Manner of death

In many legal jurisdictions, the manner of death is a determination, typically made by the coroner, medical examiner, police, or similar officials, and recorded as a vital statistic. Within the United States and the United Kingdom, a distinction is made between the cause of death (sometimes referred to as the "mechanism of death"), which is a specific disease or injury, versus manner of death, which is primarily a legal determination. Different categories are used in different jurisdictions, but manner of death determinations include everything from very broad categories like "natural" and "homicide" to specific manners like "traffic accident" or "attempted or self-induced abortion". In some cases an autopsy is performed, either due to general legal requirements, because the medical cause of death is uncertain, upon the request of family members or guardians, or because the circumstances of death were suspicious.

International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes can be used to record manner and cause of death in a systematic way that makes it easy to compile statistics and more feasible to compare events across jurisdictions.[1]


A death by natural causes results from an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces. For example, a person dying from complications from influenza (an infection), a heart attack (an internal body malfunction), or sudden heart failure would most likely be listed as having died from natural causes. "Death by natural causes" is sometimes used as a euphemism for "dying of old age", which is considered problematic as a cause of death (as opposed to a specific age-related disease); there are also many non-age-related causes of "natural" death, for legal manner-of-death purposes. (See Cause of death § Age)

An unnatural death results from an external cause, typically including homicides, suicides, accidents, medical errors, drug overdoses.[2][3] Jurisdictions differ in how they categorize and report unnatural deaths, including level of detail and whether they are considered a single category with subcategories, or separate top-level categories.[4] [5] There is no international standard on whether or how to classify a death as natural vs. unnatural.[6]

"Mechanism of death" is sometimes used to refer to the proximate cause of death, which might differ than the cause that is used to classify the manner of death. For example, the proximate cause or mechanism of death might be brain ischemia (lack of blood flow to the brain), caused by a malignant neoplasm (cancer), in turn caused by a dose of ionizing radiation administered by a person with intent to kill or injure, leading to certification of the manner of death as "homicide".

The manner of death can be recorded as "undetermined" if there is not enough evidence to reach a firm conclusion.[7] For example, the discovery of a partial human skeleton indicates a death, but might not provide enough evidence to determine a cause.[8]

Categories by jurisdiction

United States

In the United States, a manner of death is expressed as belonging to one classification of a group of six possible: [9][4][8]

In some jurisdictions, some more detailed manners may be reported in numbers broken out from the main four or five. For example:

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, when people die, either a doctor writes an acceptable natural cause of death medical certificate, or a coroner (procurator fiscal in Scotland) investigates the case.[11] Coroners are independent judicial officers who investigate deaths reported to them, and subsequently whatever inquiries are necessary to discover the cause of death, this includes ordering a post-mortem examination, obtaining witness statements and medical records, or holding an inquest. [12]In the unified legal jurisdiction of England and Wales, most deaths are certified by doctors without autopsy or coroner involvement. Almost all deaths certified by the coroner involve an autopsy but most do not involve a formal inquest.[13]

In England and Wales, a specific list of choices for verdicts is not mandated, and "narrative verdicts" are allowed, which are not specifically classified. The verdicts aggregated by the Ministry of Justice are:[14]

Other jurisdictions

Some jurisdictions place deaths in absentia, such as deaths at sea and missing persons declared dead in a court of law, in the "Undetermined" category on the grounds that due to the fact-finder's lack of ability to examine the body, the examiner has no personal knowledge of the manner of (assumed) death; others classify such deaths in an additional category "Other," reserving "Undetermined" for deaths in which the fact-finder has access to the body, but the information provided by the body and examination of it is insufficient to provide sufficient grounds for a determination.

The Norwegian Medical Association classifies what other jurisdictions might call "undetermined" as "unnatural":[5]

  • Sudden and unexpected death of an unknown cause
  • Deaths in prison or while in civilian or military detention

Legal implications

A death ruled as homicide or unlawful killing is typically referred to police or prosecutor or equivalent official for investigation and criminal charges if warranted. Deaths caused by capital punishment, though homicides, are generally assumed to be lawful and are not prosecuted. Most deaths due to war are not prosecuted, unless there is evidence of a war crime, in which case troops on foreign territory might be prosecuted by the military justice system, domestic law enforcement, or the International Criminal Court.

