the Mannheim American High School and the Middle School,[13] which closed on June 9, 2011. It was vacated by 2014.
  • Coleman Barracks and Coleman Army Airfield (Mannheim-Sandhofen): The headquarters of the American Forces Network-Europe, and the home of the Army's 28th Transportation Battalion. Also, the location of the United States Army Corrections Facility-Europe. It was vacated in 2015.
  • Funari Barracks (Mannheim-Käfertal), vacated in 2014.
  • Spinelli Barracks (Mannheim-Feudenheim), vacated in 2015.
  • Sullivan Barracks (Mannheim-Käfertal): formerly the headquarters of the U.S. Army's 7th Signal Brigade and the 529th Military Police Honor Guard Company's 2nd Platoon; vacated in 2014.
  • Taylor Barracks (Mannheim-Vogelstang): formerly the headquarters of the U.S. Army's 2nd Signal Brigade; vacated in 2011.
  • Turley Barracks (Mannheim-Käfertal): in the early 1990s was home to the 181st Transportation Bn, with companies of 40th, 41st, 51st, 590th, TTP, and HHC transportation companies and also the headquarters of the NATO ACE Mobile Force (Land) (AMFL).

The following locations were part of the "U.S. Army Garrison Heidelberg" but were within the area of the city of Mannheim; They were vacated in 2010 and 2011:

  • Friedrichsfeld Service Center (Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld)
  • Hammonds Barracks (formerly Loretto Kaserne) (Mannheim-Seckenheim)
  • Stem Kaserne (Mannheim-Seckenheim)

All personnel of the U.S. Army military community left Mannheim by 2015, some of them moving to Wiesbaden. With the exception of four barracks, all other barracks formerly occupied by the U.S. military had been returned to the German state for conversion to civilian use in 2011.

1950s to 1980s

Wasserturm Mannheim
The Wasserturm Garden
Victoria-Turm in Mannheim
Victoria Tower (Victoria-Turm)

Rebuilding of the city began laboriously. Mannheim Palace and the water tower (Wasserturm) eventually were rebuilt and the National Theatre was replaced by a new building at a new location. At the old location there is a monument to Friedrich Schiller and the Zum Zwischen-Akt pub. The housing shortage led to the development of many new residential areas.

In 1964, the City Hospital (Städtische Krankenhaus) became part of the Neckar Faculty of Heidelberg University for Clinical Medicine in Mannheim. In 1967, the University of Mannheim was established in the city.

In 1975, the Bundesgartenschau (Federal horticulture show) was celebrated in Luisen and Herzogenried parks. A number of pieces of infrastructure were developed for the show: the telecommunications tower and a second bridge across the Rhine were built, the pedestrian zone was established, the new Rosengarten conference centre was opened and the Aerobus was installed as a temporary transport system.

A number of major projects were completed in the 1980s and 1990s: a planetarium, an extension to the art gallery, the new Reiß Museum, Stadthaus, a new May Market ground, synagogue, mosque, State Museum for Technology and Work, Carl-Benz stadium and the Fahrlach tunnel were opened.

Mannheim has lost many industrial jobs, although in the recent past the city was economically dominated by manufacturing. The city tried in the past to prevent the establishment of service providers by designating some locations as industrial areas. A prime example of the current trend is the construction of the Victoria Tower (Victoria-Turm) in 2001, one of the tallest buildings in the city, on railway land.

Post-reunification

Mannheim celebrated its 400th anniversary with a series of cultural and other events throughout 2007. The 400th anniversary proper was in 2006, since Frederick IV, Elector Palatine laid the foundations of Mannheim citadel on 17 March 1606. In preparation for the anniversary, some urban activities were implemented, beginning in 2000: the building of the SAP Arena with access to the city's new eastern ring road, the rehabilitation of the pedestrian zone in Breite Straße, the arsenal and the palace, the complete transformation of the old fair ground, and the new Schafweide tram line. The concept of the anniversary of the city aimed at a diverse range of events without a dominant central event.

Demographics

The following list shows significant groups of foreigners in the city of Mannheim by nationalities.[14]

Rank Nationality Population (31.12.2018)
1  Turkey 16,196
2  Italy 8,275
3  Lithuania 6,943
4  Bulgaria 6,079
5  Romania 5,448
6  Croatia 4,278
7  Greece 3,352
8  Spain 1,695
9  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,582
10  Hungary 1,416
11  Syria 1,259
12  France 1,254
13  India 1,234
14  Kosovo 1,125
15  Russia 1,021
16  China 1,016
17  Yugoslavia 978
18  USA 970
19  Serbia 913

Inventions

Some important inventions were made in Mannheim.

