Manchester

Coordinates: 53°28′46″N 2°14′43″W / 53.47944°N 2.24528°W

Manchester
Clockwise from top: City Centre (2009), Beetham Tower, Manchester Civil Justice Centre, Midland Hotel, One Angel Square, Manchester Town Hall
Nickname(s): 
"Cottonopolis", "Warehouse City", "Madchester", "The Rainy City"
Motto(s): 
"Concilio Et Labore" "By wisdom and effort"
Shown within Greater Manchester
Shown within Greater Manchester
Manchester is located in England
Manchester
Manchester
Location within England
Manchester is located in the United Kingdom
Manchester
Manchester
Location within the United Kingdom
Manchester is located in Europe
Manchester
Manchester
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 53°28′46″N 2°14′43″W / 53.47944°N 2.24528°W
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionNorth West England
City regionManchester
Ceremonial countyGreater Manchester
Historic countySalford Hundred, Lancashire
(north of River Mersey)
Cheshire
(south of River Mersey)
Founded1st century
Town charter1301
City status29 March 1853
Administrative HQManchester (Town Hall)
Government
 • TypeMetropolitan borough
 • BodyManchester City Council
 • LeadershipLeader and Cabinet
 • ExecutiveLabour
 • LeaderSir Richard Leese
 • Lord MayorJune Hitchen[1]
 • Chief ExecutiveJoanne Roney
Area
 • City44.6 sq mi (115.6 km2)
 • Urban
243.4 sq mi (630.3 km2)
Area rank199th
Elevation
125 ft (38 m)
Population
(mid-2017 est.)
 • City545,500
 • Rank5th
 • Density12,210/sq mi (4,716/km2)
 • Urban
3,226,109 (List of urban areas in the European Union)
 • Urban density10,490/sq mi (4,051/km2)
 • Metro
3,287,460[2] (List of metropolitan areas in Europe)
 • Ethnicity[3]
White groups (66.7% )
Asian (14.4%)
Black (8.6%)
Mixed (4.7%)
Chinese (2.7%)
Arab (1.9%)
Other (1.2%)
DemonymsMancunian
Manc (colloq.)
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
Dialling code0161
ISO 3166 codeGB-MAN
GSS codeE08000003
NUTS 3 codeUKD33
OS grid referenceSJ838980
MotorwaysM56
M60
A57(M)
A635(M)
Trunk primary routesA5103
Major railway stationsManchester Airport (B)
Manchester Oxford Road (C1)
Manchester Piccadilly (A)
Manchester Victoria (B)
TramwaysMetrolink
International airportsManchester (MAN)
GDPUS$ 113.3 billion[4]
– Per capitaUS$ 38,233[4]
MPsGraham Stringer (L)
Lucy Powell (L)
Afzal Khan (L)
Jeff Smith (L)
Mike Kane (L)
Councillors96
European ParliamentNorth West England
PoliceGreater Manchester
Fire and RescueGreater Manchester
AmbulanceNorth West
Websitewww.manchester.gov.uk

Manchester (/ˈmæntʃɪstər, -tʃɛs-/)[5][6] is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017.[7] It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million.[8] It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. It was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, Wythenshawe, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution,[9] and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.[10]

Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles (58 km) to the west. Its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration.[11]

In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London.[12] The 2018 Globalisation and World Cities Research Network had Manchester ranked alongside Edinburgh and Birmingham as Beta cities. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK, after London and Edinburgh.[13] It is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station; scientists first split the atom, developed the stored-program computer and produced graphene in the city. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

Name

The name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians (/mænˈkjuːniən/). These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- ("breast", in reference to a "breast-like hill") or from mamma ("mother", in reference to a local river goddess). Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh.[14] The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement ("fort; fortified town").[15]

History

Early history

The Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in what is now known as Northern England; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the banks of the River Irwell.[16] Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix (Chester) and Eboracum (York) were protected from the Brigantes.[16] Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time.[17] A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century.[18] After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066.[19] Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.[20][21]

Map of manchester circa 1650
A map of Manchester c. 1650
Map of Manchester 1801
A map of Manchester and Salford from 1801
McConnel & Company mills, about 1820
Cotton mills in Ancoats about 1820
Peterloo Massacre
The Peterloo Massacre of 1819 resulted in 15 deaths and several hundred injured

Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor, founded and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library.[19][22] The library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom.[23]

Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282.[24] Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry.[25] Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire."[19] The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester.[20]

During the English Civil War Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. He was a diligent puritan, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656.[26]

Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance.[19] The Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester. The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton.[19][22] Manchester became the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the surrounding towns.[19] A commodities exchange, opened in 1729,[20] and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce. In 1780, Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill.[20][22] In the early 1800s, John Dalton formulated his atomic theory in Manchester.

Industrial Revolution

Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing,[27] and later the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods.[19][28] Manchester was dubbed "Cottonopolis" and "Warehouse City" during the Victorian era.[27] In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term "manchester" is still used for household linen: sheets, pillow cases, towels, etc.[29] The industrial revolution brought about huge change in Manchester and was key to the increase in Manchester's population.

Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution.[30][31][32] It developed a wide range of industries, so that by 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world."[28] Engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture. Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance.

View from Kersal Moor, Salford - 1820
View from Kersal Moor towards Manchester by Thomas Pether, circa 1820, then still a rural landscape.
Manchester from Kersal Moor William Wylde (1857)
Manchester from Kersal Moor, by William Wyld in 1857, a view now dominated by chimney stacks as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution.

Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down.[19] In 1878 the GPO (the forerunner of British Telecom) provided its first telephones to a firm in Manchester.[33]

The Manchester Ship Canal was built between 1888 and 1894, in some sections by canalisation of the Rivers Irwell and Mersey, running 36 miles (58 km)[34] from Salford to Eastham Locks on the tidal Mersey. This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester. On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at Trafford Park.[19] Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world.

A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes. One such gathering ended with the Peterloo Massacre of 16 August 1819. The economic school of Manchester capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from 1838 onward.

Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester,[35] and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library. The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet.[23] The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester (at the Mechanics' Institute, David Street), from 2 to 6 June 1868. Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement.[36]

At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking (the Manchester School, promoting free trade and laissez-faire), new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation. It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow."[37] Manchester's golden age was perhaps the last quarter of the 19th century. Many of the great public buildings (including Manchester Town Hall) date from then. The city's cosmopolitan atmosphere contributed to a vibrant culture, which included the Hallé Orchestra. In 1889, when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy.

