Mango

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. The genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia,[1][2] from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most widely cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, Mangifera foetida) are grown on a more localized basis.

It is the national fruit of India and Pakistan, and the national tree of Bangladesh.[3] It is the unofficial national fruit of the Philippines.[4]

Mangoes pic
Mango fruit

Etymology

The English word "mango" (plural "mangoes" or "mangos") originated from the Malayalam word māṅṅa (or mangga) via Dravidian-Tamil (or mankay, literally meaning "highest fruit") during the spice trade period with South India in the 15th and 16th centuries.[5][6]

History

The earliest known reference to the cultivation of mangoes can be traced to India up to 2000 BCE[7] Mango was brought to East Asia around 400–500 BCE, in the 15th century to the Philippines, and in the 16th century to Africa and Brazil by Portuguese explorers.[8]

Mango is mentioned by Hendrik van Rheede, the Dutch commander of the Malabar region in his 1678 book, Hortus Malabaricus, about plants having economic value.[9] When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled because of lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes", especially bell peppers, and in the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle".[10]

Description

09251jfFilipino foods fruits Bulacan landmarksfvf 37
The Carabao mango, the national fruit of the Philippines. Like other tropical Southeast Asian-type mangoes, it is characteristically polyembryonic and bright yellow when ripe, unlike the subtropical Indian-type mangoes which are monoembryonic and reddish when ripe.[11]

Mango trees grow to 35–40 m (115–131 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years.[12] In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft), with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots and anchor roots penetrating deeply into the soil.[1] The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–13.8 in) long, and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, then dark green as they mature.[1] The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild, sweet fragrance.[1] Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known,[1] many of which ripen in summer, while some give a double crop.[13] The fruit takes four to five months from flowering to ripen.[1]

The ripe fruit varies in size, shape, color, sweetness, and eating quality.[1] Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red, or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp.[1] The fruits may be somewhat round, oval, or kidney-shaped, ranging from 5–25 centimetres (2–10 in) in length and from 140 grams (5 oz) to 2 kilograms (5 lb) in weight per individual fruit.[1] The skin is leather-like, waxy, smooth, and fragrant, with color ranging from green to yellow, yellow-orange, yellow-red, or blushed with various shades of red, purple, pink or yellow when fully ripe.[1]

Ripe intact mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell.[1] Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) long. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds which do not survive freezing and drying.[14] Mango trees grow readily from seeds, with germination success highest when seeds are obtained from mature fruits.[1]

Mango tree Kerala in full bloom

A mango tree in full bloom in Kerala

Mango flower blossom

Mango flower blossom

MangoImmatureFruits

Closeup of the inflorescence and immature fruits of an 'Alphonso' mango tree

Cultivation

Sindhri Mango
Sindhri mango

Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and reached Southeast Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. By the 10th century CE, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[15] The 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported it at Mogadishu.[16] Cultivation came later to Brazil, Bermuda, the West Indies, and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[15]

The mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; almost half of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India alone, with the second-largest source being China.[17][18][19] Mangoes are also grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that permits the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees. The Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America (in South Florida and California's Coachella Valley), South and Central America, the Caribbean, Hawai'i, south, west, and central Africa, Australia, China, South Korea, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia. Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than 1% of the international mango trade; India consumes most of its own production.[20][21]

Many commercial cultivars are grafted on to the cold-hardy rootstock of Gomera-1 mango cultivar, originally from Cuba. Its root system is well adapted to a coastal Mediterranean climate.[22] Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are easily cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine[23]) to the Bullock's Heart. Dwarf or semidwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers. A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes.

Cultivars

Alphonso mango
Alphonso mangoes, named after Afonso de Albuquerque, who introduced the fruit to Goa

There are many hundreds of named mango cultivars. In mango orchards, several cultivars are often grown in order to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonic and must be propagated by grafting or they do not breed true. A common monoembryonic cultivar is 'Alphonso', an important export product, considered as "the king of mangoes".[24]

Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as 'Julie', a prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatments to escape the lethal fungal disease anthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose.

The current world market is dominated by the cultivar 'Tommy Atkins', a seedling of 'Haden' that first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida and was initially rejected commercially by Florida researchers.[25] Growers and importers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its excellent productivity and disease resistance, shelf life, transportability, size, and appealing color.[26] Although the Tommy Atkins cultivar is commercially successful, other cultivars may be preferred by consumers for eating pleasure, such as Alphonso.[24][26]

Generally, ripe mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating, while exported fruit are often picked while underripe with green peels. Although producing ethylene while ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavor as fresh fruit.