  • Karl Drais built the first two-wheeled draisine in 1817.
  • Karl Benz drove the first automobile on the streets of Mannheim in 1886. At his workshop in Mannheim he produced a lightweight three-wheeled vehicle powered by a single cylinder petrol/gasoline-fueled engine, first shown in public during 1886. This powered tricycle subsequently came to be widely regarded as the first automobile/motor car powered by an internal-combustion engine. Karl's wife Bertha Benz undertook the world's first road trip by automobile from Mannheim to Pforzheim in August 1888.
  • The Lanz Bulldog, a popular tractor with a rugged, simple Diesel engine was introduced in 1921.
  • Karl Benz developed the world's first compact diesel-powered car at the Benz & Cie. motor works in Mannheim during 1923
  • Julius Hatry built the world's first rocket plane in 1929.
Draisine1817

The world's first bicycle, built in Mannheim by Karl Freiherr von Drais in 1817

1885Benz

The world's first motorcar, built in Mannheim by Karl Benz in 1885

Berthabenzmemorialrouteschild

Official sign of Bertha Benz Memorial Route, commemorating the world's first long distance journey by automobile from Mannheim to Pforzheim in 1888 104 km (65 mi)

Politics

Technisches Rathaus in Mannheim
Town hall in E 5
Gemeinderat-Mannheim-2009
City council in 2009

City council

The council has 48 seats and is elected by direct suffrage for five years. In the local elections in Baden-Württemberg, voters are allowed to take advantage of cumulative voting and vote splitting. Since the Second World War the SPD, except in the elections of 1999 and 2004, has received more votes than the CDU. The next municipal election will take place in 2019.

The outcome of the local elections of 25 May 2014 and the current members of the council is as follows:

City Council election 2014
SPD
27.3%
−3.3
13 seats
−3
CDU
26.1%
−2.6
12 seats
−3
Greens
16.3%
+0.4
8 seats
±0
Mannheim List
9.3%
+1.9
4 seats
+1
AfD
7.8%
+7.8
4 seats
+4
The Left
6.2%
+1.3
3 seats
+1
FDP
4.5%
−3.5
2 seats
−2
Mittelstand für Mannheim
1.4%
+1.4
1 seats
+1
NPD
1.1%
+1.1
1 seats
+1

The SPD, CDU, Greens, Mannheim List and AfD have official party status.

OBKurz 8210
Mayor Peter Kurz

Mayor

The mayor is the head of the city council and chairman of the council, being selected by direct suffrage for a term of eight years. The current mayor is Peter Kurz (SPD), who was elected during 2007 with 50.53 percent on a turnout of 36.64 percent in the first round.

The city leaders since 1810 are:

  • 1810–1820: Johann Wilhelm Reinhardt
  • 1820–1832: Valentin Möhl
  • 1833–1835: Heinrich Andriano
  • 1836–1849: Ludwig Jolly
  • 1849–1852: Friedrich Reiß
  • 1852–1861: Heinrich Christian Diffené
  • 1861–1870: Ludwig Achenbach
  • 1870–1891: Eduard Moll
  • 1891–1908: Otto Beck
  • 1908–1913: Paul Martin
  • 1914–1928: Theodor Kutzer
  • 1928–1933: Hermann Heimerich (SPD)
  • 1933–1945: Carl Renninger (NSDAP)
  • 1945–1948: Josef Braun (CDU)
  • 1948–1949: Fritz Cahn-Garnier (SPD)
  • 1949–1955: Hermann Heimerich (SPD)
  • 1956–1972: Hans Reschke (independent)
  • 1972–1980: Ludwig Ratzel (SPD)
  • 1980–1983: Wilhelm Varnholt (SPD)
  • 1983–2007: Gerhard Widder (SPD)
  • since 2007: Peter Kurz (SPD)

Theatre

The National Theatre Mannheim was founded in 1779 and is the oldest "Stage" in Germany. In 1782 the premier of Die Räuber, written by Friedrich Schiller, was shown.

Recently, more smaller stages have opened, such as the Oststadt-Theater, the TIG7 (Theater im Quadrat G7), the Theater Oliv, the Freilichtbühne, the Theater31, the Theater ImPuls, the Theater Felina-Areal, the Mannheimer Puppenspiele, the Kleinkunstbühne Klapsmühl', Schatzkistl, and zeitraumexit.

