Manchuria

Manchuria (simplified Chinese: 满洲; traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) is a name first used in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China[1][2][3] or a larger region divided between China and Russia. "Manchuria" is widely used outside China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of several groups, including the Koreans,[4][5][6] Xianbei, Khitan, and Jurchen (later called Manchu 满族) peoples, who built several states within the area historically (however, no term for "Manchuria" exists in the Manchu language,[7] which originally referred to the area as the "Three Eastern Provinces"; mnc. ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᡤᠣᠯᠣ
, Dergi ilan golo; zh. 東三省 / 东三省, Dōng Sānshěng).[8]

Manchuria
Manchuria
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese满洲
Traditional Chinese滿洲
Korean name
Hangul만주
Japanese name
Kanji満州
Russian name
RussianМаньчжурия
RomanizationMan'chzhuriya

Definition

Northeast China
Inner Manchuria: Northeast China = red, Eastern Inner Mongolia = pink

The definition of Manchuria can be any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest:

  1. Northeast China (Dōngběi): consisting of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning. This is the area referred to as "Manchuria" in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.[9]
  2. Inner Manchuria: the above, plus parts of modern Inner Mongolia (Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Tongliao, and Chifeng divisions), plus Chengde.
  3. The above, plus Outer Manchuria (Outer Northeast China or Russian Manchuria): the area from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains and the Sea of Japan. In Russian administrative terms, Ussuri krai, southern Harbin oblast', Primorskiy kray. These were part of the Qing dynasty China according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) that defined the border in the region between China and Russia, but were ceded to Russia by the unequal treaties of the Treaty of Aigun (1858) and the Treaty of Peking (1860).
  4. The above, plus Sakhalin Island, which is generally included on Qing dynasty maps as part of Outer Manchuria even though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The island was also included in Manchuria on maps made by the Japanese Shogunate and Russian Empire. Despite lines on maps and empires' political claims, the island was inhabited by Ainu people until the Soviet Union enforced an evacuation policy after 1945.

Etymology and names

John-Tallis-1851-Tibet-Mongolia-and-Manchuria-NE
One of the earliest European maps using the term "Manchuria" (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851). Previously, the term "'Chinese Tartary" had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and Mongolia[10]

Three centuries and a half must now pass away before entering upon the next act of the Manchu drama. The Nü-chêns had been scotched, but not killed, by their Mongol conquerors, who, one hundred and thirty-four years later (1368), were themselves driven out of China, a pure native dynasty being re-established under the style of Ming, "Bright." During the ensuing two hundred years the Nü-chêns were scarcely heard of, the House of Ming being busily occupied in other directions. Their warlike spirit, however, found scope and nourishment in the expeditions organised against Japan and Tan-lo, or Quelpart, as named by the Dutch, a large island to the south of the Korean peninsula; while on the other hand the various tribes scattered over a portion of the territory known to Europeans as Manchuria, availed themselves of long immunity from attack by the Chinese to advance in civilization and prosperity. It may be noted here that "Manchuria" is unknown to the Chinese or to the Manchus themselves as a geographical expression. The present extensive home of the Manchus is usually spoken of as the Three Eastern Provinces, namely, (1) Shêngking, or Liao-tung, or Kuan-tung, (2) Kirin, and (3) Heilungchiang or Tsitsihar. – Herbert A. Giles, China and the Manchus, 1912[8]

"Manchuria" is a translation of the Japanese word Manshū, which dates from the 19th century. The name Manju (Manzhou) was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland. According to the Japanese scholar Junko Miyawaki-Okada, the Japanese geographer Takahashi Kageyasu was the first to use the term "満州" (Manshū) as a place name in 1809 in the Nippon Henkai Ryakuzu, and it was from that work that Westerners adopted the name.[11][12] According to Mark C. Elliott, Katsuragawa Hoshū's 1794 work, the "Hokusa bunryaku", was where "満州" (Manshū) first appeared as a place name was in two maps included in the work, "Ashia zenzu" and "Chikyū hankyū sōzu" which were also created by Katsuragawa.[13] "満州" (Manshū) then began to appear as a place names in more maps created by Japanese like Kondi Jūzō, Takahashi Kageyasu, Baba Sadayoshi and Yamada Ren, and these maps were brought to Europe by the Dutch Philipp von Siebold.[14] According to Nakami Tatsuo, Philip Franz von Siebold was the one who brought the usage of the term Manchuria to Europeans after borrowing it from the Japanese, who were the first to use it in a geographic manner in the eighteenth century although neither the Manchu nor Chinese languages had a term in their own language equivalent to "Manchuria" as a geographic place name.[15] The Manchu and Chinese languages had no such word as "Manchuria" and the word has imperialist connotations.[16] According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using the name Manchuria to refer to the location and it is "not a genuine geographic term".[17] The historian Gavan McCormack agreed with Robert H. G. Lee's statement that "The term Manchuria or Man-chou is a modern creation used mainly by westerners and Japanese", with McCormack writing that the term Manchuria is imperialistic in nature and has no "precise meaning" since the Japanese deliberately promoted the use of "Manchuria" as a geographic name to promote its separation from China at the time they were setting up their puppet state of Manchukuo.[18] The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria.[19] The historian Norman Smith wrote that "The term 'Manchuria' is controversial".[20] Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she "should use the term in quotation marks" when referring to Manchuria.[21] In his 2012 dissertation on the Jurchen people to obtain a Doctor of Philosophy degree in History from the University of Washington, Professor Chad D. Garcia noted that usage of the term "Manchuria" is out of favor in "current scholarly practice" and that he had ceased using the term, instead using "the northeast" or referring to specific geographical features.[22]