Production

Mango* production – 2017
Country (millions of tonnes)
 India
19.5
 China
4.8
 Thailand
3.8
 Indonesia
2.6
 Mexico
2.0
World
50.6
* includes mangosteens and guavas reported to FAOSTAT
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[27]

In 2017, global production of mangoes (report includes mangosteens and guavas) was 50.6 million tonnes, led by India with 39% (19.5 million tonnes) of the world total (see table).[27] China and Thailand were the next largest producers (table).

Food

Mangoes are generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars; some have a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while others are firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, and some may have a fibrous texture. The skin of unripe, pickled, or cooked mango can be consumed, but has the potential to cause contact dermatitis of the lips, gingiva, or tongue in susceptible people.

Cuisine

Sliced-cubed Mango 01

The "hedgehog" style is a form of mango preparation

Glass of Mango Juice

A glass of mango juice

MANGO SEASON (562892060)

Sliced Ataulfo mangoes

Mango Chutney

Mango chutney

Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles,[28] side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A summer drink called aam panna comes from mangoes. Mango pulp made into jelly or cooked with red gram dhal and green chillies may be served with cooked rice. Mango lassi is popular throughout South Asia,[29] prepared by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with buttermilk and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with chapatis or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called mangada. Andhra aavakaaya is a pickle made from raw, unripe, pulpy, and sour mango, mixed with chili powder, fenugreek seeds, mustard powder, salt, and groundnut oil. Mango is also used in Andhra Pradesh to make dahl preparations. Gujaratis use mango to make chunda (a spicy, grated mango delicacy).

Mangoes are used to make murabba (fruit preserves), muramba (a sweet, grated mango delicacy), amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango), and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle and alcohol. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products such as muesli and oat granola. Mangoes are often prepared charred in Hawaii.

Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce, vinegar, soy sauce, or with dash of salt (plain or spicy). Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes.

Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies, and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper, and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms.

Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.

Food constituents

Mango
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy250 kJ (60 kcal)
15 g
Sugars13.7
Dietary fiber1.6 g
0.38 g
0.82 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
7%
54 μg
6%
640 μg
23 μg
Thiamine (B1)
2%
0.028 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.038 mg
Niacin (B3)
4%
0.669 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
4%
0.197 mg
Vitamin B6
9%
0.119 mg
Folate (B9)
11%
43 μg
Choline
2%
7.6 mg
Vitamin C
44%
36.4 mg
Vitamin E
6%
0.9 mg
Vitamin K
4%
4.2 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
11 mg
Iron
1%
0.16 mg
Magnesium
3%
10 mg
Manganese
3%
0.063 mg
Phosphorus
2%
14 mg
Potassium
4%
168 mg
Sodium
0%
1 mg
Zinc
1%
0.09 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Nutrients

The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of the common mango is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (330 kJ (79 kcal) per 100 g). Fresh mango contains a variety of nutrients (right table), but only vitamin C and folate are in significant amounts of the Daily Value as 44% and 11%, respectively.[30][31]

Phytochemicals

Numerous phytochemicals are present in mango peel and pulp, such as the triterpene, lupeol which is under basic research for its potential biological effects.[32]

Mango peel pigments under study include carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[33][34] and polyphenols, such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins and tannins.[35][36] Mango contains a unique xanthonoid called mangiferin.[37]

Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango cultivars.[38] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango cultivars.[39] Mango leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.[40]

The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 because of malnutrition of the cattle and possible urushiol poisoning.[41] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.[42]

Flavor

Flavor chemicals of "Alphonso" mango
Major flavor chemicals of 'Alphonso' mango from India