Education

The University of Mannheim is one of Germany's younger universities. Although founded in 1967, it has its origins in the 1763-established Palatine Academy of Sciences and the former Handelshochschule. Situated in Mannheim Palace, it is Germany's leading university in business and economics and attracts students from around the world. Described by "Die Zeit" magazine as the 'Harvard of Germany' it is seen as the alma mater of German businessmen and women.

SchlossMannheim-Pano-130616
The University of Mannheim's main campus – the Palace in a 180-degree panoramic view

The university town also houses one of the medical schools of Heidelberg University, the Hochschule Mannheim, a branch of the Duale Hochschule of the State of Baden-Württemberg and several musical and theatrical academies, including the Pop Academy Mannheim, the Musikhochschule and the Theaterakademie. These institutions draw a large and diverse student body.

Dependents of U.S. military personnel attended Mannheim Elementary School until it closed in June 2012.[15] In the 1980s the school had 2,200 students.[16]

Geography

Climate

Mannheim is located in Germany's warmest summer region, the "Rhine shift". In summer, temperatures sometimes rise up to 35 °C (95 °F) and higher. The highest recorded temperature was 39.8 °C (104 °F) on August 7, 2015. The daily lows during heat waves can be very high by north European standards (around 25 °C / 77 °F). In comparison to other regions of Germany, Mannheim has a higher humidity in summer which causes a higher heat index. Snow is rare, even in the cold months. Precipitation occurs mostly during afternoon thunderstorms during the warmer period (average days of thunderstorms in a year is 40–50). Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[18]

Main sights

Mannheim Altes Rathaus St Sebastian 3600
Former City Hall and St. Sebastian's Church
Universitaet Mannheim Schloss Ehrenhof
University of Mannheim is housed in Mannheim Palace
Jesuitenkirche West
Jesuit Church (background) and Sternwarte (defunct observatory; in the foreground)
Mannemer Mess - Oct 2014
At the Mannheim fair (Mannheimer Messe), Oct. 2014
  • Fernmeldeturm Mannheim
  • Mannheim synagogue – Post World War II synagogue
  • Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque
  • Luisenpark – named one of the loveliest parks in Europe
  • Mannheim Palace (Mannheimer Schloss) – the city castle and main building of the University of Mannheim
  • Wasserturm – the town's landmark water tower
  • Jesuit Church
  • SAP Arena – multifunctional indoor arena, home of Mannheim's ice-hockey team "Die Adler" ("The Eagles")
  • Breite Strasse, Kunststrasse, and Kapuzinerplanken – Mannheim's main shopping destination
  • International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg
  • Wildpark and Waldvogelpark am Karlstern
  • The city centre, designed in squares (Quadratestadt)
  • Reißinsel, a natural area that an honorary citizen of Mannheim, Carl Reiß, bequeathed to the residents of Mannheim
  • Marktplatz (Market square) hosts a farmers' market every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Fresh fruit, vegetables, and flowers are sold
  • Mannheimer Messe (:the Mannheim-Fair): twice a year (spring & autumn) a big fair takes place on Neuer Messplatz-square.

Industry

The successor to the Karl Benz automobile manufacturing companies begun in Mannheim, Daimler AG, has had a large presence in Mannheim. Today, diesel engines and buses are assembled there. The Swiss Hoffmann–La Roche Diagnostic group (formerly known as Boehringer Mannheim) has its division headquarters in Mannheim. Additionally, the city also hosts large factories and offices of ABB, Alstom, BASF (Ludwigshafen), Bilfinger Berger, Bombardier, Fuchs Petrolub AG, John Deere, Siemens, SCA, Südzucker, and other companies.

Transport

Roads

Mannheim-Strassenverkehr
Roadmap of Mannheim.

The Mannheim/Ludwigshafen area is surrounded by a ring of motorways connecting it to Frankfurt in the north, Karlsruhe in the south, Saarbrücken in the west and Nuremberg in the east.

Railway

Mannheim Hauptbahnhof (central station) is at the end of the Mannheim-Stuttgart high-speed rail line and is the most important railway junction in the southwest of Germany, served by ICE high-speed train system with connections to Frankfurt am MainBerlin, KarlsruheBasel, and StuttgartMunich. A new high speed line to Frankfurt also is planned to relieve the existing Mannheim–Frankfurt railway.