Oxford Road, Manchester 1910, Valette
An oil painting of Oxford Road, Manchester in 1910 by Valette

Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population. Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke". An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments".[38]

The number of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of 108 in 1853.[27] Thereafter the number began to decline and Manchester was surpassed as the largest centre of cotton spinning by Bolton in the 1850s and Oldham in the 1860s.[27] However, this period of decline coincided with the rise of the city as the financial centre of the region.[27] Manchester continued to process cotton, and in 1913, 65% of the world's cotton was processed in the area.[19] The First World War interrupted access to the export markets. Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture.

Blitz

Like most of the UK, the Manchester area was mobilised extensively during the Second World War. For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons; and just outside the city in Trafford Park, engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them. Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe, and by late 1940 air raids were taking place against non-military targets. The biggest took place during the "Christmas Blitz" on the nights of 22/23 and 24 December 1940, when an estimated 474 tonnes (467 long tons) of high explosives plus over 37,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices. 376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged.[39] Manchester Cathedral was among the buildings seriously damaged; its restoration took 20 years.[40]

Post-Second World War

Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in 1968.[19] By 1963 the port of Manchester was the UK's third largest,[41] and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large container ships. Traffic declined, and the port closed in 1982.[42] Heavy industry suffered a downturn from the 1960s and was greatly reduced under the economic policies followed by Margaret Thatcher's government after 1979. Manchester lost 150,000 jobs in manufacturing between 1961 and 1983.[19]

BBC picture Arndale centre after 1996 bomb
Corporation Street after the Manchester bombing on 15 June 1996. There were no fatalities, but it was one of the most expensive man-made disasters.[43] A large rebuilding project of Manchester ensued.

Regeneration began in the late 1980s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink, the Bridgewater Concert Hall, the Manchester Arena, and (in Salford) the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.[44]

Oxford Road Manchester 2014
Oxford Road, one of the main thoroughfares into Manchester city centre.

Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of 1867, arson in 1920, a series of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992. On Saturday 15 June 1996, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out the 1996 Manchester bombing, the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre. The largest to be detonated on British soil, the bomb injured over 200 people, heavily damaged nearby buildings, and broke windows 12 mile (800 m) away. The cost of the immediate damage was initially estimated at £50 million, but this was quickly revised upwards.[45] The final insurance payout was over £400 million; many affected businesses never recovered from the loss of trade.[46]

Since 2000

Spurred by the investment after the 1996 bomb, and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games, Manchester's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.[44] New and renovated complexes such as The Printworks and the Corn Exchange have become popular shopping, eating and entertainment destinations. The Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city centre shopping centre.[47]

Large sections of the city dating from the 1960s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel. Old mills have been converted into modern apartments, Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration programmes, and million-pound lofthouse apartments have since been developed. The 47-storey, 554-foot (169 m) tall, Beetham Tower is the tallest building in the UK outside London and, when completed in 2006, was the highest residential accommodation in Europe.[48] In January 2007, the independent Casino Advisory Panel awarded Manchester a licence to build the only supercasino in the UK,[49] however plans were officially abandoned in February 2008.[50]

On 22 May 2017, an Islamic terrorist carried out a bombing at an Ariana Grande concert in the Manchester Arena. The bomb killed 23, including the attacker, and injured over 800.[51] It was the deadliest terrorist attack and the first suicide bombing in Britain since the 7 July 2005 London bombings. The attack caused worldwide condemnation and the changing of the UK's threat level to "critical" for the first time since 2007.[52]

Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded by sections of the international press,[53] British public,[54] and government ministers as being the second city of the United Kingdom.[55][56] The BBC reports that redevelopment of recent years has heightened claims that Manchester is the second city of the UK.[57] Manchester and Birmingham have traditionally competed as frontrunners for this unofficial title.[57]

Governance

Manchester Town Hall from Lloyd St
Manchester Town Hall in Albert Square, seat of local government, is an example of Victorian era Gothic revival architecture.

The City of Manchester is governed by the Manchester City Council. The Greater Manchester Combined Authority, with a directly elected mayor, has responsibilities for economic strategy and transport, amongst other areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis. Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its inception in 1995.[58]

The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301, but lost its borough status in a court case of 1359. Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts, the last of which was dissolved in 1846.[59]

From a very early time, the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire.[59] Pevsner wrote "That [neighbouring] Stretford and Salford are not administratively one with Manchester is one of the most curious anomalies of England".[25] A stroke of a Norman baron's pen is said to have divorced Manchester and Salford, though it was not Salford that became separated from Manchester, it was Manchester, with its humbler line of lords, that was separated from Salford.[60] It was this separation that resulted in Salford becoming the judicial seat of Salfordshire, which included the ancient parish of Manchester. Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union using the name "Manchester".[59] In 1792, Commissioners—usually known as "Police Commissioners"—were established for the social improvement of Manchester. Manchester regained its borough status in 1838, and comprised the townships of Beswick, Cheetham Hill, Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme.[59] By 1846, with increasing population and greater industrialisation, the Borough Council had taken over the powers of the "Police Commissioners". In 1853, Manchester was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom.[59]

In 1885, Bradford, Harpurhey, Rusholme and parts of Moss Side and Withington townships became part of the City of Manchester. In 1889, the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council.[59] Between 1890 and 1933, more areas were added to the city which had been administered by Lancashire County Council, including former villages such as Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Fallowfield, Levenshulme, Longsight, and Withington. In 1931, the Cheshire civil parishes of Baguley, Northenden and Northen Etchells from the south of the River Mersey were added.[59] In 1974, by way of the Local Government Act 1972, the City of Manchester became a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester.[59] That year, Ringway, the village where the Manchester Airport is located, was added to the City.

In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor. The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area.[61] Andy Burnham was elected as the first Mayor of Greater Manchester in 2017.

Geography

River irwell liz
River Irwell from Blackfriar's Bridge
Manchester
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
69
 
 
6
1
 
 
50
 
 
7
1
 
 
61
 
 
9
3
 
 
51
 
 
12
4
 
 
61
 
 
15
7
 
 
67
 
 
18
10
 
 
65
 
 
20
12
 
 
79
 
 
20
12
 
 
74
 
 
17
10
 
 
77
 
 
14
8
 
 
78
 
 
9
4
 
 
78
 
 
7
2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-Charts.com

At 53°28′0″N 2°14′0″W / 53.46667°N 2.23333°W, 160 miles (260 km) northwest of London, Manchester lies in a bowl-shaped land area bordered to the north and east by the Pennines, an upland chain that runs the length of northern England, and to the south by the Cheshire Plain. Manchester is 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-east of Liverpool and 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-west of Sheffield, making the city the halfway point between the two. The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell, near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk, and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres (115 to 138 feet) above sea level.[62] The River Mersey flows through the south of Manchester. Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months. Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool, the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.[63]

Map of Manchester
The City of Manchester. The land use is overwhelmingly urban

The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area. The "Manchester City Zone", "Manchester post town" and the "Manchester Congestion Charge" are all examples of this.