The flavor of mango fruits is constituted by several volatile organic chemicals mainly belonging to terpene, furanone, lactone, and ester classes. Different varieties or cultivars of mangoes can have flavor made up of different volatile chemicals or same volatile chemicals in different quantities.[43][44] In general, New World mango cultivars are characterized by the dominance of δ-3-carene, a monoterpene flavorant; whereas, high concentration of other monoterpenes such as (Z)-ocimene and myrcene, as well as the presence of lactones and furanones, is the unique feature of Old World cultivars.[44][45][46] In India, 'Alphonso' is one of the most popular cultivars. In 'Alphonso' mango, the lactones and furanones are synthesized during ripening; whereas terpenes and the other flavorants are present in both the developing (immature) and ripening fruits.[47][48][49][50] Ethylene, a ripening-related hormone well known to be involved in ripening of mango fruits, causes changes in the flavor composition of mango fruits upon exogenous application, as well.[51][52] In contrast to the huge amount of information available on the chemical composition of mango flavor, the biosynthesis of these chemicals has not been studied in depth; only a handful of genes encoding the enzymes of flavor biosynthetic pathways have been characterized to date.[53][54][55][56]

Potential for contact dermatitis

Contact with oils in mango leaves, stems, sap, and skin can cause dermatitis and anaphylaxis in susceptible individuals.[57] Those with a history of contact dermatitis induced by urushiol (an allergen found in poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac) may be most at risk for mango contact dermatitis.[58] Cross-reactions may occur between mango allergens and urushiol.[59] During the primary ripening season of mangoes, contact with mango plant parts is the most common cause of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.[60] However, sensitized individuals are still able to safely eat peeled mangos or drink mango juice.[60]

Cultural significance

Ellora cave34 001
An image of Ambika under a mango tree in Cave 34 of the Ellora Caves

The mango is the national fruit of India,[61][62] Pakistan, and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of Bangladesh.[63][64] In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May and this is annually covered by news agencies.[24]

The mango has a traditional context in the culture of South Asia. In his edicts, the Mauryan emperor Ashoka references the planting of fruit- and shade-bearing trees along imperial roads:

"On the roads banyan-trees were caused to be planted by me, (in order that) they might afford shade to cattle and men, (and) mango-groves were caused to be planted."

In medieval India, the Indo-Persian poet Amir Khusrow termed the mango "Naghza Tarin Mewa Hindustan" -- "the fairest fruit of Hindustan". Mangoes were enjoyed at the court of the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khijli, and the Mughal Empire was especially fond of the fruits: Babur praises the mango in his Babarnameh, while Sher Shah Suri inaugurated the creation of the Chaunsa variety after his victory over the Mughal emperor Humayun. Mughal patronage to horticulture led to the grafting of thousands of mangoes varieties, including the famous Totapuri, which was the first variety to be exported to Iran and Central Asia. Akbar (1556–1605) is said to have planted a mango orchard of 100,000 trees at Lakhi Bagh in Darbhanga, Bihar[65], while Jahangir and Shah Jahan ordered the planting of mango-orchards in Lahore and Delhi and the creation of mango-based desserts.[66][67]

The Jain goddess Ambika is traditionally represented as sitting under a mango tree.[68] Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati. Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations such as Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram and silk sarees. In Tamil Nadu, the mango is referred to as one of the three royal fruits, along with banana and jackfruit, for their sweetness and flavor.[69] This triad of fruits is referred to as ma-pala-vazhai. The classical Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa sang the praises of mangoes.[70]

Mangoes were popularized in China during the Cultural Revolution as symbols of Chairman Mao Zedong's love for the people.[71]