River transport

Mannheim Harbour is the second largest river port in Germany.

Airports

Although Frankfurt International Airport is only 65 km (40 mi) to the north, at various times over the years there were daily passenger flights from Mannheim City Airport (IATA code MHG) to London, Dresden, Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Saarbrücken. Currently, scheduled commercial passenger flights serve the airports Berlin-Tegel and Hamburg.

Local Public Transport

Local public transport in Mannheim includes the RheinNeckar S-Bahn, eleven tram lines, and numerous bus lines operated by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr (Rhine-Neckar transport) (RNV).

The RheinNeckar S-Bahn, established in 2003, connects most of the Rhine-Neckar area including lines into the Palatinate, Odenwald, and southern Hesse. All S-Bahn lines run through Mannheim Hauptbahnhof, except S5. Further S-Bahn stations are at present Mannheim-Rangierbahnhof, Mannheim-Seckenheim, and Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld-Süd.

The 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge integrated Mannheim/Ludwigshafen tramway network also extends to Heidelberg. It is operated by RNV, a company wholly owned by the three cities mentioned and a couple of municipalities in the Palatinate. RNV is the result of a merger on 1 October 2009 between the region's five former municipal transportation companies.[19] Interurban trams are operated by RNV on a triangular route between Mannheim, Heidelberg, and Weinheim that was originally established by the Upper Rhine Railway Company (Oberrheinische Eisenbahn, OEG), and the company also operates interurban trams between Bad Dürkheim, Ludwigshafen, and Mannheim. In the 1970s a proposal to build a U-Bahn out of the Mannheim and Ludwigshafen tramways was begun, but only small sections were built due to lack of funds. The only underground station in Mannheim is the Haltestelle Dalbergstraße. U-Bahn planning now has stopped. All public transport is offered at uniform prices set by the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar (Rhine-Neckar transport union, VRN).

Sport

There are two nationally renowned football clubs in Mannheim, SV Waldhof Mannheim, who currently are playing in the fourth tier Regionalliga Südwest, but who have played in the top tier, the Bundesliga; and VfR Mannheim, winner of the German championship in 1949, now playing in the fifth tier Oberliga Baden-Württemberg.

The Adler Mannheim (formerly MERC, Mannheimer Eis- und Rollsport-Club) is an ice hockey team playing in the professional Deutsche Eishockey Liga, having won the championship a total of six times.

The city is home to the Mannheim Tornados, the oldest operational baseball and softball club in Germany. The Tornados play in the first division of the Baseball Bundesliga and have won the championship 11 times, more than any other club.[20]

In 2003 the American football club MTG Rhein-Neckar Bandits was founded. The Bandits are playing in the first German Football League which is called GFL1. In the summer about 500 people watch each game.

Rhein-Neckar-Loewen (Lions) are a handball team (formerly SG Kronau-Oestringen) playing in the professional German Handball League.

The WWE visited Mannheim in 2008 and grossed more than half a million dollars with over 6,500 fans attending the event.

UFC fighter Dennis Siver lives and trains in Mannheim.

Mannheim hosted the European Show Jumping Championships in 1997, and the FEI European Jumping Championships in 2007 [21] 14–19 August, in the MVV-riding stadium.

2002 Hobby Horse Polo was invented in Mannheim, evoking the classical rivalry towards "polite society" in Heidelberg.[22][23][24]

Block Numbering and Computer Mapping

The center of the city uses an addressing system unique within Germany. Rather than street names and numbers, each block is given a code and a number is given to each building, i.e. C3, 17 is block C3, building 17. This practice dates back centuries, and is a result of the original use of the city center as a fort, with the fort's internal system being adopted when it became public streets. The street themselves are unnamed. The codes are laid out in a simple progressive pattern, i.e. C3 is between C2 and C4 in one direction and B3 and D3 in the other, but those unused to the system will often become lost. A street named Breite Straße goes through the middle of the blocks from south to north, with blocks A-K on the west side of the street and L-U on the east, with each row going 1 to at most 7 based on distance from this road. House numbers begin on the south corner nearest Breite Straße and go counterclockwise for A-K and Clockwise for L-U.[25]