Карта Манжурии
Russian map of Manchuria, in yellow

In the 18th-century Europe, the region later known as "Manchuria" was most commonly referred to as "[Chinese] Tartary". However, the term Manchuria (Mantchourie, in French) started appearing by the end of the century; French missionaries used it as early as 1800.[23] The French-based geographers Conrad Malte-Brun and Edme Mentelle promoted the use of the term Manchuria (Mantchourie, in French), along with "Mongolia", "Kalmykia", etc., as more precise terms than Tartary, in their world geography work published in 1804.[24]

The Americana - a universal reference library, comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc. of the world (1903) (14763639145)
1900s map of Manchuria, in pink

In current Chinese parlance, an inhabitant of "the Northeast", or Northeast China, is a "Northeasterner" (东北人; Dōngběi rén). "The Northeast" is a term that expresses the entire region, encompassing its history, culture, traditions, dialects, cuisines and so forth, as well as the "Three East Provinces" or "Three Northeast Provinces". In China, the term Manchuria (traditional Chinese: 滿洲; simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu) is rarely used today, and the term is often negatively associated with the Japanese imperial legacy in the puppet state of Manchukuo (traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; simplified Chinese: 满洲国; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó).[25][26]

Manchuria has also been referred to as Guandong (traditional Chinese: 關東; simplified Chinese: 关东; pinyin: Guāndōng), which literally means "east of the pass", and similarly Guanwai (關外; 关外; Guānwài; "outside the pass"), a reference to Shanhai Pass in Qinhuangdao in today's Hebei, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China. This usage is seen in the expression Chuǎng Guāndōng (literally "Rushing into Guandong") referring to the mass migration of Han Chinese to Manchuria in the 19th and 20th centuries. The name Guandong later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the Kwantung Leased Territory on the Liaodong Peninsula. It is not to be confused with the southern province of Guangdong.

During the Qing dynasty, the region was known as the "three eastern provinces" (traditional Chinese: 東三省; simplified Chinese: 东三省; pinyin: Dōngsānshěng, Manchuᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᡤᠣᠯᠣ
(dergi ilan golo)) since 1683 when Jilin and Heilongjiang were separated even though it was not until 1907 that they were turned into actual provinces.[8][27] The administrators of the three areas were the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiyūn), General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), and General of Shengjing (Mukden i Jiyanggiyūn). The area of Manchuria was then converted into three provinces by the late Qing government in 1907. Since then, the phrase "Three Northeast Provinces" was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this region, and the post of Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces (dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban) was established to take charge of these provinces. After the 1911 revolution, which resulted in the collapse of the Manchu-established Qing dynasty, the name of the region where the Manchus originated was known as "the Northeast" in official documents in the newly founded Republic of China, in addition to the "Three Northeast Provinces".

During the Ming dynasty the area where the Jurchens lived was referred to as Nurgan.[28] Nurgan was the area of modern Jilin in Manchuria.

Geography and climate

Manchuria consists mainly of the northern side of the funnel-shaped North China Craton, a large area of tilled and overlaid Precambrian rocks spanning 100 million hectares. The North China Craton was an independent continent before the Triassic period and is known to have been the northernmost piece of land in the world during the Carboniferous. The Khingan Mountains in the west are a Jurassic[29] mountain range formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Craton, which marked the final stage of the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea.

No part of Manchuria was glaciated during the Quaternary, but the surface geology of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of Manchuria consists of very deep layers of loess, which have been formed by wind-borne movement of dust and till particles formed in glaciated parts of the Himalayas, Kunlun Shan and Tien Shan, as well as the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts.[30] Soils are mostly fertile Mollisols and Fluvents except in the more mountainous parts where they are poorly developed Orthents, as well as in the extreme north where permafrost occurs and Orthels dominate.[31]

The climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in the winter. This pattern occurs because the position of Manchuria on the boundary between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the huge Pacific Ocean causes complete monsoonal wind reversal.