For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area, the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation. There is a mixture of high-density urban and suburban locations in Manchester. The largest open space in the city, at around 260 hectares (642 acres),[64] is Heaton Park. Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through the south of Manchester, through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively. Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station.

Climate

Manchester experiences a temperate Oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), like much of the British Isles, with mild summers and cool winters. Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, typically reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days throughout July and August in particular. In more recent years, temperatures now reach over 30 Celsius on occasions. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. The city's average annual rainfall is 806.6 millimetres (31.76 in)[65] compared to the UK average of 1,125.0 millimetres (44.29 in),[66] and its mean rain days are 140.4 per annum,[65] compared to the UK average of 154.4.[66] Manchester has a relatively high humidity level and this, along with the abundant supply of soft water, was one of the factors that led to the localisation of the textile industry in the area.[67] Snowfalls are not common in the city because of the urban warming effect but the West Pennine Moors to the northwest, South Pennines to the northeast and Peak District to the east receive more snow, which can close roads leading out of the city.[68] They include the A62 via Oldham and Standedge,[69] the A57, Snake Pass, towards Sheffield,[70] and the Pennine section of the M62.[71] The lowest temperature ever recorded in Manchester was −17.6 °C (0.3 °F) on 7 January 2010.[72]

Green belt

Manchester lies at the centre of a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.[77]

Due to being already highly urban, the city contains limited portions of protected green belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, with minimal development opportunities,[78] at Clayton Vale, Heaton Park, Chorlton Water Park along with the Chorlton Ees & Ivy Green nature reserve and the floodplain surrounding the River Mersey, as well as the southern area around Manchester Airport.[79] The green belt was first drawn up in 1961.[77]

Demography

Racial structure, according to the 2011 census[3]

  White Groups (66.7%)
  Asian (14.4%)
  Black (8.6%)
  Mixed (4.7%)
  Chinese (2.7%)
  Arab (1.9%)
  Other (1.2%)

Below are the 10 largest immigrant groups of Manchester in 2011.

Country of Birth Immigrants in Manchester (2011 Census)
 Pakistan 20,712
 China 8,781
 Ireland 8,737
 Poland 6,836
 Nigeria 6,444
 India 6,433
 Somalia 3,645
 Jamaica 3,528
 Bangladesh 3,138
 Iraq 2,809

Religious beliefs, according to the 2011 census[3]

  Christian (48.7%)
  No Religion (25.3%)
  Muslim (15.8%)
  Hindu (1.1%)
  Buddhist (0.8%)
  Jewish (0.5%)
  Other (0.9%)
  Religion Not Stated (6.9%)

Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era, estimated at 354,930 for Manchester and 110,833 for Salford in 1865,[80] and peaking at 766,311 in 1931. From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley and Langley.[81]

The 2012 Mid-Year Estimate for the population of Manchester was 510,700. This was an increase of 7,900, or 1.6%, since the 2011 MYE. Since 2001, the population has grown by 87,900, or 20.8%. Manchester was the third fastest-growing of the areas in the 2011 census.[82] The city experienced the greatest percentage population growth outside London, with an increase of 19% to over 500,000.[83] Manchester's population is projected to reach 532,200 by 2021, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade.[82]

The Greater Manchester Built-up Area had a population of 2,553,400 (2011 est.). An estimated 2,702,200 people live in Greater Manchester (2012 est.). 6,547,000 people live within 30 miles (50 km) of Manchester (2012 est.) and 11,694,000 within 50 miles (80 km) (2012 est.).[82]

Between the beginning of July 2011 and end of June 2012 (Mid-Year Estimate date), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. Migration (internal and international) and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3,100 people between July 2011 and June 2012. Compared to Greater Manchester and England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20–35 age group.[82]

There were 76,095 under- and post-graduate students at the Manchester Metropolitan University, the University of Manchester and Royal Northern College of Music during the academic year 2011/12.

Since the 2001 census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester has decreased by 22% from 62.4% to 48.7%. The proportion of people with no religious affiliation increased by 58.1% from 16% to 25.3%, whilst the proportion of Muslims increased by 73.6% from 9.1% to 15.8%. The size of the Jewish population in Greater Manchester is the largest in Britain outside London.[84]

Greater Manchester Population
The population of Manchester shown with other boroughs in the Greater Manchester county from 1801 to 2011.

Manchester has a disproportionately high number of gay and lesbian people.[85] Of all households in Manchester, 0.23% were Same-Sex Civil Partnership couple households, compared to the English national average of 0.16% in 2011.[86]

In terms of ethnic composition, the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester. Statistics from the 2011 census showed that 66.7% of the population was White (59.3% White British, 2.4% White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 4.9% Other White – although those of mixed European and British ethnic groups is unknown; there are reportedly over 25,000 Mancunians of at least partial Italian descent alone which represents 5.5% of the city's population[87]). 4.7% were mixed race (1.8% White and Black Caribbean, 0.9% White and Black African, 1.0% White and Asian, 1.0% Other Mixed), 17.1% Asian (2.3% Indian, 8.5% Pakistani, 1.3% Bangladeshi, 2.7% Chinese, 2.3% Other Asian), 8.6% Black (5.1% African, 1.6% Other Black), 1.9% Arab and 1.2% of other ethnic heritage.[88]

Kidd identifies Moss Side, Longsight, Cheetham Hill, Rusholme, as centres of population for ethnic minorities.[19] Manchester's Irish Festival, including a St Patrick's Day parade, is one of Europe's largest.[89] There is also a well-established Chinatown in the city with a substantial number of oriental restaurants and Chinese supermarkets. The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,[90] contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.[91][92]

The Manchester Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,539,100 in 2004.[93] In addition to Manchester itself, the LUZ includes the remainder of the county of Greater Manchester.[94] The Manchester LUZ is the second largest within the United Kingdom, behind that of London.