This causes major issues with most mapping software, as the databases they use are based on the standard street-number system, and thus aren't able to accommodate a completely different system for a small area. A variety of fixes have been tried, none with a high level of success. In particular, these systems have issues because an address on a block can be on any of up to 4 roads, so attempts to fix the issue by giving the roads false names within the database have often failed to give accurate addressing, though such can still be seen on some platforms, like Google Maps. Finding an address in this area thus generally requires resorting to asking directions or using one of the many posted public maps.[26]

International relations

Luisenpark Gondoletta 05
Telecommunication tower and Luisenpark

Twin towns – sister cities

Mannheim is twinned with:[27]

Notable people from Mannheim

See also: List of notable people from Mannheim

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Rhine-Neckar: Rhine-Neckar in figures". 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2017". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 2018.
  3. ^ "Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar". M-r-n.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  4. ^ "World's 15 Most Inventive Cities". Forbes.com. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  5. ^ "The Manhattan of Germany: the innovative Mannheim city". The New Economy. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  6. ^ "The rise of the smart city". The New Economy. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Mannheim ist jetzt offiziell "Unesco City of Music"" (in German). RNZ. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  8. ^ "Smart City knows who needs power, and when". CNN. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  9. ^ Sonja Steiner-Welz, 400 Jahre Stadt Mannheim (Dokumente zur Stadtgeschichte). Band 1: bis zur Kaiserzeit, vol. 1, 2004, ISBN 978-3-936041-96-5, p. 41.
  10. ^ Germany and the Second World War. Books.google.com. 15 November 2001. ISBN 978-0-19-822888-2. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  11. ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books.
  12. ^ USAG BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG PUBLIC AFFAIRS (9 June 2011). "Mannheim Deactivation Ceremony".
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "Staatsangehörigkeiten der Ausländerinnen und Ausländer zum 31.12.2017". Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  15. ^ Casebeer, Elizabeth. "Mannheim Elementary closes doors after 66 years: Teachers, students all attend ceremony to say goodb." U.S. Army. June 14, 2012. Retrieved on November 16, 2015.
  16. ^ Montgomery, Nancy. "Closing of bases in Mannheim ends special relationship between Germans, U.S. troops." Stars and Stripes. May 22, 2011. Retrieved on November 16, 2015.
  17. ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". |date=July 2014 |source 2= "Dekadenrekorde".
  18. ^ "Mannheim, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  19. ^ "Press release announcing the merger to form RNV (German-language)". 23 September 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ "FEI European Jumping Championship, Mannheim". Em2007.de. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  22. ^ Express June 23 2013
  23. ^ "Rheinpfalz July 25 2008".
  24. ^ Eva Gerten, dpa (27 September 2014). "Steckenpferdpolo: Trendsportart in Düsseldorf im Rheinpark". SPIEGEL ONLINE.
  25. ^ "Mannheim, Germany - 7 Awesome Things To Do". twomonkeystravelgroup.com.
  26. ^ Tom Scott (19 February 2018). "The European City Centre With No Street Names" – via YouTube.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Partner und Freundesstädte". Stadt Mannheim (in German). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  28. ^ "Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
  29. ^ "Swansea - Wales :Mannheim.de". Mannheim City website. Mannheim City. 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  30. ^ Milken Archive of Jewish Music - Samuel Adler Biography on milkenarchive.org
  31. ^ Coburn, Jesse (15 January 2017). "A German Writer Translates a Puzzling Illness Into a Best-Selling Book". The New York Times.