In the summer, when the land heats faster than the ocean, low pressure forms over Asia and warm, moist south to southeasterly winds bring heavy, thundery rain, yielding annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm (16 in.), or less in the west, to over 1150 mm (45 in.) in the Changbai Mountains.[32] Temperatures in the summer are very warm to hot, with July average maxima ranging from 31 °C (88 °F) in the south to 24 °C (75 °F) in the extreme north.[33] Except in the far north near the Amur River, high humidity causes major discomfort at this time of year.

In the winter, however, the vast Siberian High causes very cold, north to northwesterly winds that bring temperatures as low as −5 °C (23 °F) in the extreme south and −30 °C (−22 °F) in the north[34] where the zone of discontinuous permafrost reaches northern Heilongjiang. However, because the winds from Siberia are exceedingly dry, snow falls only on a few days every winter, and it is never heavy. This explains why corresponding latitudes of North America were fully glaciated during glacial periods of the Quaternary while Manchuria, though even colder, always remained too dry to form glaciers[35] – a state of affairs enhanced by stronger westerly winds from the surface of the ice sheet in Europe.

History

Early history

Ussuriysk-Stone-Tortoise-S-3542
A 12th-century Jurchen stone tortoise in today's Ussuriysk

Manchuria was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including Koreans, Manchu, Ulchs, Hezhen, Turkic peoples and the Nivkh people. Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Donghu, Xianbei, Wuhuan, Mohe, Khitan and Jurchens have risen to power in Manchuria. At various times, Han dynasty, Cao Wei dynasty, Western Jin dynasty, Tang dynasty and some other minor kingdoms of China established control in parts of Manchuria and in some cases tributary relations with peoples in the area.[36] Various Koreanic kingdoms such as Gojoseon, Buyeo and Goguryeo were also established in large parts of this area. Parts of Manchuria were under controll of the Turkic Khaganate.

A number of world renowned linguists, including Dr. Bang-han Kim, Dr. Alexander Vovin, and Dr. J. Marshall Unger refer to the Goguryeo language and a number of other Koreanic languages like Ye-Maek or Buyeo as distinctly Old Korean. According to several historians, the Korean homeland is located somewhere in Manchuria.[4][5][6]

Several linguists, including Robbeets (et al.2015 and et al.2017), suggest that the homeland of the Turkic languages and peoples is located in Manchuria.[37]

With the Song dynasty to the south, the Khitan people of Inner Mongolia created the Liao dynasty in the region, which went on to control adjacent parts of Northern China as well. The Liao dynasty was the first state to control all of Manchuria.[38][39]

In the early 12th century, the Tungusic Jurchen people, who were Liao's tributaries, overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynasty, which went on to control parts of Northern China and Mongolia after a series of successful military campaigns. During the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368),[40] Manchuria was administered under the Liaoyang province. In 1375, Naghachu, a Mongol official of the Mongolia-based Northern Yuan dynasty in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong, but later surrendered to the Ming dynasty in 1387. In order to protect the northern border areas, the Ming decided to "pacify" the Jurchens in order to deal with its problems with Yuan remnants along its northern border. The Ming solidified control over Manchuria under the Yongle Emperor (1402–1424), establishing the Nurgan Regional Military Commission. Starting in the 1580s, a Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain, Nurhaci (1558–1626), started to unify Jurchen tribes of the region. Over the next several decades, the Jurchen took control of most of Manchuria. In 1616, Nurhaci founded the Later Jin dynasty, later became known as the Qing dynasty.

A Tartar Huntsmen on His Horse
A Jurchen man hunting from his horse, from a 15th-century ink and color painting on silk

Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", motifs such as the dragon, spirals, and scrolls, agriculture, husbandry, methods of heating, and material goods such as iron cooking pots, silk, and cotton spread among the Amur natives including the Udeghes, Ulchis, and Nanais.[41]

In 1644, after the Ming dynasty's capital of Beijing was sacked by the peasant rebels, the Jurchens (now called Manchus) allied with Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing, overthrowing the short-lived Shun dynasty and establishing Qing dynasty rule (1644–1912) over all of China. The Willow Palisade was a system of ditches and embankments built by the Qing dynasty during the later 17th century to restrict the movement of Han civilians into Jilin and Heilongjiang.[42] Only bannermen, including Chinese bannermen, were allowed to settle in Jilin and Heilongjiang.