Gallery

Flora Sinensis - Mango

The mango illustrated by Michael Boym in the 1656 book Flora Sinensis

Mango Maya

A nearly ripened purple mango, Israel

Shan-e-khuda.jpeg

Shan-e-Khuda, a mango grown in Pakistan

Guntur Mango

Banganpalli mangoes being sold in Guntur

Mangoes in Paris farmer's market

Mangos in a Paris farmers' market

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Morton, Julia Frances (1987). Mango. In: Fruits of Warm Climates. NewCROP, New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University. pp. 221–239. ISBN 978-0-9610184-1-2.
  2. ^ Kostermans, AJHG; Bompard, JM (1993). The Mangoes: Their Botany, Nomenclature, Horticulture and Utilization. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-421920-5.
  3. ^ "Mango tree, national tree". 15 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  4. ^ Pangilinan, Jr., Leon (3 October 2014). "In Focus: 9 Facts You May Not Know About Philippine National Symbols". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  5. ^ "Mango". Merriam Webster Dictionary. 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018. Origin of mango: Portuguese manga, probably from Malayalam māṅga. First Known Use: 1582
  6. ^ "Mango". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 1580s, from Portuguese manga, from Malay (Austronesian) mangga, from Tamil (Dravidian) mankay, from man "mango tree" + kay "fruit."
  7. ^ Sauer, Jonathan D. (2017). Historical geography of crop plants : a select roster. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 1351440624.
  8. ^ Gepts, P. (n.d.). "PLB143: Crop of the Day: Mango, Mangifera indica". The evolution of crop plants. Dept. of Plant Sciences, Sect. of Crop & Ecosystem Sciences, University of California, Davis. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  9. ^ "Hendrik Adriaan Van Reed Tot Drakestein 1636–1691 and Hortus, Malabaricus". google.co.in. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  10. ^ Creed, Richard (5 September 2010). "Relative Obscurity: Variations of antigodlin grow". Winston-Salem Journal (Opinion). Retrieved 6 September 2010. One plausible explanation of the usage [calling a green pepper a mango] is this: Mangos (the real thing) that were imported into the American colonies were from the East Indies. Transport was slow. Refrigeration was not available, so the mangos were pickled for shipment. Because of that, people began referring to any pickled vegetable or fruit as a mango ... bell peppers stuffed with spiced cabbage and pickled ... became so popular that bell peppers, pickled or not, became known as mangos. In the early 18th century, mango became a verb meaning to pickle.
  11. ^ Rocha, Franklin H.; Infante, Francisco; Quilantán, Juan; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E. (March 2012). "'Ataulfo' Mango Flowers Contain a Diversity of Thrips (Thysanoptera)". Florida Entomologist. 95 (1): 171–178. doi:10.1653/024.095.0126.
  12. ^ "Mango". California Rare Fruit Growers. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  13. ^ "Mango (Mangifera indica) varieties". toptropicals.com. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  14. ^ Marcos-Filho, Julio. "Physiology of Recalcitrant Seeds" (PDF). Ohio State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  15. ^ a b Ensminger 1995, p. 1373.
  16. ^ Watson, Andrew J. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques, 700–1100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–3. ISBN 978-0-521-24711-5.
  17. ^ Jedele, S.; Hau, A.M.; von Oppen, M. "An analysis of the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 2003" (PDF).
  18. ^ "India world's largest producer of mangoes, Rediff India Abroad, 21 April 2004". Rediff.com. 31 December 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  19. ^ "Mad About mangoes: As exports to the U.S. resume, a juicy business opportunity ripens, India Knowledge@Wharton Network, June 14, 2007". Knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  20. ^ "USAID helps Indian mango farmers access new markets". USAID-India. 3 May 2006. Archived from the original on 1 June 2006.
  21. ^ "USAID Helps Indian Mango Farmers Access New Markets". Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
  22. ^ "actahort.org". actahort.org. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  23. ^ According to the Oxford Companion to Food
  24. ^ a b c Jonathan Allen (10 May 2006). "Mango Mania in India". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  25. ^ Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book. New York: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-204-4.
  26. ^ a b Mintz C (24 May 2008). "Sweet news: Ataulfos are in season". Toronto Star Online. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  27. ^ a b "Production of mangoes, mangosteens, and guavas in 2017, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  28. ^ D.Devika Bal (8 May 1995). "Mango's wide influence in Indian culture". New Strait Times. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  29. ^ "Vah Chef talking about Mango Lassi's popularity and showing how to make the drink". Vahrehvah.com. 17 November 2016.
  30. ^ "Nutrient profile for mango from USDA SR-21". Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  31. ^ "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, SR-28, Full Report (All Nutrients): 09176, Mangos, raw". National Agricultural Library. USDA. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  32. ^ Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (2008). "Lupeol: connotations for chemoprevention". Cancer Lett. 263 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.01.047. PMID 18359153.
  33. ^ Berardini N, Fezer R, Conrad J, Beifuss U, Carle R, Schieber A (2005). "Screening of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars for their contents of flavonol O – and xanthone C-glycosides, anthocyanins, and pectin". J Agric Food Chem. 53 (5): 1563–70. doi:10.1021/jf0484069. PMID 15740041.
  34. ^ Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF, Camp JV (2007). "Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice)". Eur J Clin Nutr. 61 (10): 1180–8. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602841. PMID 17637601.
  35. ^ Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST, Goodner K, Baldwin EA (2006). "Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits". J Agric Food Chem. 54 (19): 7355–63. doi:10.1021/jf060566s. PMID 16968105.