Some insurance contracts, such as life insurance policies, have special rules for certain manners of death. Suicide, for example, may invalidate claims under terms of such a contract.

See also


  1. ^ a b c National Center for Health Statistics - Classification of Death and Injury Resulting from Terrorism - How are external cause of injury codes assigned?, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. retrieved April 26, 2019
  2. ^ External causes of death, University of Melbourne, retrieved April 25, 2019
  3. ^ A. Eriksson (2016) (Michael D. Freeman and Maurice P. Zeegers) Forensic Epidemiology Elsevier ISBN 9780124045842 retrieved April 27, 2019
  4. ^ a b Bryant, Clifton D. (2003). Handbook of death & dying. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p. 968. ISBN 0-7619-2514-7.
  5. ^ a b G. Cecilie Alfsen - Medical autopsies after deaths outside hospital, Tidsskriftet - The Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association retrieved April 25, 2019
  6. ^ Harris A (2017) - 'Natural' and 'Unnatural' medical deaths and coronial law: A UK and international review of the medical literature on natural and unnatural death and how it applies to medical death certification and reporting deaths to coroners: Natural/Unnatural death: A Scientific Review. Med Sci Law. 2017 Jul;57(3):105-114. doi: 10.1177/0025802417708948. Epub 2017 Jul 3. retrieved April 26, 2019
  7. ^ Palmer, Brian (21 December 2009). "What, Exactly, Are "Natural Causes"?".
  8. ^ a b c Snohomish County Government, Washington Cause & Manner of Death retrieved April 27, 2019
  9. ^ The Crime Museum - Cause, Mechanism, and Manner of Death retrieved April 27, 2019
  10. ^ Stark, Martha (2000). A physician's guide to clinical forensic medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 225. ISBN 0-89603-742-8.
  11. ^ Andrew Harris (July 2017) 'Natural' and 'Unnatural' medical deaths and coronial law: A UK and international review of the medical literature on natural and unnatural death and how it applies to medical death certification and reporting deaths to coroners: Natural/Unnatural death: A Scientific Review, ResearchGate  retrieved April 27, 2019
  12. ^ Coroners, post-mortems and inquests, nidirect retrieved April 27, 2019
  13. ^ [1] - Figure 1, page 16
  14. ^ "Statistics on deaths reported to coroners England and Wales, 2008" (PDF). Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin. 7 May 2009. p. 17. - Table 6: Inquest verdicts returned, 1994-2008

Further reading

External links


An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes. (The term "necropsy" is generally reserved for non-human animals; see below). Autopsies are usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. In most cases, a medical examiner or coroner can determine cause of death and only a small portion of deaths require an autopsy.

Cause of death

In law, medicine, and statistics, cause of death is an official determination of conditions resulting in a human's death, which may be recorded on a death certificate. A cause of death is determined by a medical examiner. The cause of death is a specific disease or injury, in contrast to the manner of death which is a small number of categories like "natural", "accident", and "homicide", which have different legal implications.International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes are often used to record manner and cause of death in a systematic way that makes it easy to compile statistics and more feasible to compare events across jurisdictions.


A coroner is a government official who is empowered to conduct or order an inquest into the manner or cause of death, and to investigate or confirm the identity of an unknown person who has been found dead within the coroner's jurisdiction.

In medieval times, English coroners were Crown officials who held financial powers and conducted some judicial investigations in order to counterbalance the power of sheriffs.

The word coroner derives from the same source as the word crown, and it is believed to denote an officer of the Crown.

Death by misadventure

In the United Kingdom a death by misadventure, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is one that is primarily attributed to an accident that occurred due to a risk that was taken voluntarily. In contrast, when a cause of death is listed as an accident rather than a misadventure, this implies no unreasonable willful risk. Misadventure is a legally defined manner of death: a way by which an actual cause of death (trauma, exposure, etc.) was allowed to occur. For example, a death caused by an illicit drug overdose may be ruled a death by misadventure as the user took the risk of drug usage voluntarily. Misadventure is a form of unnatural death, a category that also includes accident, suicide, and homicide.

Death of Darren Rainey

Darren Rainey (January 12, 1962 – June 23, 2012) died at the Dade Correctional Institution (Dade CI) in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, on June 23, 2012. The prison is in proximity to Florida City, and is south of Homestead.