Economy

GVA for
Greater Manchester South
2002–2012
[95]
Year GVA
(£ million)
Growth (%)
2002 24,011 Increase03.8%
2003 25,063 Increase04.4%
2004 27,862 Increase011.2%
2005 28,579 Increase02.6%
2006 30,384 Increase06.3%
2007 32,011 Increase05.4%
2008 32,081 Increase00.2%
2009 33,186 Increase03.4%
2010 33,751 Increase01.7%
2011 33,468 Decrease00.8%
2012 34,755 Increase03.8%
2013 37,560 Increase09.6%
Manchester from the Sky, 2008
Aerial view of Manchester city centre from the south in 2008.

The Office for National Statistics does not produce economic data for the City of Manchester alone, but includes four other metropolitan boroughs, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, in an area named Greater Manchester South, which had a GVA of £34.8bn. The economy grew relatively strongly between 2002 and 2012, where growth was 2.3% above the national average.[96] With a GDP of $102.3bn (2015 est., PPP) the wider metropolitan economy is the third-largest in the United Kingdom.[97] It is ranked as a beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[12]

As the UK economy continues to recover from the downturn experienced in 2008–10, Manchester compares favourably to other geographies according to the latest figures. In 2012 it is shown the strongest annual growth in business stock (5%) of all the Core Cities.[98] The city experienced a relatively sharp increase in the number of business deaths, the largest increase of all the Core Cities, however this was offset by strong growth in new businesses which resulted in a strong net growth.

Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen.[99] It owns two of the country's four busiest airports and uses its earnings to fund local projects.[100] Meanwhile, KPMG's competitive alternative report found that in 2012 Manchester had the 9th lowest tax cost of any industrialised city in the world,[101] and fiscal devolution has come earlier to Manchester than to any other British city: it can keep half the extra taxes it gets from transport investment.[99]

KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than Dutch cities, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, who all have a cost of living index less than 95.[101]

Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found.[102][103] According to the 2010 Indices of Multiple Deprivation Manchester is the 4th most deprived local council in England.[104] Unemployment throughout 2012–13 averaged 11.9%, which was above the national average, but lower than some of the country's other comparable large cities.[105] On the other hand, Greater Manchester is home to more multi-millionaires than anywhere outside London, with the City of Manchester taking up most of the tally.[106] In 2013 Manchester was ranked 6th in the UK for quality of life, according to a rating of the UK's 12 largest cities.[107]

Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in terms of equal pay to men. The per hours worked gender pay gap is 3.3%, in contrast to 11.1% for Great Britain.[108] 37% of the working-age population in Manchester have degree level qualifications in contrast to the average of 33% across other Core Cities,[108] although schools under-perform slightly when compared to the national average.[109]

Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London according to GVA Grimley with a quarterly office uptake (averaged over 2010–14) of approximately 250,000 square ft – equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds, Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90,000 square feet more than the nearest rival Birmingham.[110] The strong office market in Manchester has been partly attributed to 'Northshoring', (from offshoring) which entails the relocation or alternative creation of jobs away from the overheated South to areas where office space is possibly cheaper and workforce market may not be as saturated.[111]

According to 2019 property investment research, Manchester is rated as the number 2 location for "The Best Places To Invest In Property In The UK". This was attributed to a 5.6% increase in house prices and local investment into infrastructure and Manchester airport.[112]

Landmarks

67 Whitworth Street
Neo-baroque Lancaster House. Manchester is known for opulent warehouses from the city's textile trade.

Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade.[22] Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure while many have been redeveloped into apartment buildings and office space. Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the Gothic revival style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England.[113]

Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built during the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest of which was the CIS Tower located near Manchester Victoria station until the Beetham Tower was completed in 2006; it is an example of the new surge in high-rise building and includes a Hilton hotel, a restaurant, and apartments. The Green Building, opposite Oxford Road station, is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, while the recently completed One Angel Square, is one of the most sustainable large buildings in the world.[114] The award-winning Heaton Park in the north of the city borough is one of the largest municipal parks in Europe, covering 610 acres (250 ha) of parkland.[115] The city has 135 parks, gardens, and open spaces.[116]

Beetham Tower seen from Castlefield
Castlefield with Beetham Tower in the background.

Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert, Bishop James Fraser, Oliver Heywood, William Ewart Gladstone, and John Bright. Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, James Watt and the Duke of Wellington. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead; designed by Edwin Lutyens, it follows his design for the original on Whitehall in London. The Alan Turing Memorial in Sackville Park commemorates his role as the father of modern computing. A larger-than-life statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square (having stood for many years in Platt Fields) was presented to the city by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati, Ohio, to mark the part that Lancashire played in the cotton famine and American Civil War of 1861–1865.[117] A Concorde is on display near Manchester Airport.

Manchester has six designated Local Nature Reserves which are Chorlton Water Park, Blackley Forest, Clayton Vale and Chorlton Ees, Ivy Green, Boggart Hole Clough and Highfield Country Park.[118]

Transport

Greater Manchester Railways map
A map of railway and Metrolink lines in Greater Manchester

Rail

Piccadilly Station Manchester - geograph.org.uk - 692981
Manchester Piccadilly Station, the busiest of the four major railway stations in the Manchester station group with over 27 million passengers using the station in 2017.[119]

Manchester Liverpool Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station,[120] and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway – the world's first inter-city passenger railway. Today the city is well served by the rail network,[121] and is at the centre of an extensive countywide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line, with two mainline stations: Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria. The Manchester station group – comprising Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Victoria, Manchester Oxford Road and Deansgate – is the fourth busiest in the United Kingdom, with 41.7 million passengers recorded in 2013.[119] On 7 February 2014, construction of the £600m Northern Hub project, which aims to increase capacity and reduce journey times across the North, began with construction work commencing on a 4th platform at Manchester Airport railway station.[122] The High Speed 2 link to Birmingham and London is also planned, which, if built, will include a 12 km (7 mi) tunnel under Manchester on the final approach into an upgraded Piccadilly station.[123]

Metrolink (tram)

Two M5000 trams passing
Manchester Metrolink is the largest tram system in the UK, with a total route length of 57 miles (92 km).[124]

Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. In 2016–17, 37.8 million passenger journeys were made on the system.[125] The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines.[126] The network consists of seven lines with 93 stops.[127] A new line to the Trafford Centre is currently under construction and is due to open by 2020.[128][129] Manchester city centre is also serviced by over a dozen heavy and light rail-based park and ride sites.[130]

Bus

The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city. In 2011, 80% of public transport journeys in Greater Manchester were made by bus, amounting to 220 million passenger journeys by bus each year.[131] Following deregulation in 1986, the bus system was taken over by GM Buses, which after privatisation was split into GM Buses North and GM Buses South and at a later date these were taken over by First Greater Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester respectively.[132] First Greater Manchester also operates a two-route zero-fare bus service, called free bus, which carries 2.8 million commuters a year[131] around Manchester's business districts.[133] Stagecoach Manchester is the Stagecoach Group's largest subsidiary and operates around 690 buses.[134]

Manchester free bus
Free buses operate on two routes around Manchester city centre. Each bus departs every 10 minutes, Monday to Saturday.[135]

Air

Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport is the busiest airport in the UK outside London, with over double the number of annual passengers of the next busiest non-London airport.