  36. ^ Singh UP, Singh DP, Singh M, et al. (2004). "Characterization of phenolic compounds in some Indian mango cultivars". Int J Food Sci Nutr. 55 (2): 163–9. doi:10.1080/09637480410001666441. PMID 14985189.
  37. ^ Andreu GL, Delgado R, Velho JA, Curti C, Vercesi AE (2005). "Mangiferin, a natural occurring glucosyl xanthone, increases susceptibility of rat liver mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition". Arch Biochem Biophys. 439 (2): 184–93. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2005.05.015. PMID 15979560.
  38. ^ Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Sant'ana HM (2007). "Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp". Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 62 (1): 13–7. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0035-3. PMID 17243011.
  39. ^ Chen JP, Tai CY, Chen BH (2004). "Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.)". J Chromatogr A. 1054 (1–2): 261–8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01406-2. PMID 15553152.
  40. ^ Barreto JC, Trevisan MT, Hull WE, et al. (2008). "Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)". J Agric Food Chem. 56 (14): 5599–610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID 18558692.
  41. ^ Source: Kühn. "History of Indian yellow, Pigments Through the Ages". Webexhibits.org. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  42. ^ Finlay, Victoria (2003). Color: A Natural History of the Palette. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7142-2.
  43. ^ Macleod AJ, Pieris NM, 1984. Comparison of the volatile components of some mango cultivars. Phytochemistry 23, 361-366.
  44. ^ a b Pandit SS, Chidley HG, Kulkarni RS, Pujari KH, Giri AP, Gupta VS, 2009, Cultivar relationships in mango based on fruit volatile profiles, Food Chemistry, 144, 363–372.
  45. ^ Narain N, Bora PS, Narain R and Shaw PE (1998). Mango, In: Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Edt. by Shaw PE, Chan HT and Nagy S. Agscience, Auburndale, FL, USA, pp. 1-77.
  46. ^ Kulkarni RS, Chidley HG, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta VS, 2012, Flavor of mango: A pleasant but complex blend of compounds, In Mango Vol. 1: Production and Processing Technology Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Eds. Sudha G Valavi, K Rajmohan, JN Govil, KV Peter and George Thottappilly) Studium Press LLC.
  47. ^ Pandit, Sagar S.; Kulkarni, Ram S.; Chidley, Hemangi G.; Giri, Ashok P.; Pujari, Keshav H.; Köllner, Tobias G.; Degenhardt, Jörg; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya S. (2009). "Changes in volatile composition during fruit development and ripening of 'Alphonso' mango". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 89 (12): 2071–2081. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3692.
  48. ^ Gholap, A. S., Bandyopadhyay, C., 1977. Characterization of green aroma of raw mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 28, 885-888
  49. ^ Idstein, H., Schreier, P., 1985. Volatile constituents of Alphonso mango (Mangifera indica). Phytochemistry 24, 2313–2316.
  50. ^ Kulkarni RS, Chidley HG, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta VS, 2012, Geographic variation in the flavour volatiles of Alphonso mango. Food Chemistry, 130, 58–66.
  51. ^ Lalel HJD, Singh Z, Tan S, 2003, The role of ethylene in mango fruit aroma volatiles biosynthesis, Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 78, 485-496.
  52. ^ Chidley HG, Kulkarni RS, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta VS, 2013, Spatial and temporal changes in the volatile profile of Alphonso mango upon exogenous ethylene treatment. Food Chemistry, 136, 585-594.
  53. ^ Pandit SS, Kulkarni RS, Giri AP, Köllner TG, Degenhardt J, Gershenzon J, Gupta VS, 2010, Expression profiling of various genes during the development and ripening of Alphonso mango, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48, 426–433.
  54. ^ Singh RK, Sane VA, Misra A, Ali SA, Nath P, 2010, Differential expression of the mango alcohol dehydrogenase gene family during ripening, Phytochemistry, 71, 1485–1494.
  55. ^ Kulkarni RS, Pandit SS, Chidley HG, Nagel R, Schmidt A, Gershenzon J, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta VS, 2013, Characterization of three novel isoprenyl diphosphate synthases from the terpenoid rich mango fruit. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 71, 121–131.
  56. ^ Kulkarni RS, Chidley HG, Deshpande A, Schmidt A, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gershenzon J, Gupta VS, 2013, An oxidoreductase from ‘Alphonso’ mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls, SpringerPlus, 2, 494.
  57. ^ Miell J, Papouchado M, Marshall A (1988). "Anaphylactic reaction after eating a mango". British Medical Journal. 297 (6664): 1639–40. doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6664.1639. PMC 1838873. PMID 3147776.
  58. ^ Hershko K, Weinberg I, Ingber A (2005). "Exploring the mango – poison ivy connection: the riddle of discriminative plant dermatitis". Contact Dermatitis. 52 (1): 3–5. doi:10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.00454.x. PMID 15701120.
  59. ^ Oka K, Saito F, Yasuhara T, Sugimoto A (2004). "A study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol". Contact Dermatitis. 51 (5–6): 292–6. doi:10.1111/j.0105-1873.2004.00451.x. PMID 15606656.
  60. ^ a b McGovern TW, LaWarre S (2001). "Botanical briefs: the mango tree—Mangifera indica L.". Cutis. 67 (5): 365–6. PMID 11381849.
  61. ^ "National Fruit". Know India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  62. ^ "National Fruit".
  63. ^ "Mango tree, national tree". BDnews24.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  64. ^ "Mango tree, national tree". bdnews24.com.
  65. ^ Curtis Morgan (18 June 1995). "Mango has a long history as a culinary treat in India". The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  66. ^ Dash, Madhulika (June 2016). "A Complete History Of The Mango - From The Times Of Mauryas To Mughals". Swarajya Magazine.
  67. ^ Sen, Upala (June 2017). "Peeling the Emperor of Fruits". Telegraph India.
  68. ^ Ambika In Jaina Art And Literature.
  69. ^ Subrahmanian N, Hikosaka S, Samuel GJ (1997). Tamil social history. p. 88. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
  70. ^ "His highness, Mango maharaja: An endless obsession – Yahoo! Lifestyle India". In.lifestyle.yahoo.com. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  71. ^ Moore, Malcolm (7 March 2013). "How China came to worship the mango during the Cultural Revolution". Telegraph.co.uk. Additional reporting by Valentina Luo. Retrieved 28 September 2015.