In 2014, Dade CI prisoner Mark Joiner accused prison authorities of fatally torturing prisoner Darren Rainey, who was mentally ill, by scalding him in a shower. A prisoner stated that 50-year-old Rainey, DOC#060954, had defecated in his cell and refused to clean it, and because of that the prison guards punished him. He died on June 23, 2012. Originally the police classified the death as unexplained, and the DOC never punished any staff. Two officers on duty at the time of the death later received promotions. The police began interviewing witnesses after the Miami Herald obtained public records and made a visit to the prison.

Death of Elisa Lam

The body of Elisa Lam, also known by her Cantonese name, Lam Ho Yi (藍可兒; April 30, 1991 – February 2013), a Canadian student at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, was recovered from a water tank atop the Cecil Hotel in Downtown Los Angeles on February 19, 2013. She had been reported missing at the beginning of the month. Maintenance workers at the hotel discovered the body when investigating guest complaints of problems with the water supply.

Her disappearance had been widely reported; interest had increased five days prior to her body's discovery when the Los Angeles Police Department released video of the last time she was known to have been seen, on the day of her disappearance, by an elevator security camera. In the footage, Lam is seen exiting and re-entering the elevator, talking and gesturing in the hallway outside, and sometimes seeming to hide within the elevator, which itself appears to be malfunctioning. The video went viral on the Internet, with many viewers reporting that they found it unsettling. Explanations ranged from claims of paranormal involvement to bipolar disorder from which Lam suffered; it has also been argued that the video was altered prior to release.The circumstances of Lam's death, once she was found, also raised questions, especially in light of the Cecil's history in relation to other notable deaths and murders. Her body was naked with most of her clothes and personal effects floating in the water near her. It took the Los Angeles County Coroner's office four months, after repeated delays, to release the autopsy report, which reports no evidence of physical trauma and states that the manner of death was accidental. Guests at the Cecil, now re-branded as Stay on Main, sued the hotel over the incident, and Lam's parents filed a separate suit later that year; the latter was dismissed in 2015. Some of the early Internet interest noted what were considered to be unusual similarities between Lam's death and the 2005 horror film Dark Water. The case has since been referenced in international popular culture.

Death of Mark Duggan

Mark Duggan, a 29-year-old British man, was shot and fatally wounded by police in Tottenham, North London, England, on 4 August 2011. The Metropolitan Police stated that officers were attempting to arrest Duggan on suspicion of planning an attack, and that he was in possession of a handgun. Duggan died from a gunshot wound to the chest. The circumstances of Duggan's death resulted in public protests in Tottenham, which led to conflict with police and escalated into riots across London and other English cities.Duggan was under investigation by Operation Trident, a subdivision of the Metropolitan Police. He was known to be in possession of a BBM Bruni Model 92 handgun (a blank-firing replica of a Beretta 92 converted to fire live rounds), given to him by Kevin Hutchinson-Foster, 15 minutes before he was shot. At a trial of Hutchinson-Foster in September–October 2012 the jury failed to reach a verdict. At his re-trial, on 31 January 2013, Hutchinson-Foster was convicted of supplying Duggan with the gun and jailed. The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) has been investigating the case but has delayed release of its report for more than a year. A public inquest on the Duggan death began on 16 September 2013, and ended on 8 January 2014 with an 8–2 majority concluding that Duggan's death was a lawful killing.The official account of Duggan's death has undergone numerous changes, attracting criticism and suspicion from interested parties and other supporters. These critics accuse police of misconduct and of failing to cooperate with those investigating Duggan's death.


A donation is a gift for charity, humanitarian aid, or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms, including money, alms, services, or goods such as clothing, toys, food, or vehicles. A donation may satisfy medical needs such as blood or organs for transplant.

Charitable donations of goods or services are also called gifts in kind.