After conquering the Ming, the Qing often identified their state as "China" (中國, Zhongguo; "Middle Kingdom"), and referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" ("Middle Kingdom") in Manchu.[43][44][45] In the Qing shilu the lands of the Qing state (including Manchuria and present-day Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet) are thus identified "the Middle Kingdom" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages in roughly two thirds of the cases, while the term refers to the traditional Chinese provinces populated by the Han in roughly one third of the cases. It was also common to use "China" (Zhongguo, Dulimbai gurun) to refer to the Qing in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs. In diplomatic documents, the term "Chinese language" (Dulimbai gurun i bithe) referred to Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and the term "Chinese people" (中國人 Zhongguo ren; Manchu: Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all Han, Manchus, and Mongol subjects of the Qing. The lands in Manchuria were explicitly stated by the Qing to belong to "China" (Zhongguo, Dulimbai gurun) in Qing edicts and in the Treaty of Nerchinsk.[46]

However Qing rule saw a massively increasing number of Han Chinese both illegally and legally streaming into Manchuria and settling down to cultivate land because Manchu landlords desired that Han Chinese peasants rent their land and grow grain, most Han Chinese migrants were not evicted because they went over the Great Wall and the Willow Palisade, during the eighteenth century Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares of privately owned land in Manchuria and 203,583 hectares of lands which were part of coutrier stations, noble estates, and Banner lands, in garrisons and towns in Manchuria Han Chinese made up 80% of the population.[47]

Han Chinese farmers were resettled from north China by the Qing in the area along the Liao River in order to restore the land to cultivation.[48] Wasteland was reclaimed by Han Chinese squatters in addition to other Han who rented land from Manchu landlords.[49] Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on Manchu and Mongol lands, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia by the 1780s.[50] The Qianlong Emperor allowed Han Chinese peasants suffering from drought to move into Manchuria despite his having issued edicts in favor of banning them from 1740 to 1776.[51] Chinese tenant farmers rented or even claimed title to land from the "imperial estates" and Manchu Bannerlands in the area.[52] Besides moving into the Liao area in southern Manchuria, the path linking Jinzhou, Fengtian, Tieling, Changchun, Hulun, and Ningguta was settled by Han Chinese during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, and Han Chinese were the majority in urban areas of Manchuria by 1800.[53] To increase the Imperial Treasury's revenue, the Qing sold formerly Manchu-only lands along the Sungari to Han Chinese at the beginning of the Daoguang Emperor's reign, and Han Chinese filled up most of Manchuria's towns by the 1840s, according to Abbe Huc.[54]

Iveron church in Harbin1
Russian Orthodox Church building in Harbin, c. 1900

The Russian conquest of Siberia was accompanied by massacres that were carried out by the Russian Cossacks, who ended indigenous resistance to colonization by savagely crushing the natives. At the hands of people like Vasilii Poyarkov in 1645 and Yerofei Khabarov in 1650, the Russians slaughtered some peoples like the Daur to such an extent that it is now considered genocide.[55] The Daurs initially deserted their villages since they heard about the cruelty of the Russians the first time Khabarov came.[56] The second time he came, the Daurs decided to do battle against the Russians instead but were slaughtered by Russian guns.[57] The indigenous peoples of the Amur region were attacked by Russians who came to be known as "red-beards".[58] The Russian Cossacks were named luocha (羅剎), after Demons found in Buddhist mythology, by the Amur natives because of their cruelty towards the Amur tribes people, who were subjects of the Qing.[59] The Russian proselytization of Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the indigenous peoples along the Amur River was viewed as a threat by the Qing.[60]

In 1858, a weakening Qing Empire was forced to cede Manchuria north of the Amur to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun. In 1860, at the Treaty of Peking, the Russians managed to obtain a further large slice of Manchuria, east of the Ussuri River. As a result, Manchuria was divided into a Russian half known as "Outer Manchuria", and a remaining Chinese half known as "Inner Manchuria". In modern literature, "Manchuria" usually refers to Inner (Chinese) Manchuria. As a result of the Treaties of Aigun and Peking, China lost access to the Sea of Japan.