External links

Alphonso (mango)

The 'Alphonso' mango, also called Hafoos, Hapuz, or Aapoos, is a named mango cultivar that originated in India. Favored for its sweetness, richness and flavor, the Alphonso has been called the king of mangoes.

Amchoor

Amchoor or aamchur, also referred to as mango powder, is a fruity spice powder made from dried unripe green mangoes and is used as a citrusy seasoning. It is produced in India, and is used to flavor foods and add the nutritional benefits of mangoes when the fresh fruit is out of season.

Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The word "sativa" means things that are cultivated.

Dried fruit

Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, and long shelf life.

Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are raisins, followed by dates, prunes, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. These are referred to as "conventional" or "traditional" dried fruits: fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, blueberries, cherries, strawberries and mango are infused with a sweetener (e.g. sucrose syrup) prior to drying. Some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya, kiwi fruit and pineapple are most often candied fruit.

Dried fruits retain most of the nutritional value of fresh fruits. The specific nutrient content of the different dried fruits reflects their fresh counterpart and the processing method.

Grove (nature)

A grove is a small group of trees with minimal or no undergrowth, such as a sequoia grove, or a small orchard planted for the cultivation of fruits or nuts. Other words for groups of trees include woodland, woodlot, thicket, or stand.

The main meaning of "grove" is a group of trees that grow close together, generally without many bushes or other plants underneath. It is an old word in English, with records of its use dating as far back as 1,000 years ago, although the word's true origins are unknown.

Naturally-occurring groves are typically small, perhaps a few acres at most. Orchards, by contrast, may be small or very large, like the apple orchards in Washington state, and orange groves in Florida.

Historically, groves were considered sacred in pagan, pre-Christian Germanic, Nordic and Celtic cultures. Helen F. Leslie-Jacobsen argues that "we can assume that sacred groves actually existed due to repeated mentions in historiographical and ethnographical accounts. e.g. Tacitus, Germania."

Island Records

Island Records is a record label owned by Universal Music Group. It was founded in 1959 by Chris Blackwell, Graeme Goodall, and Leslie Kong in Jamaica, and was eventually sold to PolyGram in 1989. Island and A&M Records, another label recently acquired by PolyGram, were both at the time the largest independent record labels in history, with Island in particular having exerted a major influence on the progressive music scene in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s.