Drekkana (Sanskrit: द्रेष्काण or द्रेक्काण) is one of the sixteen main vargas (divisions of a sign) described by Parasara to Maitreya who wanted to be explained about the different kinds of houses (Brihat Parasara Hora Sastra (Sl. VI.1). Parasara states that relationship with co-borns is to be judged from the drekkanas occupied by planets. All standard ancient texts on Hindu astrology describe these vargas. The actual disposition of a planet is properly known from its occupation of these sixteen vargas. These sixteen sub-divisional charts which are one of the four dimensions of astrology are a basic ingredient of Hindu astrology, and each sub-divisional chart is firstly required to be studied independently and then collectively as one. M. Ramakrishna Bhat is of the opinion that Drekkana is not a Sanskrit word but borrowed from the Greek.Drekkana is one third equal part of a sign (Rasi) or 1/36th part of the Zodiac, the first part is ruled by the lord of the very sign that is referred to, the second part is ruled by the lord of the 5th sign from that sign and the third part is ruled by the lord of the 9th sign from the sign in question. However, Rudra states that some interpret the said Parasari rule as lords of the 5th and the 9th navamsas whereas the Kalpa Latha of Somanatha states that the twelve drekkanas from Mesha ('Aries') to Karaka ('Cancer') will have for their lords, the rulers of the twelve signs, in clock-wise symmetrical order from Mesha and similarly for the rest i.e. from Simha ('Leo') and from Dhaunus ('Sagittarius'). And, there is also the Parivritti Thrayapaksha method recommended in the Vriddha Karikas of Jaimini which suggests the lordship as per the scheme followed while erecting the Navamsa Chart. Varahamihira subscribes to the Parasari method and describes all thirty-six drekkanas (Brihat Jataka Ch.XXVII). A planet gains strength when it is in its own drekkana. He recommends the use of the drekkana occupied by the Sun at the time of query for ascertaining the lagna when the time of birth is not known.Kalyanavarma in the 49th Chapter of his Saravali explains the result of birth in individual drekkanas or 'decanates' which are applicable only if – द्रेक्काणभे वीर्यवति स्वद्रष्टे द्रेक्काणकल्पं तु फलं विदध्यात् - the drekkana and its lord are strong or the aspect of the lord of the drekkana falls on the drekkana (Saravali (Sl. 49.37)). The Drekkana Chart or 'the third Harmonic Chart' indicates relationship with the co-borns; when the lord of the 3rd house is posited in a friendly drekkana, it indicates good results. A planet occupying its own drekkana confers virtues; the Moon similarly situated endows one with best of qualities of body and mind, and the lord of the lagna occupying the first, second or the third drekkana makes one a judge, a ruler of a mandal or head of a village i.e. attain high position respectively. B V Raman in his book, “How to Judge a Horoscope (Vol.1)” has explained the impact of planets in various drekkanas and their lords on the financial position of individuals. He states that the person will remain happy all his life if the lord of the lagna occupies a friendly drekkana.The importance of drekkana-wise placement of planets and the bhava-lords is revealed by the ancient texts. Garga with regard to a sensitive issue states that if the Moon is situated in Sagittarius or Pisces or in a drekkana or navamsa ruled by Jupiter or if it joins Jupiter in any sign, the person will not be born of adultery. And, Sarvartha Chintamani tells us that if the lord of the 5th house is aspected by the lord of the navamsa occupied by the lord of the 12th house there will be sorrow on account of the death of children. The bad manner of death is indicated by the adverse situation and association of certain drekkana-lords. Sarvartha Chintamani states -

a) When the drekkana occupied by the lord of the 8th falls in Pasa (the first drekkana of Capricorn), Sarpa (the third drekkana of Cancer or joins Saturn, Māndi or Rahu, one dies by imprisonment or hanging.

b) If the lord of the drekkana occupied by Saturn is in the sign or navamsa ruled by Mars and is aspected by Mars, one meets with death in battle.

c) If Venus or the Moon is in debilitation sign in the 4th house and the lord of the 7th occupies a Pasa or Sarpa drekkana, wife will die by hanging.

Venkatesa further states that if the lord of the drekkana occupied by the lord of the 11th house is a benefic planet and is aspected by the lord of the 10th, there will be much money, and with regard to the state after death he states - If the lord of the drekkana occupied by the most powerful among the two planets, the Sun and the Moon, happens to be Jupiter, the person gets into Devaloka, if that lord is the Moon or Venus, then one goes to Pitruloka, and if that be the Sun, Mars or Mercury, he goes to hell; if that lord also receives beneficial aspects the person attains an important position in the loka he ascends, if it is exalted will have exalted loka, if debilitated he will go to Naraka loka. Venus situated in a cruel drekkana gives fear from enemies, imprisonment and great misery, chains and troubles from robbers.In the Tajik system, the division of each sign into three parts or decanates is governed by the so-called Chaldean system which entered the art of Tajik by way of the Middle East.