History after 1860

1940 Manchurian visa
1940 Manchukuo visa issued at Hamburg

Inner Manchuria also came under strong Russian influence with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. In the Chuang Guandong movement, many Han farmers, mostly from the Shandong peninsula moved there. By 1921, Harbin, northern Manchuria's largest city, had a population of 300,000, including 100,000 Russians.[61] Japan replaced Russian influence in the southern half of Inner Manchuria as a result of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905. Most of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway was transferred from Russia to Japan, and became the South Manchurian Railway. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917, but Outer Manchuria had reverted to Soviet control by 1925. Manchuria was an important region due to its rich natural resources including coal, fertile soil, and various minerals. For pre–World War II Japan, Manchuria was an essential source of raw materials. Without occupying Manchuria, the Japanese probably could not have carried out their plan for conquest over Southeast Asia or taken the risk to attack Pearl Harbor and the British Empire in 1941.[62]

It was reported that among Banner people, both Manchu and Chinese (Hanjun) in Aihun, Heilongjiang in the 1920s, would seldom marry with Han civilians, but they (Manchu and Chinese Bannermen) would mostly intermarry with each other.[63] Owen Lattimore reported that during his January 1930 visit to Manchuria, he studied a community in Jilin (Kirin), where both Manchu and Chinese bannermen were settled at a town called Wulakai, and eventually the Chinese Bannermen there could not be differentiated from Manchus since they were effectively Manchufied (assimilated). The Han civilian population was in the process of absorbing and mixing with them when Lattimore wrote his article.[64]

Manchukuo map
Map of Manchukuo (1933–1945)

Around the time of World War I, Zhang Zuolin established himself as a powerful warlord with influence over most of Manchuria. During his rule, the Manchurian economy grew tremendously, backed by immigration of Chinese from other parts of China. The Japanese assassinated him on 2 June 1928, in what is known as the Huanggutun Incident.[65] Following the Mukden Incident in 1931 and the subsequent Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Japanese declared Inner Manchuria an "independent state", and appointed the deposed Qing emperor Puyi as puppet emperor of Manchukuo. Under Japanese control Manchuria was one of the most brutally run regions in the world, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local Russian and Chinese populations including arrests, organised riots and other forms of subjugation.[66] Manchukuo was used by Japan as a base to invade the rest of China.

After the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union invaded from Soviet Outer Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. Soon afterwards, the Communist Party of China and Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) started fighting for control over Manchuria. The communists won in the Liaoshen Campaign and took complete control over Manchuria. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was then used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Communist Party of China, which emerged victorious in 1949. Ambiguities in the treaties that ceded Outer Manchuria to Russia led to dispute over the political status of several islands. This led to armed conflict in 1969, called the Sino-Soviet border conflict, resulting in an agreement. In 2004, Russia agreed to transfer Yinlong Island and one half of Heixiazi Island to the PRC, ending an enduring border dispute.

See also

References

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  56. ^ "The Amur's siren song". The Economist (From the print edition: Christmas Specials ed.). 17 December 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  57. ^ Forsyth 1994, p. 104.
  58. ^ Stephan 1996, p. 64.
  59. ^ Kang 2013 Archived 23 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, p. 1.
  60. ^ Kim 2012/2013, p. 169.
  61. ^ "Memories of Dr. Wu Lien-teh, plague fighter". Yu-lin Wu (1995). World Scientific. p. 68. ISBN 981-02-2287-4
  62. ^ Edward Behr, The Last Emperor, 1987, p. 202
  63. ^ Rhoads 2011, p. 263.
  64. ^ Lattimore 1933, p. 272.
  65. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 168
  66. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 202

Bibliography

External links

  • Media related to Manchuria at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 43°N 125°E / 43°N 125°E

Chinese Eastern Railway

The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER (Chinese: trad. 東清鐵路, simp. 东清铁路, Dōngqīng Tiělù; Russian: Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or КВЖД, Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga or KVZhD), also known as the Chinese Far East Railway and North Manchuria Railway, is the historical name for a railway across Manchuria (northeastern China).

The line was built by Imperial Russia using a concession from the Qing dynasty, and linked Chita with Vladivostok in the Russian Far East. The T-shaped line consisted of three branches: the western branch, now the Harbin–Manzhouli Railway, the eastern branch, now the Harbin–Suifenhe Railway, and the southern branch, now part of the Beijing–Harbin Railway, which intersected in Harbin. The railway and the concession, known as the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone, were administered from the city, which grew into a major rail hub.

The southern branch of the CER, which became the South Manchuria Railway in 1906, became the locus and partial casus belli for the Russo-Japanese War, the 1929 Sino-Soviet Conflict, and the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Soviet Union returned the Chinese Eastern Railway to the People's Republic of China in 1952.

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident. After the war, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo. Their occupation lasted until the Soviet Union and Mongolia launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation in 1945.

The South Manchuria railway zone and the Korean Peninsula were already under the control of the Japanese empire since the Russo-Japanese War of 1904. Japan's ongoing industrialization and militarization ensured their growing dependence on oil and metal imports from the US. The American sanctions which prevented trade with the United States (which had occupied the Philippines around the same time) resulted in Japan furthering their expansion in the territory of China and Southeast Asia.