Island Records operates four international divisions: Island UK, Island US, Island Australia, and Island France (known as Vertigo France until 2014). Current key people include Island US president Darcus Beese, OBE and MD Jon Turner. Partially due to its significant legacy, Island remains one of UMG's pre-eminent record labels.

Artists who have signed to Island Records include Roxy Music, Bishop Briggs, Hozier, Demi Lovato, Fall Out Boy, The Killers, Leona Lewis, U2, Mumford & Sons, Amy Winehouse, Ben Howard, James TW, Florence + The Machine, Sigrid, John Newman, Catfish and the Bottlemen, Sandy Denny, Disclosure, Big Shaq, AlunaGeorge, Keane, Annie Lennox, JP Cooper, PJ Harvey, Janet Jackson, John Martyn, Nick Jonas, KSI, Robyn, Shawn Mendes, Jessie J, and scarlxrd.

Lassi

Lassi (pronounced [ləsiː]) is a popular traditional dahi (yogurt)-based drink that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Lassi is a blend of yogurt, water, spices and sometimes fruit.

List of mango cultivars

Worldwide, hundreds of mango cultivars exist. In mango orchards, multiple cultivars are often grown together to improve cross-pollination.

Mangifera indica

Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent where it is indigenous. Hundreds of cultivated varieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world. It is a large fruit-tree, capable of a growing to a height and crown width of about 30 metres (100 ft) and trunk circumference of more than 3.7 metres (12 ft).The species domestication is attributed to India around 2000 BCE. Mango was brought to East Asia around 400–500 BCE, in the 15th century to the Philippines, and in the 16th century to Africa and Brazil by Portuguese explorers. The species was assessed and first named in botanical nomenclature by Linnaeus in 1753. Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines and the national tree of Bangladesh.

Mango, Piedmont

Mango is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Turin and about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northeast of Cuneo.

Mango borders the following municipalities: Camo, Castino, Coazzolo, Cossano Belbo, Neive, Neviglie, Rocchetta Belbo, Santo Stefano Belbo, and Trezzo Tinella.

Mango (Saturday Night Live)

Mango was a character performed by Chris Kattan on the American sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live. The character was co-created and developed by Kattan and SNL writer Scott Wainio along with initial creative contributions by Roy Jenkins. Mango is a male exotic dancer who performed in a strip club. He would always wear tight lamé shorts and often a spangled beret. Mango spoke with a Hispanic accent, and though his nationality was never identified, he was said to be born on "Mango Island". He appeared on 16 SNL episodes between 1997 and 2002.

Mango TV

Mango TV (芒果TV, Mángguǒ TV) is a Chinese Internet enterprise operated by mgtv.com Corporation. Mango TV was established on May 26, 2006 in Changsha, Hunan and later decided to use 'Mango TV(Internet TV, PC, Phone and Pad)' as its video platform branding title in 2008. Mango TV specializes in creating online videos and is an online platform providing all of the content that is presented in TV channels, and all other copyright works from Hunan Broadcasting System and Hunan Satellite TV. Its current headquarter is located in Golden Eagle Movie&TV Cultural City, Changsha, Hunan, China. Mango TV provides audience with all kinds of content including films, TV series, music, cartoons and entertainment.

On May 5, 2016, Mango TV was reported to have 39 million daily active users on its website, with the content from Hunan Satellite TV only accounting for 38% in all that Mango TV has produced.On May 9, 2018, the license which Hunan Broadcasting System got to broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest was taken away after it was revealed that Mango TV, which broadcast Eurovision 2018 for Chinese audiences, censored the Albanian and Irish performances, along with censoring any rainbow flags which were seen in the audience.

Mango cake

Mango cake or mango chiffon cake, is a Filipino layered chiffon cake infused with ripe sweet Carabao mangoes. It is typically topped with mango cream frosting, fresh mango slices, or pureed mangoes in gulaman or gelatin. Other common toppings include cream, cream cheese, and chocolate. It also commonly sandwiches slices of mangoes between the layers. It is one of the most popular cake variants in the Philippines, where mangoes are abundant year-round. Commercial versions are also available in large bakery chains like Red Ribbon Bakeshop and Goldilocks Bakeshop, as well as individual recipes from restaurants, often with unique names. It is very similar to crema de mangga (or "mango float"), except that mango cake uses layers of chiffon cake not broas or graham crackers. The two recipes can sometimes be combined, however.Like in ube cakes, mango cakes can also be made as other traditional Filipino mamón cake forms, like as pianonos (Swiss rolls).