Further reading

  • Wiederkehr, Gustav: Mannheim in Sage und Geschichte, H. Haas'schen Buchdruckerei, 1907, (Festgabe zur Feier des dreihundertjährigen Bestehens der Stadt)
  • David, Manfred: Mannheimer Stadtkunde. Edition Quadrat, Mannheim 1982, ISBN 3-87804-125-X.
  • Staatl. Archivverwaltung Baden-Württemberg in Verbindung mit d. Städten u. d. Landkreisen Heidelberg u. Mannheim (Hrsg.): Die Stadt- und die Landkreise Heidelberg und Mannheim: Amtliche Kreisbeschreibung. Band 1: Allgemeiner Teil. Karlsruhe 1966, DNB 458203858. Band 3: Die Stadt Mannheim und die Gemeinden des Landkreises Mannheim. Karlsruhe 1970, DNB 366145509.
  • Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg (Hrsg.): Das Land Baden-Württemberg – Amtliche Beschreibung nach Kreisen und Gemeinden. Band V. * Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-17-002542-2.
  • Huth, Hans: Die Kunstdenkmäler des Stadtkreises Mannheim. München 1982, ISBN 3-422-00556-0.
  • Oesterreich, Carmen And Volker (Hrsg.): Mannheim, wo es am schönsten ist – 55 Lieblingsplätze. Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-936962-43-7.
  • Schenk, Andreas: Mannheim und seine Bauten 1907–2007. Hrsg. v. Stadtarchiv Mannheim und Mannheimer Architektur- und Bauarchiv e. V. 5 Bde. Edition Quadrat, Mannheim 2000–2007, ISBN 3-923003-83-8.
  • Walz, Guido (Red.): Der Brockhaus Mannheim. 400 Jahre Quadratestadt – Das Lexikon. Bibliographisches Institut & F. A. Brockhaus, Mannheim 2006, ISBN 3-7653-0181-7
  • Naturführer Mannheim. Entdeckungen im Quadrat. Hrsg. von der Stadt Mannheim und der Bezirksstelle für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege Karlsruhe. Verlag Regionalkultur, Ubstadt-Weiher 2000, ISBN 3-89735-132-3.
  • Ellrich, Hartmut: Mannheim. Sutton, Erfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-86680-148-6.
  • Nieß, Ulrich and Caroli, Michael (Hrsg.): Geschichte der Stadt Mannheim. Verlag Regionalkultur, Ubstadt-Weiher, Band 1: 2007, ISBN 978-3-89735-470-8. Band 2: 2007, ISBN 978-3-89735-471-5. Band 3: 2009, ISBN 978-3-89735-472-2.
  • Mannheimer Altertumsverein/Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen: Mannheim vor der Stadtgründung – Teile I und II. Hrsg. Hansjörg Probst, 4 Bände. Mannheim 2007/08, ISBN 978-3-7917-2074-6.
  • Vetter, Roland "Kein Stein soll auf dem andern bleiben" Mannheims Untergang während des Pfälzischen Erbfolgekrieges im Spiegel französischer Kriegsberichte ISBN 3-89735-204-4

External links

Adler Mannheim

The Adler Mannheim ('Mannheim Eagles', formerly Mannheimer ERC) are a professional ice hockey team of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga, the highest-level ice hockey league in Germany. The team is based in Mannheim, a city in the northern part of Baden-Württemberg. Currently, the team plays at SAP Arena, where they moved to at the beginning of the 2005–06 season after having played at Eisstadion am Friedrichspark for nearly seven decades from 1938 through 2005. They have won the German Championship a total of eight times, seven of those coming after 1994 in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga.

Bruno Mannheim

Bruno "Ugly" Mannheim is a villain who appears in DC Comics as one of Superman's enemies.

Caterpillar Energy Solutions

Caterpillar Energy Solutions GmbH, previously MWM GmbH and Deutz Power Systems (DPS), is a mechanical engineering company based in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. For many years it was known as Motoren-Werke Mannheim (MWM). In 2009 the company was the third-largest producer by revenue of gas and diesel engines.The main focus of production is gensets (gas and diesel engines) for the generation of electrical energy from 400 to 4,300 kWel per unit. It also provides consulting, designing and engineering, construction and commissioning of plants as well as global aftersales service. The company also has its own training center.

Deutsche Eishockey Liga

The Deutsche Eishockey Liga (German pronunciation: [ˌdɔʏtʃə ˈʔaɪshɔkiː ˌliːɡaː]; English: German Ice Hockey League) or DEL, is a German professional ice hockey league that was founded in 1994. It was formed as a replacement for the Eishockey-Bundesliga and became the new top-tier league in Germany as a result. Unlike the old Bundesliga, the DEL is not under the administration of the German Ice Hockey Federation.

In the 2016–17 season the league was the second-best supported in Europe, behind the Swiss National League A, with an average attendance of 6,198 spectators per game.

Gernot Rohr

Gernot Rohr (born 28 June 1953) is a German manager and former footballer. He is currently the manager of the Nigeria national football team.

Intergang

Intergang is an organized crime group in Superman and other DC comics. Armed with technology supplied by the villainous New Gods of the planet Apokolips, it is a potent foe who can seriously challenge the most powerful superheroes.

International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg

Mannheim-Heidelberg International Filmfestival (German: Internationales Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg), often shortened to IFFMH, is an annual film festival held jointly by the cities of Mannheim and Heidelberg in Baden-Württemberg. The festival was established in 1952.