Manchester, Northern England and North Wales are served by Manchester Airport. The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom and the largest outside the London region. Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than any other airport in Britain).[136] A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued terminal improvements. The airport has the highest rating available: "Category 10", encompassing an elite group of airports which are able to handle "Code F" aircraft including the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8.[137] From September 2010 the airport became one of only 17 airports in the world and the only UK airport other than Heathrow Airport to operate the Airbus A380.[138]

A smaller airfield, City Airport Manchester, also exists 9.3 km (6 mi) to the west of Manchester city centre. It was Manchester's first municipal airport, and became the site of the first Air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry.[139] Today, private charter flights and general aviation use the airfield, it also has a flight school,[140] and both the Greater Manchester Police Air Support Unit and the North West Air Ambulance have helicopters based at the airfield.

Canal

An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal, was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed to leisure use.[141] In 2012, plans were approved to introduce a water taxi service between Manchester city centre and MediaCityUK at Salford Quays.[142]

Culture

Music

Oasis Liam and Noel
The Gallagher brothers of Oasis

Bands that have emerged from the Manchester music scene include Van der Graaf Generator, Oasis, The Smiths, Joy Division and its successor group New Order, Buzzcocks, The Stone Roses, The Fall, The Durutti Column, 10cc, Godley & Creme, The Verve, Elbow, Doves, The Charlatans, M People, The 1975, Simply Red, Take That, Dutch Uncles, Everything Everything, Pale Waves and The Outfield. Manchester was credited as the main driving force behind British indie music of the 1980s led by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, and James. The later groups came from what became known as the "Madchester" scene that also centred on The Haçienda nightclub developed by founder of Factory Records Tony Wilson. Although from southern England, The Chemical Brothers subsequently formed in Manchester.[143] Former Smiths frontman Morrissey, whose lyrics often refer to Manchester locations and culture, later found international success as a solo artist. Previously, notable Manchester acts of the 1960s include The Hollies, Herman's Hermits, and Davy Jones of the Monkees (famed in the mid-1960s for not only their albums but also their American TV show) and the earlier Bee Gees, who grew up in Chorlton.[144] Another notable contemporary band from Manchester is The Courteeners consisting of Liam Fray and four close friends. Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is also from Greater Manchester.

MEN Arena, Manchester (7263927380)
The Manchester Arena, the city's premier indoor multi-use venue and one of the largest purpose-built arenas in the European Union.

Its main pop music venue is the Manchester Arena, which was voted "International Venue of the Year" in 2007.[145] With over 21,000 seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe.[145] In terms of concertgoers, it is the busiest indoor arena in the world, ahead of Madison Square Garden in New York and The O2 Arena in London, respectively the second- and third-busiest.[146] Other major venues include the Manchester Apollo, Albert Hall and the Manchester Academy. Smaller venues include the Band on the Wall, the Night and Day Café,[147] the Ruby Lounge,[148] and The Deaf Institute.[149] Manchester also has the most indie and rock music events outside of London.[150]

Manchester has two symphony orchestras, the Hallé and the BBC Philharmonic. There is also a chamber orchestra, the Manchester Camerata. In the 1950s, the city was home to the so-called "Manchester School" of classical composers, which comprised Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, David Ellis and Alexander Goehr. Manchester is a centre for musical education, with the Royal Northern College of Music, which celebrates its 40th Anniversary since its merger, and Chetham's School of Music.[151] Forerunners of the RNCM were the Northern School of Music (founded 1920) and the Royal Manchester College of Music (founded 1893), which were merged in 1973. One of the earliest instructors and classical music pianists/conductors at the RMCM, shortly after its founding was the famous Russian-born Arthur Friedheim, (1859–1932), who later had the music library at the famed Peabody Institute conservatory of music in Baltimore, Maryland, named for him. The main classical music venue was the Free Trade Hall on Peter Street, until the opening in 1996 of the 2,500 seat Bridgewater Hall.[152]

Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is an important part of Manchester's musical heritage;[153] some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band, are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside.

Performing arts

Opera House (Manchester)
The Opera House, one of Manchester's largest theatre venues

Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues, including the Manchester Opera House, which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester's former cotton exchange, the largest theatre in the round space in the UK.

Smaller performance spaces include the Contact Theatre and Z-arts in Hulme. The Dancehouse on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions.[154] In 2014, HOME, a new custom built arts complex opened in the City. Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre.[155]

Since 2007 the city has hosted the Manchester International Festival, a biennial international arts festival with a specific focus on original new work, which has included major new commissions by artists including Bjork. In Chancellor George Osborne's 2014 autumn statement he announced a £78 million grant to fund a new "large-scale, ultra-flexible arts space" for the city.[156] Subsequently, the council stated that they had managed to secure a further £32 million from "a variety of sources",[157] The £110 million venue was confirmed in July 2016.[158]:13–14 The theatre, to be called The Factory, after Manchester's Factory Records, will provide a permanent home for the Manchester International Festival,[156] it is due to open at the end of 2019.[158]:15

Museums and galleries

Manchester Art Gallery - geograph.org.uk - 1748756
Manchester Art Gallery

Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Industrial Revolution, the textile industry, the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football. A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. The Museum of Science and Industry, housed in the former Liverpool Road railway station, has a large collection of steam locomotives, industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program (known as the Manchester Baby).[159] The Museum of Transport displays a collection of historic buses and trams.[160] Trafford Park in the neighbouring borough of Trafford is home to Imperial War Museum North.[161] The Manchester Museum opened to the public in the 1880s, has notable Egyptology and natural history collections.[162]

The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery on Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting, and has one of Britain's most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.[163][164]

In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was recently voted Museum of the Year in 2015.[165] Other exhibition spaces and museums in Manchester include Islington Mill in Salford, the National Football Museum at Urbis, Castlefield Gallery, the Manchester Costume Gallery at Platt Fields Park, the People's History Museum and the Manchester Jewish Museum.[166]

The works of Stretford-born painter L. S. Lowry, known for his "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in both the city and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at the Lowry art centre in Salford Quays (in the neighbouring borough of Salford) which devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works.[167]

Literature

Gaskell House Plymouth Grove front
Gaskell House, where Mrs Gaskell wrote most of her novels. The house is now a museum.

