Maned wolf

The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America.[4] Its markings resemble those of foxes, but it is not a fox, nor is it a wolf. It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon (meaning "golden dog").

This mammal is found in open and semiopen habitats, especially grasslands with scattered bushes and trees, in south, central-west, and southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina, Bolivia east and north of the Andes,[5] and far southeastern Peru (Pampas del Heath only).[6] It is very rare in Uruguay, possibly being displaced completely through loss of habitat.[2] IUCN lists it as near threatened,[2] while it is considered a vulnerable species by the Brazilian government (IBAMA).

It is known locally as aguará guazú (meaning "large fox" in the Guarani language), or kalak in the Toba Qom language, lobo de crin, lobo de los esteros, or lobo colorado, and lobo-guará in Brazil. It also is called borochi in Bolivia.

Maned wolf [1]
Temporal range: 0.1–0 Ma
Late Pleistocene – Recent
Maned wolf in Cologne Zoo, Germany
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Tribe: Canini
Genus: Chrysocyon
Smith, 1839
C. brachyurus
Binomial name
Chrysocyon brachyurus
(Illiger, 1815)
Maned Wolf area
Range of the maned wolf

Canis brachyurus, C. campestris, C. isodactylus, C. jubatus, Vulpes cancrosa


Although the maned wolf displays many fox-like characteristics, it is not closely related to foxes. It lacks the elliptical pupils found distinctively in foxes. The maned wolf's evolutionary relationship to the other members of the canid family makes it a unique animal.

Electrophoretic studies did not link Chrysocyon with any of the other living canids studied. One conclusion of this study is that the maned wolf is the only species among the large South American canids that survived the late Pleistocene extinction. Fossils of the maned wolf from the Holocene and the late Pleistocene have been excavated from the Brazilian Highlands.[7]

A 2003 study on the brain anatomy of several canids placed the maned wolf together with the Falkland Islands wolf and with pseudo-foxes of the genus Pseudalopex.[8] One study based on DNA evidence showed that the extinct genus Dusicyon, comprising the Falkland Islands wolf and its mainland relative, was the most closely related species to the maned wolf in historical times, and that about seven million years ago it shared a common ancestor with that genus.[9] A 2015 study reported genetic signatures in maned wolves that are indicative of population expansion followed by contraction that took place during Pleistocene interglaciations about 24,000 years before present.[10]

The maned wolf is not closely related to any other living canid. It is not a fox, wolf, coyote, dog, or jackal, but a distinct canid, though, based only on morphological similarities, it previously had been placed in the Canis and Vulpes genera.[3] Its closest living relative is the bush dog (genus Speothos), and it has a more distant relationship to other South American canines (the short-eared dog, the crab-eating fox, and the 'false foxes' or Pseudalopex).[11]


Speothos venaticus (bush dog) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLIII).jpg

Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate VII).jpg[12](Fig. 10)

Dusicyon australis (Falkland Island wolf) Warrah (white background).jpg


Lycalopex vetulus (hoary fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXI).png

Lycalopex fulvipes (Darwin's fox) The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (Pl. 6) white background.jpg

Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox or chilla) Erläuterungen zur Fauna Brasiliens - enthaltend Abbildungen und ausführliche Beschreibungen neuer oder ungenügend bekannter Thier-Arten.pdf (Lycalopex griseus).jpg

Lycalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XVII).png

Lycalopex culpaeus (culpeo or Andean fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XIV).png

Lycalopex sechurae (Sechuran fox or Peruvian desert fox)

Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XV).png

Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XVI).png


Video of captive maned wolves at Ueno Zoo, in Japan
Drawing of the skull of a maned wolf

The maned wolf bears minor similarities to the red fox, although it belongs to a different genus. The average adult weighs 23 kg (51 lb) and stands 90 cm (35 in) tall at the shoulder, has a head-body length of 100 cm (39 in) with the tail adding another 45 cm (18 in).[13] Its ears are large and long (7 inches).[14]

The maned wolf is the tallest of the wild canids; its long legs are likely an adaptation to the tall grasslands of its native habitat.[15] Fur of the maned wolf may be reddish brown to golden orange on the sides with long, black legs, and a distinctive black mane. The coat is marked further with a whitish tuft at the tip of the tail and a white "bib" beneath the throat. The mane is erectile and typically is used to enlarge the wolf's profile when threatened or when displaying aggression. Melanistic maned wolves do exist, but are rare. The first photograph of a black adult maned wolf was taken by a camera trap in northern Minas Gerais in Brazil in 2013.[16][17][18]

The maned wolf also is known for the distinctive odor of its territory markings, which has earned it the nickname "skunk wolf".

