Manganese oxide

Manganese oxide is any of a variety of manganese oxides and hydroxides.[1] These include

It may refer more specifically to the following manganese minerals:

Manganese may also form mixed oxides with other metals such as Fe, Nb, Ta, ... :

  • Bixbyite, a manganese iron oxide mineral
  • Jacobsite, a manganese iron oxide mineral
  • Columbite, also called niobite, niobite-tantalite and columbate
  • Tantalite, a mineral group close to columbite
  • Coltan, a mixture of columbite and tantalite
  • Galaxite, a spinel mineral
  • Todorokite, a rare complex hydrous manganese oxide mineral

References

  1. ^ Wells A.F. (1984) Structural inorganic chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications, ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
Aminomethylphosphonic acid

Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is a weak organic acid with a phosphonic acid group. It is one of the primary degradation products of the herbicide glyphosate.

AMPA has toxicity which is comparable to that of glyphosate and it is therefore considered to be of similar toxicological concern as (harmful in greater than 0.5 parts per billion) glyphosate itself. AMPA has the potential to be broken down further by manganese oxide in laboratory conditions, however in soil manganese oxide is usually only present in trace amounts. Microbial degradation of AMPA is the more likely degradation pathway, where it degrades into phosphoric acid and ultimately to carbon dioxide and inorganic phosphate.

Bromargyrite

Bromyrite or bromargyrite is a natural mineral form of silver bromide found mainly in Mexico and Chile. Hardness is 1.5 to 2. Related are chlorargyrite and iodyrite.

It was first described in 1859 for an occurrence in Plateros, Zacatecas, Mexico where it occurred in a silver deposit as an oxidation product of primary ore minerals. It occurs in arid environments along with native silver, iodargyrite and smithsonite along with iron and manganese oxide minerals.

Chapmans Pool

Chapman's Pool is a small cove to the west of Worth Matravers on the Isle of Purbeck, in Dorset, England.

Cristallo

Cristallo is a glass which is totally clear (like rock crystal), without the slight yellow or greenish color originating from iron oxide impurities. This effect is achieved through small additions of manganese oxide. Often Cristallo has a low lime content which makes it prone to glass corrosion (otherwise known as glass disease).

The invention of Cristallo glass is attributed to Angelo Barovier around 1450.

Cryptomelane

Cryptomelane is a potassium manganese oxide mineral with formula K(Mn4+,Mn2+)8O16.

In 1942 the name cryptomelane was proposed as part of an effort to sort out the manganese oxide minerals referred to as psilomelane. Cryptomelane was identified and defined based on X-ray diffraction studies of samples from Tombstone, Arizona; Deming, New Mexico; Mena, Arkansas; and Philipsburg, Montana.Cryptomelane was approved in 1982 by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The type locality is the Tombstone District, Cochise County, Arizona, US. The name comes from the Greek for hidden and black, in reference to the confusion and difficulty in recognition of the various black manganese oxide minerals referred to as psilomelane, the collective term for hard manganese oxides.It is of rather common occurrence in oxidized manganese deposits where it occurs as replacements and open space fillings in veins and vugs. It occurs in association with pyrolusite, nsutite, braunite, chalcophanite, manganite and various other manganese oxides.

Ferromanganese

Ferromanganese, a ferroalloy with high content of manganese, is made by heating a mixture of the oxides MnO2 and Fe2O3, with carbon, usually as coal and coke, in either a blast furnace or an electric arc furnace-type system, called a submerged arc furnace. The oxides undergo carbothermal reduction in the furnaces, producing the ferromanganese. Ferromanganese is used as a deoxidizer for steel.

Henry Bessemer invented the use of ferromanganese as a method of introducing manganese in controlled proportions during the production of steel. The advantage of combining powdered iron oxide and manganese oxide together is the lower melting point of the combined alloy compared to pure manganese oxide.