Manchester is a UNESCO City of Literature known for possessing a "radical literary history".[168][169] In the 19th century, Manchester featured in works highlighting the changes that industrialisation had brought to Britain. These included Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton: A Tale of Manchester Life (1848),[170] and studies such as The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, written by Friedrich Engels while living and working in Manchester.[171] Manchester was the meeting place of Engels and Karl Marx. The two began writing The Communist Manifesto in Chetham's Library. The library was founded in 1653 and lays claim to being the oldest public library in the English-speaking world. Elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early printing. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display in the library.

Letitia Landon's poem Manchester in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1835, records the rapid growth of the city and its cultural importance.

Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and while it is partly modelled on Preston, it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell.[172] Gaskell penned all her novels, with the exception of Mary Barton, at her residence on Plymouth Grove. On numerous occasions Gaskell's house played host to influential authors including Dickens, Charlotte Brontë, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Charles Eliot Norton.[173] It is now open as a literary museum.

Charlotte Brontë began writing her masterpiece Jane Eyre in 1846, while staying lodgings in Hulme. Brontë was accompanying her father Patrick, who was convalescing in the city, having visited to undergo cataract surgery.[174] She likely envisioned Manchester Cathedral churchyard as the burial place for Jane's parents and the birthplace of Jane herself.[175] Also closely associated with the city is Victorian poet and novelist Isabella Banks, most famed for her 1876 novel The Manchester Man. Anglo-American author Frances Hodgson Burnett was born in the city's Cheetham Hill district in 1849, and wrote much of her classic children's novel The Secret Garden while visiting nearby Salford's Buile Hill Park.[176]

Anthony Burgess is among the 20th century writers who made Manchester their home, he wrote the dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange in 1962.[177] Dame Carol Ann Duffy, the current Poet Laureate, moved to the city in 1996 and lives in West Didsbury.[178] Poet, novelist and academic Jackie Kay also lives in the city. John Cooper Clarke the performance poet who first became famous during the punk rock era of the late 1970s when he became known as a "punk poet" grew up here.

Nightlife

Canal street manchester
Canal Street, one of Manchester's liveliest nightspots, part of the city's gay village

The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about 1993, with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities.[179] The more than 500 licensed premises[180] in the city centre have a capacity to deal with more than 250,000 visitors,[181] with 110–130,000 people visiting on a typical weekend night,[180] making Manchester the most popular city for events at 79 per thousand people.[182] The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million[183] and supports 12,000 jobs.[180]

The Madchester scene of the 1980s, from which groups including New Order, The Smiths, The Stone Roses, the Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, 808 State, James and The Charlatans emerged, was based on clubs such as the world-famous The Haçienda.[184] The period was the subject of the film 24 Hour Party People. Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded (and given) and drugs were openly dealt.[184] Following a series of drug-related violent incidents, The Hacienda closed in 1998. In 1988, Manchester was often referred to as Madchester for its rave scene. Owned by Tony Wilson's Factory Records, it was given the catalogue number FAC51 and official club name, FAC51 The Hacienda. Known for developing many talented 1980s influential acts, it also influenced the graphic design industry via Factory artists such as Peter Saville (PSA), Octavo (8vo), Central Design Station, etc. The memorabilia from this club holds a high value among collectors and fans of these artists and the club. Peter Saville was most notable for his minimalistic influence that still affects contemporary graphic design everywhere.

Gay Village

Public houses in the Canal Street area have had an LGBTQ+ clientele since at least 1940,[179] and now form the centre of Manchester's LGBT+ community. Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend[179] and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride, each August since 2003.[185]

Education

Whitworth Hall Manchester
Whitworth Hall at the University of Manchester, with approximately 40,000 students it is the largest university in the UK in terms of enrolment

There are three universities in the City of Manchester. The University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and Royal Northern College of Music. The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom and was created in 2004 by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester founded in 1904 and UMIST, founded in 1956,[186] though the university's logo appears to claim it was established in 1824. It includes the Manchester Business School, which offered the first MBA course in the UK in 1965. Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. It gained university status in 1992, and in the same year absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education in South Cheshire.[187] The University of Law, the largest provider of vocation legal training in Europe, has a campus in the city.[188]

The three Universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher education precinct.[189] Together they have a combined population of 76,025 students in higher education as of 2015,[190] although almost 6,000 of them were based at Manchester Metropolitan University's campuses at Crewe and Alsager in Cheshire.[191]

One of Manchester's most notable secondary schools is the Manchester Grammar School. Established in 1515,[192] as a free grammar school next to what is now the Cathedral, it moved in 1931 to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body. In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school (i.e. partially state funded), but it reverted to independent status in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system.[193] Its previous premises are now used by Chetham's School of Music. There are three schools nearby: William Hulme's Grammar School, Withington Girls' School and Manchester High School for Girls.

In 2010, the Manchester Local Education Authority was ranked last out of Greater Manchester's ten LEAs – and 147th out of 150 in the country LEAs – based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least five A*-C grades at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) including maths and English (38.6% compared with the national average of 50.7%). The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences, with 11.11% of "half-day sessions missed by pupils", above the national average of 5.8%.[194][195] Of the schools in the LEA with 30 or more pupils, four had 90% or more pupils achieving at least five A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English (Manchester High School for Girls, St Bede's College, Manchester Islamic High School for Girls, and The King David High School) while three managed 25% or below (Plant Hill Arts College, North Manchester High School for Boys, Brookway High School and Sports College).[196]

Sport

Etihad Stadium
The Etihad Stadium, home to Premier League club Manchester City FC and host stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games

Manchester is well known for being a city of sport.[197] Two decorated Premier League football clubs bear the city name – Manchester United and Manchester City.[198] Manchester United play its home games at Old Trafford, in the Manchester suburb of Trafford, the largest club football ground in the United Kingdom.[199] Manchester City's home ground is the City of Manchester Stadium (also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes); its former ground, Maine Road was demolished in 2003. The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games and was subsequently reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City's arrival. Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield Stadium, Maine Road, Old Trafford and the City of Manchester Stadium. Competitions hosted in city include the FIFA World Cup (1966), UEFA European Football Championship (1996), Olympic Football (2012), UEFA Champions League Final (2003), UEFA Cup Final (2008), four FA Cup Finals (1893, 1911, 1915, 1970) and three League Cup Finals (1977, 1978, 1984).