Ecology and behavior

Hunting and territoriality

Unlike other large canids (such as the gray wolf, the African hunting dog, or the dhole), the maned wolf does not form packs.[13] It hunts alone, usually between sundown and midnight. Maned wolves rotate their large ears to listen for prey animals in the grass. They tap the ground with a front foot to flush out the prey and pounce to catch it.[14] They kill prey by biting on the neck or back, and shaking the prey violently if necessary.[19] Monogamous pairs may defend a shared territory around 30 km2 (12 sq mi), although outside of mating, the individuals may meet only rarely. The territory is crisscrossed by paths that they create as they patrol at night. Several adults may congregate in the presence of a plentiful food source, for example, a fire-cleared patch of grassland that would leave small vertebrate prey exposed while foraging.

Maned Wolf Pup at White Oak
A maned wolf and pup at White Oak Conservation

Both female and male maned wolves use their urine to communicate, e.g. to mark their hunting paths or the places where they have buried hunted prey.[19] The urine has a very distinctive odor, which some people liken to hops or cannabis. The responsible substance very likely is a pyrazine, which also occurs in both plants.[20] (At the Rotterdam Zoo, this smell once set the police on a hunt for cannabis smokers.[20][21]) The preferred habitat of the maned wolf include grasslands, scrub prairies, and forests.


Maned Wolf Pup Image 001
Maned wolf pup

Their mating season ranges from November to April. Gestation lasts 60 to 65 days and a litter may have from two to six black-furred pups, each weighing roughly 450 g (16 oz). Pups are fully grown when one year old. During that first year, the pups rely on their parents for food.[19]


The maned wolf is omnivorous. It specialises in preying on small and medium-sized animals, including small mammals (typically rodents and rabbits), birds, and even fish,[22][19] but a large portion of its diet (more than 50%, according to some studies) is vegetable matter, including sugarcane, tubers, and fruit (especially the wolf apple, Solanum lycocarpum, a tomato-like fruit).[23] Despite their preferred habitat, maned wolves are ecologically flexible species able to survive in even disturbed areas from burned areas to places with high human influences. For example, burned areas have some small mammals,such as Necromys lasiurus and various Calomys species, they can hunt and survive off of. [24]Traditionally, captive maned wolves were fed meat-heavy diets, but that caused them to develop bladder stones. Zoo diets for them now feature fruits and vegetables, as well as meat and specialized extruded diet formulated for maned wolves to be low in stone-causing compounds (i.e., cystine).

Relations with other species

The maned wolf participates in symbiotic relationships. It contributes to the propagation and dissemination of the plants on which it feeds, through excretion. Often, maned wolves defecate on the nests of leafcutter ants. The ants then use the dung to fertilize their fungus gardens, but they discard the seeds contained in the dung onto refuse piles just outside their nests. This process significantly increases the germination rate of the seeds.[25]

The maned wolf is not a common prey species for any predator, although it may be attacked or killed by feral dogs. An additional threat to the maned wolf exists from sharing territory with domestic dogs. The maned wolf is particularly susceptible to infection by the giant kidney worm, a potentially fatal parasite that also may infect domestic dogs.

Relations with humans

Generally, the maned wolf is shy and flees when alarmed, so it poses little direct threat to humans. Popularly, the maned wolf is thought to have the potential of being a chicken thief. It once was considered a similar threat to cattle and sheep, although this now is known to be false.

Historically, in a few parts of Brazil, these animals were hunted for some body parts, notably the eyes, that were believed to be good-luck charms. Since its classification as a vulnerable species by the Brazilian government, it has received greater consideration and protection.

They are threatened by habitat loss and being run over by automobiles. Feral and domestic dogs pass on diseases to them, and have been known to attack them.

The species occurs in several protected areas, including the national parks of Caraça and Emas in Brazil. The maned wolf is well represented in captivity and has been bred successfully at many zoos,[26] particularly in Argentina, North America (part of a Species Survival Plan) and Europe (part of a European Endangered Species Programme). In 2012, a total of 3,288 maned wolves was kept at more than 300 institutions worldwide.[27] The Smithsonian National Zoo Park has been working to protect maned wolves for nearly 30 years, and coordinates the collaborative, interzoo maned wolf Species Survival Plan of North America, which includes breeding maned wolves, studying them in the wild, protecting their habitat, and educating people about them.[14]


Chrysocyon brachyurus sitting
Maned wolf-aguara guazu.jpeg
Chrysocyon jubatus (Harvard University)
Maned Wolf 11, Beardsley Zoo, 2009-11-06
Chrysocyon brachyurus Oliwa 2
Guara wolf heart (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