A North American standard specification is ASTM A99. The ten grades covered under this specification includes;

Standard ferromanganese

Medium-carbon ferromanganese

Low-carbon ferromanganeseA similar material is a pig iron with high content of manganese, is called spiegeleisen.

Geology of the British Indian Ocean Territory

The geology of the British Indian Ocean Territory comprises the Chagos Archipelago—the above water portion of the Chagos Bank. Formed from hotspot volcanism, the Chagos Bank was separated from the Nazareth Bank, which is administered by Mauritius, 36 million years ago by activity on the Central Indian Ridge. Aside from plate boundaries, the region is one of the most seismically active and earthquakes have caused subsidence of some islands.

Described by Charles Darwin as "a ledge of brecciated coral rocks projecting seawards from the outer shore," the Chagos Archipelago has unusual conglomerate platforms. The islands lack Eemian age carbonates, which are present in the Seychelles for reasons that are not clear—hypothesized to include local storm erosion.The offshore waters around the archipelago contain deep-sea ferromanganese nodules, with globular, dendritic and laminated microstructures formed from iron-manganese oxide.

Due to the US military presence on the island the US Geological Survey has conducted water resource analysis since 1984.

The islands of the Chagos Archipelago are mainly low and flat, mainly not reaching two meters above sea level.

List of battery types

This page is a list of notable battery types grouped by types of battery.

Lithium ion manganese oxide battery

A Lithium ion manganese oxide battery (LMO) is a lithium ion cell that uses manganese dioxide, MnO2, as the cathode material. They function through the same intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism as other commercialized secondary battery technologies, such as LiCoO2. Cathodes based on manganese-oxide components are earth-abundant, inexpensive, non-toxic, and provide better thermal stability.

Manganese(II,III) oxide

Manganese(II,III) oxide is the chemical compound with formula Mn3O4. Manganese is present in two oxidation states +2 and +3 and the formula is sometimes written as MnO.Mn2O3. Mn3O4 is found in nature as the mineral hausmannite.

Manganite

Manganite is a mineral composed of manganese oxide-hydroxide, MnO(OH), crystallizing in the monoclinic system (pseudo-orthorhombic). Crystals of manganite are prismatic and deeply striated parallel to their length; they are often grouped together in bundles. The color is dark steel-grey to iron-black, and the luster brilliant and submetallic. The streak is dark reddish brown. The hardness is 4, and the specific gravity is 4.3. There is a perfect cleavage parallel to the brachypinacoid, and less-perfect cleavage parallel to the prism faces. Twinned crystals are not infrequent.

The mineral contains 89.7% manganese sesquioxide; it dissolves in hydrochloric acid with evolution of chlorine.

Nickel manganese oxide

Nickel manganese oxides, or nickel manganates, are spinel structure compounds of Nickel, Manganese and Oxygen of the form: Ni(x)Mn(3-x)O(y)Some common forms are Ni2MnO4, NiMn2O4, and Ni1.5Mn1.5O4They are most commonly formulated for use in thin film resistors and thermistors. The resistivity and temperature coefficient can be accurately controlled in the manufacturing process. In nickel-metal hydride batteries the addition of manganese oxide provides for formation of spinel structure nickel manganates in various oxidation states, with higher conductivity and charge capacity than nickel hydroxides alone.

Nsutite

Nsutite is a manganese oxide mineral with formula: (Mn4+1−xMn2+xO2-2x(OH)2x where x = 0.06-0.07). It is found in most large manganese deposits and was first discovered in Nsuta, Ghana. Since then, it has been found worldwide. Nsutite is a dull mineral with a hardness of 6.5-8.5 and an average specific gravity of 4.45. Nustite is used as a cathode in zinc-carbon batteries, but synthetic manganese oxide is gradually replacing it.

Psilomelane

Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese oxide with variable amounts of barium and potassium. Psilomelane is erroneously, and uncommonly, known as black hematite, despite not being related to true hematite, which is an iron oxide.