Kwantung Army

The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century. It became the largest and most prestigious command in the IJA. Many of its personnel, such as Chiefs of staff Seishirō Itagaki and Hideki Tōjō, were promoted to high positions in both the military and civil government in the Empire of Japan and it was largely responsible for the creation of the Japanese-dominated Empire of Manchuria. In August 1945, the army group, around 713,000 (from a previous total of 1,320,000) men at the time, was defeated by and surrendered to Soviet troops as a result of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation.

Liaodong Peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula (simplified Chinese: 辽东半岛; traditional Chinese: 遼東半島; pinyin: Liáodōng Bàndǎo) is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria. Liaodong (formerly spelled Liaotung) means "East of the Liao River"; referring to the Liao River which divided the Yan commanderies of Liaoxi (simplified Chinese: 辽西; traditional Chinese: 遼西) (West of the Liao River) and Liaodong during time of the Warring States period.

Liaoshen Campaign

The Liaoshen Campaign, abbreviation of Liaoning–Shenyang Campaign, was the first of the three major campaigns (along with Huaihai Campaign and Pingjin Campaign) launched by the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) against the Nationalist Kuomintang government during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War. This engagement is known in the Kuomintang as the Battle of Liaohsi (Traditional Chinese: 遼西會戰). It took place between September and November 1948 and lasted a total of 52 days. The campaign ended after the Nationalist forces suffered sweeping defeats across Manchuria, losing major cities of Jinzhou, Changchun and eventually Shenyang in the process, eventually leading to the capture of Manchuria by the Communist forces.

Manchukuo

Manchukuo (traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó; Japanese: 満州国; rōmaji: Manshūkoku; "State of Manchuria"; in other Axis languages: Italian: Manciukuò and German: Mandschukuo) was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic, but in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy. It had limited international recognition and was under the de facto control of Japan.

The area, collectively known as Manchuria, was the homeland of the Manchus, including the emperors of the Qing dynasty. In 1931, the region was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident and a pro-Japanese government was installed one year later with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and later emperor. Manchukuo's government was dissolved in 1945 after the surrender of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II. The territories formally claimed by the puppet state were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945, and then formally transferred to Chinese administration in the following year.Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo, whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. The population of Koreans increased during the Manchukuo period, and there were also Japanese, Mongols, White Russians and other minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there. The southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula was ruled by Japan as the Kwantung Leased Territory.

Manchuria under Ming rule

Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria. The Ming rule of Manchuria began with its conquest of Manchuria in the late 1380s after the fall of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, and reached its peak in the early 15th century with the establishment of the Nurgan Regional Military Commission, but the Ming power waned considerably in Manchuria after that. Starting in the 1580s, a Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain named Nurhaci (1558–1626), began to take control of most of Manchuria over the next several decades, and the Qing dynasty established by his son would eventually conquer the Ming and take control of China proper.

Manchuria under Qing rule

Manchuria under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria. The Qing dynasty itself was established by the Manchus, a Tungusic people coming from Manchuria, who later conquered the Ming dynasty and became the ruler of China. Thus, Manchuria enjoyed a somewhat special status during the Qing and was not governed as regular provinces until the late Qing dynasty.

Mukden Incident

The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was an event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.On 18 September 1931, Lt. Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Unit (独立守備隊) detonated a small quantity of dynamite close to a railway line owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway near Mukden (now Shenyang). The explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the track, and a train passed over it minutes later. The Imperial Japanese Army accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later. The deception was soon exposed by the Lytton Report of 1932, leading Japan to diplomatic isolation and its March 1933 withdrawal from the League of Nations.The bombing act is known as the Liutiaohu Incident (simplified Chinese: 柳条湖事变; traditional Chinese: 柳條湖事變; pinyin: Liǔtiáohú Shìbiàn, Japanese: 柳条湖事件, Ryūjōko-jiken), and the entire episode of events is known in Japan as the Manchurian Incident (Kyūjitai: 滿洲事變, Shinjitai: 満州事変, Manshū-jihen) and in China as the September 18 Incident (simplified Chinese: 九一八事变; traditional Chinese: 九一八事變; pinyin: Jiǔyībā Shìbiàn).

Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army

The Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army was the main anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Northeast China (Manchuria) after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Its predecessors were various anti-Japanese volunteer armies organized by locals and the Manchuria branches of the Communist Party of China (CPC). In February 1936, the CPC, in accordance with the instructions of the Communist International, issued The Declaration of the Unified Organization of Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and marked the official formation of the organization.

