Mandakini ([mənˈd̪aːkɪni]) is a tributary of the Alaknanda River. Mandakini originates from the Chorabari Glacier near Kedarnath in Uttarakhand, India. Mandakini is fed by Vasukiganga River at Sonprayag. Mandakini joins Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. Alaknanda then proceeds towards Devaprayag where it joins Bhagirathi River to form the Ganges River. Mandakini river flows along NH-107 in Rudraprayag district and turns violent during monsoon, often destroying parts of the highway and adjoining villages.
Meaning of 'Mandakini' The prefix "mand" (Sanskrit) means "calm" and "unhurried", and Mandakini thus signifies "she who flows calmly".
The Mandakini is a runnable low volume river from October to April and can be unpredictable during the Monsoon months (June–September) when all rivers in the area become swollen torrents.
The Mandakini is a kayakable river with a lot of class 3 rapids and some class 4 and class 5 rapids. The upper Mandakini and the lower mandakini are considered to be class 4+ sections while there is a stretch of water in the middle part of the river that is largely class 2-class 3.
In June 2013, a multi-day cloudburst centered on the North Indian state of Uttarakhand caused devastating floods and landslides becoming the country's worst natural disaster since the 2004 tsunami. The reason the floods occurred was that the rainfall received was on a larger scale than the regular rainfall the state usually received. The debris blocked up the rivers, causing major overflow. The main day of the flood was 16 June 2013. Though some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh in India experienced the heavy rainfall, some regions of Western Nepal, and some parts of Western Tibet also experienced heavy rainfall, over 89% of the casualties occurred in Uttarakhand. As of 16 July 2013, according to figures provided by the Government of Uttarakhand, more than 5,700 people were "presumed dead." This total included 934 local residents.Destruction of bridges and roads left about 300,000 pilgrims and tourists trapped in the valleys leading to three of the four Hindu Chota Char Dham pilgrimage sites. The Indian Air Force, the Indian Army, and paramilitary troops evacuated more than 110,000 people from the flood ravaged area.Alaknanda River
The Alaknanda is a Himalayan river in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and one of the two headstreams of the Ganges, the major river of Northern India and the holy river of Hinduism. In hydrology, the Alaknanda is considered the source stream of the Ganges on account of its greater length and discharge; however, in Hindu mythology and culture, the other headstream, the Bhagirathi, is considered the source stream.Anasuya
Anasuya (IAST: Anusūyā, अनुसया "free from envy and jealousy"), also known as Anusuya, was the wife of an ancient rishi (sage) named Atri, in Hindu legend. In the Ramayana, she appears living with her husband in a small hermitage in the southern periphery of the forest of Chitrakuta. She was very pious and always practiced austerity and devotion. This allowed her to attain miraculous powers.
When Sita and Rama visited her during their exile, Anusuya was very attentive to them and gave Sita an ointment which could maintain her beauty forever. She was the mother of Dattatreya, the sage-avatar of Trimurti Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, the irascible sage Durvasa, avatar of Shiva and Chandraatri, avatar of Brahma. She was also the mother of Chandra Dev Moon. She was the daughter of Sage Kardama and his wife Devahuti. Sage Kapila was her brother and teacher. She is extolled as Sati Anusuya – Anusuya, the chaste wife.Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh
Chitrakoot is a famous pilgrimage centre and a nagar panchayat in the Satna district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is a place of religious, cultural, historical and archaeological importance, situated in the Bundelkhand region. It borders the Chitrakoot district in Uttar Pradesh, whose headquarters Chitrakoot Dham (Karwi) is located nearby. The town lies in the historical Chitrakoot region, which is divided between the present-day Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It is known for a number of temples and sites mentioned in Hindu scriptures.
Many people gather here on each Amavasya. Somwati Amavasyas, Deepawali, Sharad-Poornima, Makar Sankranti and Ramanavami are special occasions for such gatherings and celebrations. It attracts crowds throughout the year including above occasions and for Free Eye Hospital Camps. Noted 'Ayurvedic' and 'Yoga' centres like 'Arogyadham' are located in Chitrakoot.Cura Si Manjakini
Cura Si Manjakini (Malay: Pedang Cura Si Manjakini, alternatively Mandakini or Mandangkini; Jawi: ڤدڠ چورا سي منجاکيني) is a sword mentioned in the Malay Annals as originally possessed by Sang Sapurba, the legendary ancestor of Malay kings. For hundreds of years, the sword became a symbol of a rightful sovereignty and power in Malay culture. It was first inherited by Sang Nila Utama the founder of Singapura, later by Parameswara the first ruler of Melaka Sultanate, and then by Muzaffar Syah I the first Sultan of Perak. The sword is now a part of the Perak Sultanate's official regalia.Guptakashi
Guptakashi, Gupta Kashi or Guptkashi is a fairly large town located at an elevation of 1,319 metres (4,327 ft) in the Kedar-khanda ('khanda' means "sector"), in Garhwal Himalayas of Rudraprayag district in Uttrakhand, India. It is known for its ancient Vishwanath Temple dedicated to the god Shiva, which is similar to the one in Varanasi (Kashi). The other well known temple here is dedicated to Ardhanareshvara, a half man half woman form of Shiva and Parvati. The name Guptakashi has legendary significance linked to the Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Its religious importance is considered next to that of Varanasi, believed to be the most pious of all Hindu pilgrimage places.