First-class sporting facilities were built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, including the City of Manchester Stadium, the National Squash Centre and the Manchester Aquatics Centre.[200] Manchester has competed twice to host the Olympic Games, beaten by Atlanta for 1996 and Sydney for 2000. The National Cycling Centre includes a velodrome, BMX Arena and Mountainbike trials and is the home of British Cycling, UCI ProTeam Team Sky and Sky Track Cycling. The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the 2000 games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling.[179] The velodrome hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships for a record third time in 2008. The National Indoor BMX Arena (2,000 capacity) adjacent to the velodrome opened in 2011. The Manchester Arena hosted the FINA World Swimming Championships in 2008.[201] Manchester Cricket Club evolved into Lancashire County Cricket Club and play at Old Trafford Cricket Ground. Manchester also hosted the World Squash Championships in 2008,[202] and also hosted the 2010 World Lacrosse Championship in July 2010.[203] Recent sporting events hosted by Manchester include the 2013 Ashes series, 2013 Rugby League World Cup and the 2015 Rugby World Cup.

Media

Express Building Manchester
The Daily Express Building, Manchester, built in the 1930s but since vacated by the Daily Express. Despite this, newspaper printing still takes place at the building.

The ITV franchise Granada Television is partially headquartered in the old Granada Studios site on Quay Street and the new location at MediaCityUK[204] as part of the initial phase of its migration to Salford Quays.[205] It produces Coronation Street,[206] local news and programmes for North West England. Although its influence has waned Granada had been described as 'the best commercial television company in the world'.[207][208]

Manchester was one of the BBC's three main centres in England.[205] Programmes including Mastermind,[209] and Real Story,[210] were made at New Broadcasting House. The Cutting It series set in the city's Northern Quarter and The Street were set in Manchester[211] as was Life on Mars. The first edition of Top of the Pops was broadcast from a studio in Rusholme on New Year's Day 1964.[212] Manchester was the regional base for BBC One North West Region programmes before it relocated to MediaCityUK in nearby Salford Quays.[213][214] The Manchester television channel, Channel M, owned by the Guardian Media Group operated from 2000 but closed in 2012.[205][215] Manchester is also covered by two internet television channels: Quays News and Manchester.tv. The city will also have a new terrestrial channel from January 2014 when YourTV Manchester, who won the OFCOM licence bid in February 2013 begins its first broadcast but in 2015 when That's Manchester took over to air on 31 May and launched on the freeview channel 8 service slot before moving to channel 7 in April 2016.

The city has the highest number of local radio stations outside London including BBC Radio Manchester, Key 103, Galaxy, Piccadilly Magic 1152, Real Radio North West, 100.4 Smooth FM, Capital Gold 1458, 96.2 The Revolution, NMFM (North Manchester FM) and Xfm.[216][217] Student radio stations include Fuse FM at the University of Manchester and MMU Radio at the Manchester Metropolitan University.[218] A community radio network is coordinated by Radio Regen, with stations covering Ardwick, Longsight and Levenshulme (All FM 96.9) and Wythenshawe (Wythenshawe FM 97.2).[217] Defunct radio stations include Sunset 102, which became Kiss 102, then Galaxy Manchester), and KFM which became Signal Cheshire (now Imagine FM). These stations and pirate radio played a significant role in the city's house music culture, the Madchester scene, which was based in clubs like The Haçienda.

The Guardian newspaper was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian. Its head office is still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in 1964.[19] Its sister publication, the Manchester Evening News, has the largest circulation of a UK regional evening newspaper. The paper is free in the city centre on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburbs. Despite its title, it is available all day.[219] The Metro North West is available free at Metrolink stops, rail stations and other busy locations. The MEN group distributes several local weekly free papers.[220] For many years most of the national newspapers had offices in Manchester: The Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mail, The Daily Mirror, The Sun. At its height, 1,500 journalists were employed, though in the 1980s office closures began and today the "second Fleet Street" is no more.[221] An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in 1988.[222] Another attempt was made with the North West Enquirer, which hoped to provide a true "regional" newspaper for the North West, much in the same vein as the Yorkshire Post does for Yorkshire or The Northern Echo does for the North East; it folded in October 2006.[222]

Twin cities and consulates

Manchester has formal twinning arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places.[223][224] In addition, the British Council maintains a metropolitan centre in Manchester.[225]

Manchester is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London. The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the 1820s and since then over 800, from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester. Manchester hosts consular services for most of the north of England.[227]

Honorary citizens

On 12 July 2017, American singer Ariana Grande became the first honorary citizen of Manchester, after a unanimous vote by the Manchester City Council.[228]

See also

References

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External links

2017–18 Premier League

The 2017–18 Premier League was the 26th season of the Premier League, the top English professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1992. The season started on 11 August 2017 and concluded on 13 May 2018. Fixtures for the 2017–18 season were announced on 14 June 2017. Chelsea were the defending champions, while Newcastle United, Brighton & Hove Albion and Huddersfield Town entered as the promoted teams from the 2016–17 EFL Championship.

Manchester City won their third Premier League title, and fifth English top-flight title overall, with five games to spare. The team broke numerous Premier League records over the course of the season, including: most points (100), most wins (32), most away wins (16), most goals (106), most consecutive league wins (18), highest goal difference (+79), most passes in a game (903), fewest minutes behind in matches (153 minutes) and biggest winning points margin (19). All three promoted clubs avoided relegation for the first time since the 2011–12 campaign, and for only the third time in Premier League history.

2018–19 Premier League

The 2018–19 Premier League is the 27th season of the Premier League, the top English professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1992. The season started on 10 August 2018 and is scheduled to finish on 12 May 2019. Fixtures for the 2018–19 season were announced on 14 June 2018.Manchester City are the defending champions. Wolverhampton Wanderers, Cardiff City and Fulham joined as the promoted clubs from the 2017–18 EFL Championship. They replaced West Bromwich Albion, Swansea City and Stoke City who were relegated to the 2018–19 EFL Championship.