Northeast China

Northeast China (Chinese: 中国东北) or Dongbei is a geographical region of China. It also historically corresponds with the term Inner Manchuria in the English language. The name Manchuria was first invented in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. However, no term for "Manchuria" exists in the Manchu language, which originally referred to the area as the "Three Eastern Provinces"; mnc. ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳᡳᠯᠠᠨᡤᠣᠯᠣ, Dergi ilan golo; zh. 東三省 / 东三省, Dōng Sānshěng).It consists specifically of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, collectively referred as the Three Northeastern Provinces (东北三省), but broadly also encompasses the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. The region is separated from Far Eastern Russia to the north largely by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers, from North Korea to the south by the Yalu River and Tumen River, and from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingan Range. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain.

Due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector and decline of its economic growth, the region is called the Rust Belt in China.

As the result, a campaign named Northeast Area Revitalization Plan has been launched by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, in which five prefecture-level cities of eastern Inner Mongolia, namely Xilin Gol, Chifeng, Tongliao, Hinggan, and Hulunbuir, are also formally defined as regions of the Northeast. The region is nearly congruent with some definitions of "Manchuria" in historical foreign usage.Another term for the area is Guandong (关东), meaning "east of the Pass", referring to the famous Shanhai Pass between Liaoning Province and the neighboring Hebei Province (and also North China) to the west. This name was also used by the occupying Japanese colonists referring to their leased territory of Dalian after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, as the Kwantung Chou (関東州), which gave name to the occupying Kwantung Army that was later mobilized to set up the puppet state of Manchukuo.

Outer Manchuria

Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China (Chinese: 外东北; pinyin: Wài Dōngběi; Russian: Приаму́рье, romanized: Priamurye) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly controlled by the Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia. It is considered part of Manchuria by some definitions. Russia officially received this territory by way of the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860. The northern part of the area was also in dispute between 1643 and 1689.

Outer Manchuria comprises the present-day Russian areas of Primorsky Krai, southern Khabarovsk Krai, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, the Amur Oblast and the island of Sakhalin. Currently, the People's Republic of China has no claim to the territory.

The Treaty of Nerchinsk signed in 1689 after a series of conflicts, defined the China–Russia border as the Stanovoy Mountains and the Argun River, making Outer Manchuria a part of Qing dynasty China. After losing the Opium Wars, the Qing dynasty was forced to sign a series of treaties that gave away land and ports to the imperialist European powers; these were known as the Unequal Treaties. Starting with the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860, the Sino–Russian border was realigned in Russia's favor along the Amur and Ussuri rivers. As a result, China lost Outer Manchuria, and access to the Sea of Japan.

Qing dynasty in Inner Asia

The Qing dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Qing dynasty's realm in Inner Asia in the 17th and the 18th century AD, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang. Wars were fought primarily against the Northern Yuan dynasty (before 1636) and the Dzungar Khanate (1687–1758). Even before the conquest of China proper (see Qing conquest of the Ming), the Manchus had controlled Manchuria (modern Northeast China as well as Outer Manchuria) and Inner Mongolia, with the latter being previously controlled by the Mongols under Ligdan Khan. After suppressing the Revolt of the Three Feudatories and the conquest of Taiwan as well as ending the Sino-Russian border conflicts in the 1680s, the Dzungar–Qing War broken out. This eventually led to Qing conquests of Outer Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang. All of them became part of the Qing Empire and were garrisoned by Qing forces, but they were governed through several different types of administrative structure and also retained many of their existing institutions. Furthermore, they were not governed as regular provinces (until Xinjiang and Manchuria were turned into provinces in late Qing), but instead were supervised by the Lifan Yuan, a Qing government agency that oversaw the empire's frontier regions.

Russian Fascist Organization

Russian Fascist Organization (RFO) was the name adopted by a Russian émigré group active in Manchuria before World War II.

The RFO was formed in 1925 by members of the Law Faculty at Harbin Normal University. Under the leadership of Prof. N.I. Nikiforov, it looked to Italian fascism for inspiration and produced the 'Theses of Russian Fascism' in 1927. The RFO smuggled some propaganda into the Soviet Union, although this was brought to the attention of China who banned the group from publishing such works. In 1931 the RFO absorbed into the newly founded Russian Fascist Party (RFP) under the leadership of Konstantin Rodzaevsky.

Russo-Japanese War

The Russo-Japanese War (Russian: Русско-японская война, romanized: Russko-japonskaja vojna; Japanese: 日露戦争, romanized: Nichiro sensō; "Japanese-Russian War") was fought during 1904–1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.

Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for its navy and for maritime trade. Vladivostok was operational only during the summer, whereas Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by China, was operational all year. Since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan feared Russian encroachment on its plans to create a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria. Russia had demonstrated an expansionist policy in the Siberian Far East from the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. Seeing Russia as a rival, Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence. Russia refused and demanded Korea north of the 39th parallel to be a neutral buffer zone between Russia and Japan. The Japanese government perceived a Russian threat to its plans for expansion into Asia and chose to go to war. After negotiations broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian Eastern Fleet at Port Arthur, China, in a surprise attack.