Elisa Bridges

Elisa Rebeca Bridges (May 24, 1973 – February 7, 2002) was an American actress and model. She is Playboy magazine's Playmate of the Month for December 1994, and Playboy's Video Playmate of the Month for September 1996. She appeared in several video productions from Playboy Home Video from 1996 to 2000. After appearing in Playboy, she modeled frequently on assignments in Los Angeles, Miami, and Hawaii. She also appeared as a model for Perfect 10. She was born in Miami and raised in Houston.

On February 7, 2002, Bridges died in a guest bedroom of the Benedict Canyon, Los Angeles mansion of Edward Nahem, a longtime acquaintance of Hugh Hefner. Nahem last saw Bridges the previous evening and knew she had a noon appointment the following day, then became concerned after arriving home that evening and finding her car still in the driveway. He found her unresponsive in her bed and attempted CPR as instructed by 911 operators; paramedics arrived and pronounced her dead on the scene. The room contained no illegal drugs or drug paraphernalia; a bottle of Xanax was found in her purse and a plastic cup with a white, powdery substance was found in the bathroom wastebasket. Although Playboy stated that she died of natural causes, the official coroner's report listed her "manner of death is accident ... Acute intoxication by the combined effects of heroin, methamphetamine, meperidine and alprazolam".

External cause

In medicine, an external cause is a reason for the existence of a medical condition which can be associated with a specific object or acute process that was caused by something outside the body. Such causes are classified as "E codes" in ICD 9.External Cause of Injury Codes (E codes) are ICD-9-CM codes or ICD-10 codes that are used to define the mechanism of death or injury, along with the place of occurrence of the event. [1] E codes are assigned on death certificates based on the manner of death. ICD-10 codes in the range V01–X59 refer to unintentional injuries. Codes in the range X60–X84 refer to intentional self-harm. Codes in the range Y85–Y09 refer to assault, and codes in the range Y10–Y34 refer to events of undetermined intent. [2]

E codes are well-collected on death certificate data, but less so on hospital discharge data. Numerous initiatives have increased the percentage of records coded (CDC, MMWR March 28, 2008 / Vol. 57 / No. RR-1).

Greek hero cult

Hero cults were one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion. In Homeric Greek, "hero" (ἥρως, hḗrōs) refers to a man who fought (on either side) during the Trojan War. By the historical period, however, the word came to mean specifically a dead man, venerated and propitiated at his tomb or at a designated shrine, because his fame during life or his unusual manner of death gave him power to support and protect the living. A hero was more than human but less than a god, and various kinds of supernatural figures came to be assimilated to the class of heroes; the distinction between a hero and a god was less than certain, especially in the case of Heracles, the most prominent, but atypical hero.The grand ruins and tumuli remaining from the Bronze Age gave the pre-literate Greeks of the 10th and 9th centuries BC a sense of a grand and vanished age; they reflected this in the oral epic tradition, which would crystallize in the Iliad. Copious renewed offerings begin to be represented, after a hiatus, at sites like Lefkandi, even though the names of the grandly buried dead were hardly remembered. "Stories began to be told to individuate the persons who were now believed to be buried in these old and imposing sites", observes Robin Lane Fox.

Legal death

Legal death is the recognition under the law of a particular jurisdiction that a person is no longer alive. In most cases, a doctor's declaration of death (variously called) or the identification of a corpse is a legal requirement for such recognition. A person who has been missing for a sufficiently long period of time (typically at least several years) may be presumed or declared legally dead, usually by a court. When a death has been registered in a civil registry, a death certificate may be issued. Such death certificate may be required in a number of legal situations, such as applying for probate, claiming some benefits or making an insurance claim, etc.

Marcus Fulvius Flaccus (consul 125 BC)

Marcus Fulvius Flaccus was a Roman senator and an ally of the Gracchi. He became an administrator of the agrarian reform in 130 BC, and as a solution to the problem of land division among the allied cities, proposed Roman citizenship for the allies' citizens, thus introducing a question that vexed Roman politics for many years. Elected consul in 125 BC, he was ordered by the Roman Senate to assist Massilia (modern Marseille) against depredations of the Salluvii. He became the first to overcome the transalpine Ligurians in war and returned in 123 BC with a triumph.