Mango float

Mango float or crema de mangga is a Filipino icebox cake dessert made with layers of ladyfingers (broas) or graham crackers, whipped cream, condensed milk, and ripe carabao mangoes. It is chilled for a few hours before serving, though it can also be frozen to give it an ice cream-like consistency. It is a modern variant of the traditional Filipino crema de fruta cake. It is also known by various other names like mango refrigerator cake, mango graham float, mango royale, and mango icebox cake, among others. Crema de mangga is another version that additionally uses custard and gulaman (agar) or gelatin, as in the original crema de fruta.Mango float can also be made with various other fruits like strawberries, pineapple, bananas, and cherries, among others. Combinations of different fruits result in a version closer to the original crema de fruta.

Mango language (Sino-Tibetan)

Mango (autonym: ma˨˩ŋo˨˩) is a Lolo-Burmese language spoken by just under 50 people in Guangnan County, Yunnan, China.Mango is spoken in the two villages of Mumei 木美 (Mango: mei˥te˧) and Zhelai 者赖 (Mango: ɕi˥te˧), both located in Babao Town 八宝镇 (Mango: ba˧wo˧).

Mango pudding

Mango pudding is a very popular dessert in Hong Kong, where pudding is eaten as a traditional British food.

There is very little variation between the regional mango pudding's preparation. The dessert is also found in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Macau and is often served as dim sum in Chinese restaurants.

The fresh variant is prepared by the restaurant or eatery and consists of agar or gelatin, mangoes, evaporated milk, and sugar.

In addition, fresh fruit such as mango, strawberries, berries and kiwifruit, are occasionally added as garnish. Served and eaten refrigerator cold, mango pudding has a rich and creamy texture.

Some Chinese restaurants make the mango pudding in fish shape because goldfish or koi expresses good luck in Chinese culture.On the other hand, factory-made mango pudding does not contain fresh mangoes and instead, consists of mango essence and either gelatin or agar.

Mango sticky rice

Mango sticky rice (Thai: ข้าวเหนียวมะม่วง, RTGS: khaoniao mamuang, pronounced [kʰâ(ː)w.nǐa̯w mā.mûa̯ŋ]; Malay: pulut mangga) is a traditional Thai dessert made with glutinous rice, fresh mango and coconut milk, and eaten with a fork, spoon, or sometimes the hands. Although originating in Thailand, it is consumed throughout the Indochina region and the rest of Southeast Asia and South Asia, including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, India and Bangladesh. Mango sticky rice is usually eaten in the peak mango season, the summer months of April and May in Thailand. The notable mango sticky rice shops in Bangkok such as the Wong Wian Yi Sip Song Karakadakhom neighborhood in Pom Prap Sattru Phai near Hua Lamphong, which will only sell for 4 months per year (February to June), and at the Samphrang neighborhood in Phra Nakhon near Giant Swing and Chao Por Suea Joss House, with the Ban Mo near Si Kak Phraya Si Intersection and Pak Khlong Talat.

Paisley (design)

Paisley or paisley pattern is an ornamental design using the buta (Persian: بته‎) or boteh, a teardrop-shaped motif with a curved upper end. Of Iranian origin, paisley designs became very popular in the West in the 18th and 19th centuries, following imports of post-Mughal Empire versions of the design from India, especially in the form of Kashmir shawls, and were then imitated locally. Although the fig- or almond-like form is of Iranian origin, its English name derives from the town of Paisley, in the West of Scotland, a centre for textiles where paisley designs were produced.

The pattern is still commonly seen in Britain and other English-speaking countries on men's ties, but remains popular in other items of clothing in Iran and South and Central Asian countries.

Red Mango

Red Mango FC, LLC is a frozen yogurt and smoothie brand known for its all-natural frozen yogurt, fresh fruit smoothies, yogurt parfaits, and fresh juices. There are now more than 50 locations in over 15 states in the United States and 40 in Mexico and Central America. In 2011, Red Mango was named the No. 1 Zagat Rated chain in America for smoothies and frozen yogurt.

Mangoes
Mango cultivars
Other topics
Cereals
Fruit
Vegetables
Other
Related
Main symbols
Monuments and Memorials
People
Flora and fauna
Dress
Other symbols
Official
Unofficial
National heroes

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.