The temple town is located on the way to the Kedarnath, one of the Chota Char Dhams and Panch Kedars. It has the scenic backdrop of the snow-covered peaks of Chaukhamba and enjoys a salubrious weather throughout the year.Kedarnath
Kedarnath is a town in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and has gained importance because of Kedarnath Temple. It is a nagar panchayat in Rudraprayag district. The most remote of the four Chota Char Dham sites, Kedarnath is located in the Himalayas, about 3,583 m (11,755 ft) above sea level near Chorabari Glacier, the head of river Mandakini, and is flanked by snow-capped peaks, most prominently Kedarnath mountain. The nearest road head is at Gaurikund.
The town suffered extensive destruction during June 2013 from flash floods caused by torrential rains in Uttarakhand state.Kedarnath Temple
Kēdārnāth Mandir (Kedarnath Temple) is a Hindu temple (shrine) dedicated to Lord Shiva. Located on the Garhwal Himalayan range near the Mandakini river, Kedarnath is located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. Due to extreme weather conditions, the temple is open to the general public only between the months of April (Akshaya Tritriya) and November (Kartik Purnima, the autumn full moon). During the winters, the vigrahas (deities) from Kedarnath temple are carried down to Ukhimath and where the deity is worshiped for the next six months. Kedarnath is seen as a homogenous form of Lord Shiva, the 'Lord of Kedar Khand', the historical name of the region.The temple is not directly accessible by road and has to be reached by a 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) uphill trek from Gaurikund. Pony and manchan service is available to reach the structure. According to Hindu legends, the temple was initially built by Pandavas, and is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, the holiest Hindu shrines of Shiva. It is one of the 275 Paadal Petra Sthalams, expounded in Tevaram. Pandavas were supposed to have pleased Shiva by doing penance in Kedarnath. The temple is one of the four major sites in India's Chota Char Dham pilgrimage of Northern Himalayas. This temple is the highest among the 12 Jyotirlingas. Kedarnath was the worst affected area during the 2013 flash floods in North India. The temple complex, surrounding areas, and Kedarnath town suffered extensive damage, but the temple structure did not suffer any "major" damage, apart from a few cracks on one side of the four walls which was caused by the flowing debris from the higher mountains. A large rock among the debris acted as a barrier, protecting the temple from the flood. The surrounding premises and other buildings in the market area were heavily damaged.Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary
Kedarnath Wild Life Sanctuary, also called the Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary, is a wildlife sanctuary declared under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and located in Uttarakhand, India. Its alternate name comes from its primary purpose of protecting the endangered Himalayan musk deer. Consisting of an area of 975 km2 (376 sq mi), it is the largest protected area in the western Himalayas. It is internationally important for the diversity of its flora and fauna (particularly of ungulate species).Located in the Himalayan Highlands with an elevation ranging from 1,160 m (3,810 ft) (near Phata) to the Chaukhamba peak at 7,068 m (23,189 ft), it was a notified reserve forest between 1916 and 1920. It was changed to a sanctuary on 21 January 1972, and has been designated a "Habitat/Species Management Area" by the IUCN. Since 1972, the area of the park has expanded from 967–975 ha (2,390–2,409 acres).The sanctuary straddles a geographically diverse landscape and transitional environment. IUCN has reported that "From 44.4% to 48.8% of the sanctuary is forested, 7.7% comprises alpine meadows and scrub, 42.1% is rocky or under permanent snow and 1.5% represents formerly forested areas that have been degraded."The sanctuary takes its name from the famous Hindu temple of Kedarnath which is just outside its northern border. The entire 14 km (9 mi) route from Gaurikund to Kedarnath temple (3,584 m or 11,759 ft) passes through the sanctuary.List of rivers of India
This is a list of rivers of India, starting in the west and moving along the Indian coast southward, then northward. Tributary rivers are listed hierarchically in upstream order: the lower in the list, the more upstream.