Flaccus was appointed to the Agrarian Commission in 129 BC. In 122 BC he became a tribune to assist Gaius Gracchus in implementing an amended version of his policy of citizenship for Italians, making him the only ex-consul to hold the position of tribune.He founded a Roman colony, Colonia Junonia, on the ruins of Carthage. When he and Gracchus failed to win re-election in 121 BC, Flaccus led a mass protest on the Aventine Hill, but the consul Lucius Opimius suppressed it brutally, killing Flaccus, among many others, and resulting in the suicide of Gracchus.

Plutarch describes him as a born agitator. Cicero describes Flaccus as an orator of moderate gifts and comments that his writings reveal him as a student of letters rather than an orator.Flaccus had at least two sons: the elder son, possibly named Marcus Fulvius Flaccus after him due to Roman naming conventions, was executed along with the senior Flaccus after being discovered hiding in an abandoned bath or workshop; the younger son Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, who served only as a herald for his father and Gracchus, was also executed, with Lucius Opimius allowing the young boy to choose his own manner of death.


The Masraige were a Fir Bolg tribe inhabiting Magh Slécht in County Cavan, Ireland. They were also called Masragii, Masraide, Masraidhe, Masruidhe, Mascraide, Masree, Macraighe or Mascraidhe. The name can be translated as "Beautiful/Fine-Looking/Handsome Folk", from Old Irish mas "fine, becoming, beautiful, handsome" and raighe "pre-Gaelic tribe".

Masraige is mentioned in the Life of Dallán Forgaill as his birthplace.

In the Annals of the Four Masters, they are mentioned as having killed Conall Gulban -"M464.3 Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages (from whom are descended the Cinel Conaill), was slain by the old tribes of Magh Slecht, he having been found unprotected, and was buried at Fidhnach Maighe Rein, by Saint Caillín, as the Life of the aforesaid saint relates."

The Book of Fenagh mentions them as follows-

Page 89

“I prophesy thee, without anguish.

Give me my tribute every time,

as Conall Gulban gave it.

Conall was the first king of Tara,

of the Clann-Neill, without dispute.

'Till he was slain in prosperous Magh-Rein,

sixteen years he happily spent.

The Masraighe went to the East

once, on a great foray to Tara;

Whereupon Conall quickly came,

to Magh-Rein, in pursuit of them.

A flying spear killed the king,

on that journey, without falsehood,

on Magh-Rein, at Dun-baile,

of which the Masraighe boasted.

Conall was interred in the earth,

between the Lake and the Dun.”

Page 139

“One time the Masraidhe of Magh-Slecht went on a predatory expedition

to Tara, when they brought a prey of horses with them from the east.

Conall, on hearing the shoutings, proceeded with the small number that was

near him at the time; and he ceased not from [pursuing] them until he came

to Dun-Conaing on Magh-Rein, to wit, Fidhnacha at this day. And the old

Tuatha-Slecht slew him, because he was unarmed; and that would not have

been an occasion of slaughter to them, if luck had not willed. Or it is a

flying spear that killed him. But whichever of them was his [manner of]

death, it was the Masraidhe that committed the deed. Howsoever, the stone

and grave of Conall were placed on Magh-Rein, at Dun-Baile.”

Page 145

“Dun-Conaing was this place [called], till to day,

during the time of sixty prosperous kings,

until Conall son of Niall fell,

by the sons of the Liath, over the gap of treachery.

Berna-in-braith was its name until this day,

from the betrayal of Conall, the head of the host;

Fidhnacha of Caillin son of Niata

shall be its name, without falsehood, to the day of doom.

In pursuit of horses he stoutly came,

from the east, from Tara of the flocks,

with a small company; 'twas a foolish journey,

for he was slain by the old Tuatha-Slecht.

Being without a shield against lance-thrusts

was what caused the king his mortal wound.

Too many men, and too many weapons,

found the man at a disadvantage.”