Maned wolf heart

Lobo Guará andando


  1. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c Rodden, M.; Rodrigues, F. & Bestelmeyer, S. (2008). "Chrysocyon brachyurus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 March 2009. Database entry includes justification for why this species is near threatened.
  3. ^ a b Osgood, Wilfred H. (1919). "Names of Some South American Mammals". Journal of Mammalogy. 1 (1): 33–36. doi:10.2307/1373718. JSTOR 1373718.
  4. ^ Dietz, James M. "Chrysocyon brachyurus." (1985).
  5. ^ Langguth, A. (1975). "Ecology and evolution in the South American canids". In Fox, M. W. The wild canids: their systematics, behavioral ecology and evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. pp. 192–206. ISBN 978-0442224301.
  6. ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann, & Macdonald (eds). 2004.Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs – 2004 Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group.
  7. ^ "Chrysocyon brachyurus - Maned wolf". Animal Diversity Web.
  8. ^ Lyras, G. A.; Van der Geer, A. A. E. (2003). "External brain anatomy of the Canidae". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 138 (4): 505–522. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00067.x.
  9. ^ Austin, J. J.; Soubrier, J.; Prevosti, F. J.; Prates, L.; Trejo, V.; Mena, F.; Cooper, A. (2013). "The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf". Nature Communications. 4: 1552. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4E1552A. doi:10.1038/ncomms2570. PMID 23462995.
  10. ^ González, S.; Cosse, M.; del Rosario Franco, M.; Emmons, L.; Vynne, C.; Duarte, J. M. B.; Beccacesi, M. D.; Maldonado, J. E. (2015). "Population Structure of mtDNA Variation due to Pleistocene Fluctuations in the South American Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1815): Management Units for Conservation". Journal of Heredity. 106 (S1): 459–468.
  11. ^ Kerstin, Lindblad-Toh; Wade, Claire M.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Jaffe, David B.; Kamal, Michael; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean L.; Kulbokas, Edward J., III; Zody, Michael C.; Mauceli, Evan; Xiaohui Xie; Breen, Matthew; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Ponting, Chris P.; Galibert, Francis; Smith, Douglas R.; deJong, Pieter J.; Kirkness, Ewen; Alvarez, Pablo; Biagi, Tara; Brockman, William; Butler, Jonathan; Chin, Chee-Wye; Cook, April; Cuff, James; Daly, Mark J.; DeCaprio, David; et al. (2005-12-08). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  12. ^ Lindblad-Toh, K; Wade, CM; Mikkelsen, TS; Karlsson, EK; Jaffe, DB; Kamal, M; Clamp, M; Chang, JL; Kulbokas, EJ, III (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog" (PDF). Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  13. ^ a b Dietz, J. M. (1984). "Ecology and social organization of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 392 (392): 1–51. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.392.
  14. ^ a b c "Maned Wolf Facts - National Zoo". Archived from the original on 2015-10-31. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
  15. ^ Dietz, James (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-87196-871-5.
  16. ^ "WWF-Brazil partner photographs unique black maned wolf".
  17. ^ "Black Maned Wolf is the People's Choice - World Land Trust". 2015-03-10.
  18. ^ Ferreira, G.B., Barros, C.S., Costa, A.B., Dias, T.S. and Oliveira, M.J.R (2017). "First ever record of a black-coloured maned wolf" (PDF). Canid Biology & Conservation. 20.10: 42–45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-01-03. Retrieved 2018-12-24.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ a b c d Frers, Cristian. "Un lobo de crin llamado Aguará Guazú". Retrieved 2007-04-23.
  20. ^ a b Switek, Brian (2011-03-10). "Maned Wolf Pee Demystified". Wired. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
  21. ^ Süddeutsche Zeitung, 2006-09-02, p3
  22. ^ Juarez, Keila Macfadem; Marinho-Filho, Jader (November 2002). "Diet, habitat use, and home ranges of sympatric canids in central Brazil". Journal of Mammalogy. 83 (4): 925–934. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2002)083<0925:DHUAHR>2.0.CO;2.
  23. ^ Motta-Junior, J. C.; Talamon, S. A.; Lombardi, J. A.; Simokomaki, K. (1996). "Diet of maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, in central Brazil". Journal of Zoology (London). 240 (2): 277–284. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1996.tb05284.x.
  24. ^ Massara, Rodrigo Lima (2012). "Diet and Habitat use by Maned Wolf Outside Protected Areas in Eastern Brazil". Tropical Conservation Science. 5 (3): 284–300. doi:10.1177/194008291200500305.
  25. ^ Courtenay, O. (1994). "Conservation of the Maned Wolf: fruitful relationships in a changing environment". Canid News. 2. Archived from the original on 2004-03-01.
  26. ^ "Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus". Zootierliste.
  27. ^ Holland, R. (2013). "The Maned Wolf Ex Situ Worldwide". In Conserot-McCrea, A. G.; Santos, E. F. Ecology and Conservation of the Maned Wolf: Multidisciplinary perspectives. pp. 53–62. ISBN 978-1-4665-1260-3.