Romanèchite

Romanèchite ((Ba,H2O)2(Mn+4,Mn+3)5O10) is the primary constituent of psilomelane, which is a mixture of minerals. Most psilomelane is not pure romanechite, so it is incorrect to consider them synonyms. Romanèchite is a valuable ore of manganese, which is used in steelmaking. It has a monoclinic crystal structure, a hardness of 6 and a specific gravity of 4.7-5. It is associated with hematite, barite, pyrolusite, quartz and other manganese oxide minerals. It has been found in France, Germany, England, Brazil and various parts of the United States, including Arizona, Virginia, Tennessee and Michigan.

Sienna

Sienna (from Italian: terra di Siena, "Siena earth") is an earth pigment containing iron oxide and manganese oxide. In its natural state, it is yellow-brown and is called raw sienna. When heated, it becomes a reddish brown and is called burnt sienna. It takes its name from the city-state of Siena, where it was produced during the Renaissance. Along with ochre and umber, it was one of the first pigments to be used by humans, and is found in many cave paintings. Since the Renaissance, it has been one of the brown pigments most widely used by artists.

The first recorded use of sienna as a colour name in English was in 1760.

Umber

Umber is a natural brown or reddish-brown earth pigment that contains iron oxide and manganese oxide. Umber is darker than the other similar earth pigments, ochre and sienna.In its natural form, it is called raw umber. When heated (calcinated), the color becomes more intense, and then becomes known as burnt umber.

The name comes from terra d'ombra, or earth of Umbria, the Italian name of the pigment. Umbria is a mountainous region in central Italy where the pigment was originally extracted. The word also may be related to the Latin word ombra, meaning "shadow".Umber is not one precise color, but a range of different colors, from medium to dark, from yellowish to reddish to grayish. The color of the natural earth depends upon the amount of iron oxide and manganese in the clay. Umber earth pigments contain between five and twenty percent manganese oxide, which accounts for their being a darker color than yellow ochre or sienna. Commercial colors vary depending upon the manufacturer or the color list. Not all umber pigments contain natural earths; some contain synthetic iron and manganese oxide, indicated on the label. Pigments containing the natural umber earths indicate them on the label as PBr7 (Pigment brown 7), following the Colour Index International system.

The color shown in the box at right is one of the many commercial varieties of umber, from the ISCC-NBS color list: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)—Color Sample of Umber (color sample #61).

Wad

Wad is an old mining term for any black manganese oxide or hydroxide mineral-rich rock in the oxidized zone of various ore deposits. Typically closely associated with various iron oxides. Specific mineral varieties include pyrolusite, lithiophorite, nsutite, takanelite and vernadite. Wad can be considered to be the manganese equivalent to the iron mineraloid limonite.

Zamboni pile

The Zamboni pile (also referred to as a Duluc Dry Pile) is an early electric battery, invented by Giuseppe Zamboni in 1812.

A Zamboni pile is an "electrostatic battery" and is constructed from discs of silver foil, zinc foil, and paper. Alternatively, discs of "silver paper" (paper with a thin layer of zinc on one side) gilded on one side or silver paper smeared with manganese oxide and honey might be used. Discs of approximately 20 mm diameter are assembled in stacks, which may be several thousand discs thick, and then either compressed in a glass tube with end caps or stacked between three glass rods with wooden end plates and insulated by dipping in molten sulfur or pitch.Zamboni piles of more modern construction were manufactured as recently as the 1980s for providing the accelerating voltage for image intensifier tubes, particularly in military use. Today such voltages are obtained from transistorised inverter circuits powered by conventional (low-voltage) batteries.

The EMF per element is approximately 0.8 volts; with thousands of stacked elements, Zamboni piles have output potential differences in the kilovolt range, but current output in the nanoampere range. The famous Oxford Electric Bell, which has been ringing continuously since 1840, is thought to be powered by a pair of Zamboni piles.

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