Russia suffered multiple defeats by Japan, but Tsar Nicholas II was convinced that Russia would win and chose to remain engaged in the war; at first, to await the outcomes of certain naval battles, and later to preserve the dignity of Russia by averting a "humiliating peace". Russia ignored Japan's willingness early on to agree to an armistice and rejected the idea to bring the dispute to the Arbitration Court at The Hague. The war concluded with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt. The complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers. The consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one. Scholars continue to debate the historical significance of the war.

South Manchuria Railway

The South Manchuria Railway (南滿洲鐵道: Japanese Minamimanshū Tetsudō; Chinese Nánmǎnzhōu Tiědào), officially South Manchuria Railway Company (南滿洲鐵道株式會社, Minamimanshū Tetsudō Kabushikigaisha), or 滿鐵 (Mantetsu) for short (Mǎntiě in Chinese), was a large National Policy Company of Japan whose primary function was the operation of railways on the Dalian–Fengtian (Mukden)–Changchun (called Xinjing from 1931 to 1945) corridor in northeastern China, as well as on several branch lines. However, it was also involved in nearly every aspect of the economic, cultural and political life of Manchuria, from power generation to agricultural research, for which reason it was often referred to as "Japan's East India Company in China".

The main line from Changchun to Port Arthur, as Dalian was called under Russian rule, was built between 1898 and 1903 by the Chinese Eastern Railway according to the 1896 secret treaty and the 1898 lease convention between Qing China and Imperial Russia in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War; after Russia's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, this area was taken over by Japan as the South Manchuria Railway Zone. Mantetsu was established in 1906 to operate the railways taken over from the Russians. Subsequently, Mantetsu expanded by building new lines for itself and for Chinese-owned undertakings, and after the establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo was established in 1932, it was also entrusted with the management of the Manchukuo National Railway. Between 1917 and 1925, Mantetsu was also responsible for the management of the Chosen Government Railway in Japanese-occupied Korea.

In 1945, the Soviet Union invaded and overran Manchukuo, and following Japan's defeat in the Pacific War, Mantetsu itself was dissolved by order of the American occupation authorities in occupied Japan. The railway was operated by the Soviets for a time, and handed over to China Railway after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Fengtian has been called Shenyang since 1945, and the line from there to Dalian is today part of the Shenda Railway from Changchun to Dalian, whilst the Shenyang–Changchun section is now part of the Jingha Railway; the branch lines have also been part of China Railway since then.

Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo, Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia) and northern Korea. The Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms.Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U.S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject.

Soviet–Japanese War

The Soviet–Japanese War (Russian: Советско-японская война; Japanese: ソ連対日参戦, soren tai nichi sansen "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within World War II beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. The Soviets and Mongolians terminated Japanese control of Manchukuo, Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia), northern Korea, Karafuto, and the Chishima Islands (Kuril Islands). The defeat of Japan's Kwantung Army helped in the Japanese surrender and the termination of World War II. The Soviet entry into the war was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union would no longer be willing to act as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms.

Zhang Zuolin

Zhang Zuolin (simplified Chinese: 张作霖; traditional Chinese: 張作霖; pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín; Wade–Giles: Chang Tso-lin) (19 March 1875 – 4 June 1928) was an influential Chinese bandit, soldier and warlord during the Warlord Era in China. The warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928, and the military dictator of the Republic of China in 1927 and 1928, he rose from banditry to power and influence, only to be thwarted by the excesses of his own ambition and his erstwhile backers, the Japanese Kwantung Army.

Backed by Japan, Zhang successfully influenced politics in the Republic of China during the early 1920s, invaded China proper in October 1924 during the Second Zhili-Fengtian War, and gained control of Peking, including the internationally recognized government, in April 1926. His appointment as grand marshal of the Republic of China in June 1927 represented the height of his success, but was quickly followed by defeat: the economy of Manchuria, the basis of his power, was overtaxed by his adventurism and collapsed in the winter of 1927; and he was defeated by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in May 1928. Leaving Beijing in early June to return to Manchuria, he was killed by a bomb planted by infuriated Kwantung officers on 4 June 1928; his brief reign presaged the end of Chinese warlordism by December.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinMǎnzhōu
IPA[màn.ʈʂóu]
Wu
Romanizationmoetseu
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingmun5 zau1
Transcriptions
Revised RomanizationManju
Transcriptions
RomanizationManshū
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