External links

Media related to Chrysocyon brachyurus at Wikimedia Commons

Andean wolf

The Andean Wolf, or Hagenbeck's Wolf is an unsubstantiated wolf-like canid, reportedly from the Andes.

Araucárias National Park

Araucárias National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional das Araucárias) is a national park in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Bush dog

The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America. In spite of its extensive range, it is very rare in most areas except in Suriname, Guyana and Peru; it was first identified by Peter Wilhelm Lund from fossils in Brazilian caves and was believed to be extinct. The bush dog is the only living species in the genus Speothos, and genetic evidence suggests that its closest living relative is the maned wolf of central South America or the African wild dog. The species is listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.

In Brazil it is called cachorro-vinagre ("vinegar dog") or cachorro-do-mato ("bush dog"). In Spanish-speaking countries it is called perro vinagre ("vinegar dog"), zorro vinagre ("vinegar fox"), perro de agua ("water dog"), or perro de monte ("bush dog").

C. brachyurus

C. brachyurus may refer to:

Camaroptera brachyura, the green-backed camaroptera, a bird species

Carcharhinus brachyurus, the copper shark, a shark species

Chrysocyon brachyurus, the maned wolf, a canid species


The biological family Canidae

(from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid (, ).The cat-like feliforms and dog-like caniforms emerged within the Carnivoramorpha 43 million years before present. The caniforms included the fox-like genus Leptocyon whose various species existed from 34 million years ago (Mya) before branching 11.9 Mya into Vulpini (foxes) and Canini (canines).Canids are found on all continents except Antarctica, having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids vary in size from the 2-m-long (6 ft 7 in) gray wolf to the 24-cm-long (9.4 in) fennec fox. The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails. They are mostly social animals, living together in family units or small groups and behaving co-operatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids communicate by scent signals and vocalizations. They are very intelligent. One canid, the domestic dog, long ago entered into a partnership with humans and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.

Cayaponia espelina

Cayaponia espelina, also known as the São Caetano melon, is a plant native to Brazil. It is a diuretic and aid in the treatment of diarrhea and syphilis. The fruits are occasionally eaten by the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).


The culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), sometimes known as the zorro culpeo or Andean fox, is a South American fox species. It is the second-largest native canid on the continent, after the maned wolf. In appearance, it bears many similarities to the widely recognized red fox. It has grey and reddish fur, a white chin, reddish legs and a stripe on its back that may be barely visible.

The culpeo's diet consists largely of rodents, rabbits, birds and lizards, and to a lesser extent, plant material and carrion. The culpeo does attack sheep on occasion and is therefore often hunted or poisoned. In some regions it has become rare, but overall the species is not threatened with extinction.

The culpeo was domesticated to form the Fuegian dog, but this animal became extinct some time between 1880 and 1919.

Emas National Park

The Emas National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional das Emas, literally meaning "Rhea National Park") is a national park and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the states of Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil.

Environment of Argentina

The Environment of Argentina is characterised by high biodiversity.

Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (Prosopis alba and Prosopis nigra). Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of Argentina. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem.The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes, so the flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to dry conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, include alerce, ciprés de la cordillera, ciprés de las guaitecas, huililahuán, lleuque, mañío hembra and pehuén, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coihue, lenga and ñire. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue.In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. No vegetation grows in the highest elevations (above 4,000 m (13,000 ft)) because of the extreme altitude.

Many species live in the subtropical north. Prominent animals include big cats like the jaguar and puma; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles), the Argentine black and white tegu and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, and various species of turtle and tortoise. There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, and swallows.

The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias, and the rhea (ñandú), a large flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons, and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia.

The western mountains are home to animals including the llama, guanaco and vicuña which are among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean mountain cat, kodkod, and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean condor.

Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world's smallest deer), and introduced, non-native wild boar. The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants.

The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, Argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and king crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American golden dorado fish. Well known snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and a very venomous pit viper named the yarará. The hornero was elected the national bird after a survey in 1928.

Falkland Islands wolf

The Falkland Islands wolf (Dusicyon australis), also known as the warrah ( WAH-rə or WAH-rah) and occasionally as the Falkland Islands dog, Falkland Islands fox, or Antarctic wolf, was the only native land mammal of the Falkland Islands. This endemic canid became extinct in 1876, the first known canid to have become extinct in historical times. It was the only modern species in the genus Dusicyon.