The major rivers of India are:
Flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Ganga (with its main tributaries Ramganga, Kali or Sharda, Gomti, Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, Ken, Tons, Ghaghara, Gandaki, Burhi Gandak, Koshi, Mahananda, Tamsa, Son, Bagmati), Meghna, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna (and their main tributaries)
Flowing into the Arabian Sea: Narmada, Tapi, Sabarmati, PurnaThe remaining rivers are as follows.Madhyamaheshwar
Madhyamaheshwar (Sanskrit: मध्यमहेश्वर) or Madmaheshwar is a Hindu temple dedicated to god Shiva, located in the Mansoona village of Garhwal Himalayas in Uttarakhand, India. Situated at an elevation of 3,497 m (11,473.1 ft), Ukhimath is winter seat of Madmaheswar, It is the Panch Kedar pilgrimage circuit, comprising five Shiva temples in the Garhwal region. The other temples in the circuit include: Kedarnath, Tungnath and Rudranath to be visited before Madmaheshwar and Kalpeshwar to be visited after Madmaheshwar. The middle (madhya) or belly part or navel (nabhi) of the bull, considered a divine form of Shiva, is worshipped at this temple, believed to be built by the Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.Mandakini
Mandakini may refer to:
Mandakini River (Bundelkhand)Panch Kedar
Panch Kedar (Sanskrit: पञ्चकेदार) refers to five Hindu temples or holy places of the Shaivite sect dedicated to god Shiva. They are located in the Garhwal Himalayan region in Uttarakhand, India. They are the subject of many legends that directly link their creation to Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.The five temples designated in the strict pecking order to be followed for pilgrimage for worship are the Kedarnath (Sanskrit: केदारनाथ) at an altitude of 3,583 m (11,755 ft), the Tungnath (तुंगनाथ)(3,680 m or 12,070 ft), Rudranath (रुद्रनाथ) (2,286 m or 7,500 ft), Madhyamaheshwar (मध्यमहेश्वर) or Madmaheshwar (3,490 m or 11,450 ft) and Kalpeshwar (कल्पेश्वर) (2,200 m or 7,200 ft). The Kedarnath is the main temple, which is part of four Chota Char Dhams (literally 'the small four abodes/seats') or pilgrimage centers of the Garhwal Himalayas; the other three dhams are the Badrinath, Yamunotri and Gangotri. Kedarnath is also one of the twelve Jyotirlingas.The Garhwal region is also called the Kedar-Khanda after Kedar — the local name for Lord Shiva. The region abounds in emblems and aniconic forms of Shiva sect of Lord Shiva, much more than the Vaishnava sect. The western part of this region in particular, which constitutes half of Chamoli district being known as Kedar-Kshetra or Kedar mandala, encompasses in its ambit all the five temples constituting the Panch Kedar.Visitors to Kedarnath shrine, the first of the Panch Kedar temples for which records are available, was an impressive 557,923 in 2007 as against 87,629 in 1987, a quantum jump in 20 years.Rudraprayag
Rudraprayag is a town and a municipality in Rudraprayag district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Rudraprayag is one of the Panch Prayag (five confluences) of Alaknanda River, the point of confluence of rivers Alaknanda and Mandakini. Kedarnath, a Hindu holy town is located 86 km from Rudraprayag. The man eating Leopard of Rudraprayag hunted and written about by Jim Corbett dwelled here.Rudraprayag district
Rudraprayag district, is a district of Uttarakhand state of northern India. The district occupies an area of 2439 km². Rudraprayag town is the administrative headquarters of the district.
The district is bounded by Uttarkashi District on the north, Chamoli District on the east, Pauri Garhwal District on the south, and Tehri Garhwal District on the south.Saptaswaralu
Saptaswaralu or Sapta Swaralu (Telugu: సప్తస్వరాలు) is a 1969 Telugu film directed by Vedantam Raghavaiah and produced by famous actor Tadepalli Lakshmi Kanta Rao under the banner Hema Films.
It is a musical hit film with excellent lyrics and music composed by T. V. Raju.Sonprayag
Sonprayag is a village in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand state in India. Situated on the banks of river Mandakini River, it is a proposed Y-forked railway junction on Chota Char Dham Railway for two different railways going to Kedarnath and Badrinath.Tungnath
Tungnath is one of the highest Shiva temples in the world and is the highest of the five Panch Kedar temples located in the mountain range of Tunganath in Rudraprayag district, in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. The Tunganath (literal meaning: Lord of the peaks) mountains form the Mandakini and Alaknanda river valleys. It is located at an altitude of 3,680 m (12,073 ft), and just below the peak of Chandrashila. The temple is believed to be 5000 years old and is the third (Tritiya Kedar) in the pecking order of the Panch Kedars. It has a rich legend linked to the Pandavas, heroes of the Mahabharata epic.Vasukiganga River
The Vasukiganga River flows through Uttarakhand, India. It is a tributary of the Mandakini River.
The source of the Vasukiganga River is the Vasuki Tal, a small glacial lake located in the glacial trough east of Chor gamak glacier, near Kedarnath.
|Hydrography of surrounding areas|