The Masraige were one of the Aithechthúatha, a generic designation for certain Irish ethnic groups, usually translated as "rent-paying tribes", "vassal communities" or "tributary peoples". The term meant any tribe which did not belong to the ruling dynasties (such as Uí Néill or Eóganachta) who were overlords of the older tribes. The Masraige feature in an old Irish tale entitled "Cairpre Cindchait and the Athach Tuatha" The Masraige were conquered by the Uí Briúin Bréifne in the 8th century.

Massa Candida

The Massa Candida were 300 early Christian martyrs from Utica who chose death rather than offering incense to Roman Gods, in approximately 253-60 AD. They were put to death by Galerius Maximus, the governor of the province of Africa. The title "Massa Candida" or "White Mass or Lump" refers to their manner of death. The Catholic Encyclopedia reports that they were hurled into a pit of burning lime and thus reduced to a mass of white powder. They are commemorated on August 24.


Opossunoquonuske (variant form: Oppussoquionuske) (died 1610) was a weroansqua, or female chief, of the Powhatan Confederacy.

Little is recorded of Opossunoquonuske's life, although she is known to have been a sister of the weroance Coquonasum. She was one of the first Virginia Indian leaders met by the English colonists in 1607; they called her the queen of Appamattuck, and she ruled a town near the mouth of the Appomattox River. The community was large enough to provide about twenty warriors to the Powhatan Confederacy. Her description was recorded by various settlers; John Smith called her "young and comely", while Gabriel Archer called her "a fatt lustie manly woman". She wore a copper crown and other copper jewelry to greet the Englishmen, and did not flinch when at her request one of Christopher Newport's men fired a gun in her presence; Newport met with her on May 26, at what was known as "Queene Apumatecs bower".The Appomattoc tribe was wary of the English, and in the summer of 1610 Opossunoquonuske invited fifteen settlers, who had been collecting water upriver from the settlement at Jamestown, to come to her town. Claiming that the women of the village would be afraid of their weapons, she persuaded the men to leave them in the boat; she then invited them to sit down for a meal, at which she had them ambushed. Her men killed all but one who managed to escape; the survivor, Thomas Dowse, managed to return to the boat and protect himself with the rudder. The men's manner of death is not recorded, nor is it noted if they were tortured. In retaliation, the English burned the town and killed several of its inhabitants. Opossunoquonuske herself was reported to have been mortally wounded and to have died that winter. John Smith, in his narrative of the colony, discusses the burning of the town but not the reason behind it, calling the motive only the "injurie done us by them of Apomatock".Opossunoquonuske was named one of the Virginia Women in History for 2007; she is recorded as being associated with Chesterfield County, Virginia.

Scuba diving fatalities

Scuba diving fatalities are deaths occurring while scuba diving or as a consequence of scuba diving. The risks of dying during recreational, scientific or commercial diving are small, and on scuba, deaths are usually associated with poor gas management, poor buoyancy control, equipment misuse, entrapment, rough water conditions and pre-existing health problems. Some fatalities are inevitable and caused by unforeseeable situations escalating out of control, though the majority of diving fatalities can be attributed to human error on the part of the victim.Equipment failure is rare in open circuit scuba, and while the cause of death is commonly recorded as drowning, this is mainly the consequence of an uncontrollable series of events taking place in water. Air embolism is also frequently cited as a cause of death, and it, too is the consequence of other factors leading to an uncontrolled and badly managed ascent, possibly aggravated by medical conditions. About a quarter of diving fatalities are associated with cardiac events, mostly in older divers. There is a fairly large body of data on diving fatalities, but in many cases the data is poor due to the standard of investigation and reporting. This hinders research which could improve diver safety.

Scuba diving fatalities have a major financial impact by way of lost income, lost business, insurance premium increases and high litigation costs.

Spoon River Anthology

Spoon River Anthology (1915), by Edgar Lee Masters, is a collection of short free verse poems that collectively narrates the epitaphs of the residents of Spoon River, a fictional small town named after the real Spoon River that ran near Masters' home town of Lewistown, Illinois. The aim of the poems is to demystify rural and small town American life. The collection includes 212 separate characters, in all providing 244 accounts of their lives, losses, and manner of death. Many of the poems contain cross-references that create an unabashed tapestry of the community. The poems were originally published in the St. Louis, Missouri literary journal Reedy's Mirror.

In medicine
After death

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