Traditionally it had been supposed that the most closely related genus was Lycalopex, including the culpeo, which has been introduced to the Falkland Islands in modern times. However, in 2009, a cladistic analysis of DNA identified the Falkland Island wolf's closest living relative as the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)—an unusually long-legged, fox-like South American canid, from which it separated about 6.7 million years ago.The Falkland Islands wolf existed on both West and East Falkland, but Charles Darwin was uncertain if they were differentiated varieties. Its fur had a tawny colour and the tip of the tail was white. Its diet is unknown, but, due to the absence of native rodents on the Falklands, probably consisted of ground-nesting birds such as geese and penguins, seal pups, and insects, as well as seashore scavenging. It has sometimes been said that it may have lived in burrows.


A frugivore is an animal that thrives mostly on raw fruits, succulent fruit-like vegetables, roots, shoots, nuts and seeds. It can be any type of herbivore or omnivore where fruit is a preferred food type. Because approximately 20% of all mammalian herbivores also eat fruit, frugivory is common among mammals. Since frugivores eat a lot of fruit, they are highly dependent on the abundance and nutritional composition of fruits. Frugivores can either benefit fruit-producing plants by dispersing seeds, or they can hinder plants by digesting seeds along with the fruits. When both the fruit-producing plant and the frugivore species benefit by fruit-eating behavior, their interaction is called mutualism.


Guará is a municipality situated in the northern part of the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population is 20,911 (2015 est.) in an area of 362 km². The elevation is 573 m.This place name comes from the Tupi language for two animals common in the region, the maned wolf (Canis jubatus) and the Scarlet ibis (Ibis rubra).

Near-threatened species

A near-threatened species is a species which has been categorized as "Near Threatened" (NT) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as that may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. The IUCN notes the importance of re-evaluating near-threatened taxon at appropriate intervals.

The rationale used for near-threatened taxa usually includes the criteria of vulnerable which are plausible or nearly met, such as reduction in numbers or range. Near-threatened species evaluated from 2001 onwards may also be ones which are dependent on conservation efforts to prevent their becoming threatened, whereas prior to this conservation-dependent species were given a separate category ("Conservation Dependent").

Additionally, the 402 conservation-dependent taxa may also be considered near-threatened.

Rio de Janeiro Zoological Garden

The Rio de Janeiro Zoological Garden (Portuguese:Jardim Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro) is a zoo located in the district of São Cristóvão, in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The institution has among its main objectives the development of environmental and educational activities, based on the animals of its collection—which consists mainly of fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

The zoo is housed in a 55,000-square-meter wooded park at the back of Quinta da Boa Vista. Its collection currently has over 1,300 animals. There are 350 species, many of them rare and endangered, such as the Lear's macaw, harpy eagle, broad-snouted caiman, maned wolf, golden-headed lion tamarin, anteater and the king vulture. In addition to native species of the Amazon Region, the Pantanal and the Brazilian Cerrado, there are also other animals from other countries, such as the rhinoceros and the American brown bear.

Serra da Canastra National Park

Serra da Canastra National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra) is a national park in the Canastra Mountains of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Serra do Cipó National Park

The Serra do Cipó National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó) is a national park in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Solanum lycocarpum

Solanum lycocarpum, the wolf apple, is common in the Brazilian savanna, the Cerrado ecoregion. The plant is called lobeira ("wolf's plant") or fruta-do-lobo ("wolf's fruit") in Portuguese. Wolf apples are so named because they are a favored fruit of the maned wolf, and may account for a large fraction of the animal's diet (up to 50%).

São Joaquim National Park

São Joaquim National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional de São Joaquim) is a National park in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

White Oak Conservation

White Oak Conservation is 700 acres of the 13,000 acres on White Oak Plantation, which is mostly forest, wetlands, arts and wildlife facilities, and a golf course outside Yulee, Florida just below the Georgia state line along the St. Marys River. The site houses more than 200 animals from 20-plus species and is internationally known for its wildlife conservation. It has been successful in breeding several types of endangered, threatened and vulnerable species, including addra gazelle, cheetah, gerenuk, Mississippi sandhill crane, okapi, and three of the five species of rhinoceros. The site also accommodates conferences and has welcomed renowned guests, most notably former U.S. President Bill Clinton. Additionally, White Oak was home to the Mikhail Baryshnikov Dance Studio, now located in New York, which was visited by choreographers, dance troupes and others in the performing arts from around the world.

Extant Carnivora species

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