The festival presents arthouse films of international newcomer directors. It is the second-oldest film festival in Germany (the oldest being Berlin). Since 1994 it has been held jointly by the cities of Mannheim and Heidelberg. The festival takes place annually around November.

The 67th International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg will take place from November 15 to 25 November in 2018.

Karl Benz

Karl Friedrich Benz (German: [bɛnts] (listen); 25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer. His Benz Patent Motorcar from 1885 is considered the first practical automobile. He received a patent for the motorcar on 29 January 1886.

Ludwigshafen

For Ludwigshafen am Bodensee, see Bodman-Ludwigshafen.Ludwigshafen am Rhein (German pronunciation: [ˈluːtvɪçsˌhaːfn̩ ʔam ˈʁaɪ̯n] (listen)) is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the river Rhine, opposite Mannheim. With Mannheim, Heidelberg, and the surrounding region, it forms the Rhine Neckar Area.

Known primarily as an industrial city, Ludwigshafen is the home of chemical giant BASF and other companies. Among its cultural facilities are the Staatsphilharmonie Rheinland-Pfalz. It is the birthplace of the former German chancellor Helmut Kohl and the philosopher Ernst Bloch.

The city is a global city with 'sufficiency' status.

Mannheim Hauptbahnhof

Mannheim Hauptbahnhof (German for Mannheim main station) is a railway station in Mannheim in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is the second largest traffic hub in southwestern Germany after Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, with 658 trains a day, including 238 long-distance trains. It is also a key station in the Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn. 100,000 passengers embark, disembark or transfer between trains at the station each day. The station was modernised in 2001. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 2 station.

Mannheim Steamroller

Mannheim Steamroller is an American neoclassical new-age music group founded by Chip Davis that is known primarily for its Fresh Aire series of albums, which blend classical music with elements of new age and rock, and for its modern recordings of Christmas music. The group has sold 28 million albums in the U.S. alone.

Mannheim school

Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers of the early classical period, who composed for the orchestra of Mannheim. The father of the school is considered to be the Bohemian composer Johann Stamitz. Besides him, two generations of composers wrote compositions for the orchestra, whose reputation was due to its excellent discipline and the individual skill of its players; the English traveler Charles Burney called it "an army of generals". Their performance style included new dynamic elements, crescendos and diminuendos. Composers of the Mannheim school played an important role in the development of the classical period's genres and of the classical symphony form.

Mannheim–Karlsruhe–Basel railway

The Mannheim–Karlsruhe–Basel railway is a double-track electrified mainline railway in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It runs from Mannheim via Heidelberg, Bruchsal, Karlsruhe, Rastatt, Baden-Baden, Offenburg and Freiburg to Basel, Switzerland. It is also known as the Rhine Valley Railway (German: Rheintalbahn) or the Upper Rhine Railway (Oberrheinbahn).

The line was built as part of the Baden Mainline (Badische Hauptbahn). Between Mannheim and Rastatt it runs parallel to the Baden Rhine Railway (Rheinbahn). The Karlsruhe–Basel high-speed railway, called the Ausbau- und Neubaustrecke Karlsruhe–Basel in German (literally: "Upgraded and new line Karlsruhe–Basel"), has been under construction since April 1987. This includes upgrading the current line to four-tracks in places and the construction of new line elsewhere. It was originally envisaged as being completed in 2008, but no final date for completion is now envisaged (as of 2015).

The Mannheim–Basel railway is one of the most important routes in the Deutsche Bahn network.

Mannheim–Stuttgart high-speed railway

The Mannheim–Stuttgart high-speed railway is a 99 km long railway line in Germany, connecting the cities of Mannheim and Stuttgart. The line was officially opened on 9 May 1991, and InterCityExpress service began on 2 June. The Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway also opened at the same time. The line cost about DM 4.5 billion to build and has 15 tunnels and more than 90 bridges.

Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn

The Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn forms the backbone of the urban rail transport network of the Rhine Neckar Area, including the cities of Mannheim, Heidelberg and Ludwigshafen.

The S-Bahn operates over 320 km of route in the states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg, and in small sections in Saarland and Hesse. S-Bahn trains operate about 6 million kilometres per year, with 105 stations served by 40 Class 425.2 Electric multiple units.

SAP Arena

SAP Arena is a multi-purpose arena in Mannheim, Germany. It is primarily used for ice hockey and handball, and is the home arena of the Adler Mannheim ice hockey club and the Rhein-Neckar Löwen handball club. Inaugurated in 2005, the arena has a capacity of up to 15,000 people. More than a hundred concerts and convention events are hosted at the arena annually. The SAP Arena is one of the largest in Germany and one of the most high-tech in Europe. The arena is named after its sponsor SAP.

