Manenguba language

Manenguba, also known as Ngoe or the Mbo cluster, is a Bantu language spoken in Cameroon. It is a dialect cluster spoken by several related peoples.

The name Manenguba is the mountain range the speakers live on. Ngoe is their legendary ancestor.

Native toCameroon
EthnicityBakossi, Mbo, Bakaka, Bassossi
Native speakers
180,000 (1995–2004)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
mbo – Mbo
bss – Akoose
bqz – Kaka (Central Mbo)
bsi – Sosi


The dialects in the cluster are:[3][4]

  • Koose (Akɔɔse, Bakossi)
    The principal dialect
  • Mbo (Mboo, Sambo)
  • Kaka (Bakaka, Bakaa)
  • Sosi (Bassossi)

There are many loan words from English, French and Douala.[5] When speaking of technical subjects, speakers will often revert to Pidgin English or English.[6]


  1. ^ Mbo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Akoose at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Kaka (Central Mbo) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Sosi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Manenguba". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ According to Hedinger (1987), the Bafaw-Balong language included in Guthrie zone A.15 for cultural reasons needs to be excluded from Manenguba on linguistic grounds; Maho (2009) separates it as A.141.
  5. ^ "The Bakossi Language". Bakossi Cultural & Development Association. Archived from the original on 2011-03-24. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  6. ^ Anne Schröder (2003). Status, functions, and prospects of Pidgin English: an empirical approach to language dynamics in Cameroon, Volume 1. Gunter Narr Verlag. p. 66. ISBN 3-8233-5821-9.
  • Hedinger, Robert (1987), The Manenguba Languages (Bantu A. 15, Mbo Cluster) of Cameroon

External links

List of multilingual countries and regions

This is an incomplete list of areas with either multilingualism at the community level or at the personal level.

There is a distinction between social and personal bilingualism. Many countries, such as Belarus, Belgium, Canada, India, Ireland, South Africa and Switzerland, which are officially multilingual, may have many monolinguals in their population. Officially monolingual countries, on the other hand, such as France, can have sizable multilingual populations. Some countries have official languages but also have regional and local official languages, notably Brazil, China, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Spain and Taiwan.

Official languages
Major languages
Indigenous languages
Sign languages


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