A tram line (number 6) connects the SAP Arena to Mannheim city center and a newly built road connection to the B 38a highway connects it to the A 656 Autobahn, leading to the A656/A 6 interchange, connecting eastbound Mannheim to Heidelberg (A656), and north-southbound to Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Stuttgart (A6), as well as a little north on the A6 to Kaiserlautern (westbound).

In January 2018 the SAP Arena became the first multi-purpose arena in Germany that provides location-based services like indoor navigation and proximity marketing to its visitors. Therefore name sponsor SAP has had the arena equipped with 630 iBeacons by the German technology startup Favendo.

SV Waldhof Mannheim

SV Waldhof Mannheim is a multi-sports club, located in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg. It is most known for its association football team; however, there are also professional handball and table-tennis sides. The club today has a membership of over 2,400.

University of Mannheim

The University of Mannheim (in German: Universität Mannheim), abbreviated UMA, is a public research university in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1967, the university has its origins in the Palatine Academy of Sciences, which was established by Elector Carl Theodor at Mannheim Palace in 1763, as well as the Handelshochschule (Commercial College Mannheim), which was founded in 1907.The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs in business administration, economics, law, social sciences, humanities, mathematics, computer science and information systems. The university's campus is located in the city center of Mannheim and its main campus is in the Mannheim Palace. In the academic year 2016/2017 the university had 12,000 full-time students, 907 academic staff, with 194 professors, and a total income of around €123 million. It is organized into five schools and two graduate colleges.

VfR Mannheim

VfR Mannheim is a German association football club based in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg formed in 1911 out of the fusion of Mannheimer FG 1896, Mannheimer FG 1897 Union, and FC Viktoria 1897 Mannheim. The club captured the national title in 1949 with a victory over Borussia Dortmund. They have played through most of its recent history as an unheralded local amateur side and were, until 2015, part of the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg (V).

Climate data for Mannheim, Germany for 1981–2010 (Source: DWD)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
20.2
(68.4)
26.1
(79.0)
32.0
(89.6)
33.2
(91.8)
36.6
(97.9)
39.0
(102.2)
39.8
(103.6)
34.3
(93.7)
28.5
(83.3)
22.6
(72.7)
17.5
(63.5)
39.8
(103.6)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
6.7
(44.1)
11.6
(52.9)
16.2
(61.2)
20.6
(69.1)
23.7
(74.7)
26.1
(79.0)
25.9
(78.6)
21.2
(70.2)
15.3
(59.5)
8.9
(48.0)
5.3
(41.5)
15.50
(59.90)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
2.8
(37.0)
6.7
(44.1)
10.7
(51.3)
15.2
(59.4)
18.2
(64.8)
20.3
(68.5)
19.9
(67.8)
15.6
(60.1)
10.7
(51.3)
5.7
(42.3)
2.8
(37.0)
10.85
(51.53)
Average low °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
2.3
(36.1)
5.0
(41.0)
9.4
(48.9)
12.4
(54.3)
14.5
(58.1)
14.2
(57.6)
10.6
(51.1)
6.7
(44.1)
2.5
(36.5)
-0.0
(32.0)
6.28
(43.30)
Record low °C (°F) −18.7
(−1.7)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−13.6
(7.5)
−6.4
(20.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.0
(39.2)
4.7
(40.5)
5.3
(41.5)
2.5
(36.5)
−5.0
(23.0)
−8.7
(16.3)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−21.1
(−6.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.9
(1.61)
43.1
(1.70)
50.8
(2.00)
49.3
(1.94)
72.5
(2.85)
66.6
(2.62)
76.0
(2.99)
57.7
(2.27)
54.1
(2.13)
56.4
(2.22)
53.5
(2.11)
54.1
(2.13)
675.0
(26.57)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.2 85.6 124.0 180.2 214.1 219.1 235.1 222.1 164.1 108.8 59.0 44.9 1,712.2
Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst[17]
Important cities and tourist sites in Germany: Greater region of Heidelberg / Rhine-NeckarPalatinate
Major cities
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Neighboring areas
Cities in Germany by population
1,000,000+
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Flag of Baden-Württemberg Regions, and urban and rural districts in the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany Flag of Germany
Regions
Urban districts
Rural districts

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