The season saw the occurrence of two aviation incidents involving Premier League personnel. On 27 October 2018, Leicester City owner Vichai Srivaddhanaprabha was killed in a helicopter crash outside the King Power Stadium, shortly after a 1–1 home draw against West Ham United. Almost three months later, on 21 January 2019, Cardiff City player Emiliano Sala, en route to join the club following his record signing from Nantes, died on board a Piper PA-46 Malibu aircraft that crashed off Alderney.Huddersfield Town were the first team to be relegated, following their 2–0 defeat at Crystal Palace on 30 March 2019, coinciding with victories for Burnley and Southampton. They were relegated with six games remaining. This made Huddersfield the second team to be relegated before March ended, following Derby County in 2007–08. Fulham joined them after a 4–1 defeat at Watford on 2 April, relegated with five games remaining.

The fastest goal in Premier League history was scored this season on 23 April by Shane Long in a 1–1 draw between his side Southampton and Watford with 7.69 seconds.

Adam Sandler

Adam Richard Sandler (born September 9, 1966) is an American actor, comedian, screenwriter, film producer, and musician. After becoming a Saturday Night Live cast member, Sandler went on to star in many Hollywood feature films that combined have grossed over $2 billion at the box office.His film roles include Billy Madison (1995), the sports comedies Happy Gilmore (1996) and The Waterboy (1998), the romantic comedy The Wedding Singer (1998), Big Daddy (1999), and Mr. Deeds (2002), and voicing Dracula in the Hotel Transylvania franchise.

Some of his films, such as the widely panned Jack and Jill, have been heavily criticized, culminating in a shared second place in the number of Raspberry Awards (3) and Raspberry Award nominations (11), in both cases second only to Sylvester Stallone.

He has ventured into more dramatic territory with his roles in Punch-Drunk Love (2002), Spanglish (2004), Reign Over Me (2007), Funny People (2009), and The Meyerowitz Stories (2017), all of which earned him critical praise.

City of Manchester Stadium

The City of Manchester Stadium in Manchester, England, currently known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship reasons, is the home of Manchester City and, with a domestic football capacity of 55,097, the fifth-largest in the Premier League and tenth-largest in the United Kingdom.Built to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games, the stadium has since staged the 2008 UEFA Cup Final, England football internationals, rugby league matches, a boxing world title fight, the England rugby union team's last match of the 2015 Rugby World Cup and summer music concerts during the football off-season.

The stadium, originally proposed as an athletics arena in Manchester's bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics, was converted after the 2002 Commonwealth Games from a 38,000 capacity arena to a 48,000 seat football stadium at a cost to the city council of £22 million and to Manchester City of £20 million. Manchester City F.C. agreed to lease the stadium from Manchester City Council and moved there from Maine Road in the summer of 2003.The stadium was built by Laing Construction at a cost of £112 million and was designed and engineered by ArupSport, whose design incorporated a cable-stayed roof structure which is separated from the main stadium bowl and suspended entirely by twelve exterior masts and attached cables. The stadium design has received much praise and many accolades, including an award from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 2004 for its innovative inclusive building design and a special award in 2003 from the Institution of Structural Engineers for its unique structural design.In August 2015, a 7,000 seat third tier on the South Stand was completed, in time for the start of the 2015–16 football season. The expansion was designed to be in keeping with the existing roof design.

Greater Manchester

Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972; and designated a functional city region on 1 April 2011.

Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles (1,277 km2), which roughly covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK. It is landlocked and borders Cheshire (to the south-west and south), Derbyshire (to the south-east), West Yorkshire (to the north-east), Lancashire (to the north) and Merseyside (to the west). There is a mix of high-density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is mostly urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred mostly during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry. It has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.

Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA), which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development, regeneration and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) effectively became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, and as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011.

Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs. Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content, guitar and dance music, and association football.

List of English football champions

The English football champions are the winners of the highest league in English men's football, which since 1992–93 is the Premier League.

Following the legalisation of professional football by the Football Association in 1885, the Football League was established in 1888, after a series of meetings initiated by Aston Villa director William McGregor. At the end of the 1888–89 season, Preston North End were the first club to be crowned champions after completing their fixtures unbeaten.Representing the first fully professional football competition in the world the league saw its early years dominated by teams from the North and Midlands, where professionalism was embraced more readily than in the South. Its status as the country's pre-eminent league was strengthened in 1892, when the rival Football Alliance was absorbed into the Football League. Former Alliance clubs comprised the bulk of a new Second Division, from which promotion to the top level could be gained. It was not until 1931 that a Southern club were crowned champions, when Herbert Chapman's Arsenal secured the title. Arsenal scored 127 goals in the process, a record for a title-winning side (though runners-up Aston Villa scored one goal more, a record for the top division).Rules stipulating a maximum wage for players were abolished in 1961. This resulted in a shift of power towards bigger clubs. Financial considerations became an even bigger influence from 1992, when the teams then in the First Division defected to form the FA Premier League. This supplanted the Football League First Division as the highest level of football in England, and due to a series of progressively larger television contracts, put wealth into the hands of top flight clubs in a hitherto unprecedented manner. The first five champions in the Premier League era – Arsenal, Blackburn Rovers, Chelsea, Manchester City and Manchester United – had all won the title at least once prior to 1992. Leicester City were crowned champions for the first time in 2016, becoming the first (and to date only) team to win the Premier League without having previously won the First Division.

All the clubs which have ever been crowned champions are still in existence today and all take part in the top four tiers of the English football league system – the football pyramid. Sheffield Wednesday are the only club who have ever changed their name after winning a league title having been known as The Wednesday for the first three of their four titles.

Manchester United have won 20 titles, the most of any club. United's rivals Liverpool are second with 18. Liverpool dominated during the 1970s and 1980s, while United dominated in the 1990s and 2000s under Sir Alex Ferguson. Arsenal are third; their 13 titles all came after 1930. Everton are fourth with nine titles. Aston Villa (seven) and Sunderland (six) secured the majority of their titles before World War I. Huddersfield Town in 1924–26, Arsenal in 1933–35, Liverpool in 1982–84 and Manchester United in 1999–2001 and 2007–09 are the only sides to have won the League title in three consecutive seasons.

Manchester Airport

Manchester Airport (IATA: MAN, ICAO: EGCC) is an international airport at Ringway, Manchester, England, 7.5 nautical miles (13.9 km; 8.6 mi) south-west of Manchester city centre. In 2016, it was the third busiest airport in the United Kingdom in terms of passenger numbers and the busiest outside London. The airport comprises three passenger terminals and a goods terminal, and is the only airport in the UK other than Heathrow Airport to operate two runways over 3,280 yd (2,999 m) in length. Manchester Airport covers an area of 560 hectares (1,400 acres) and has flights to 199 destinations, placing the airport thirteenth globally for total destinations served.Officially opened on 25 June 1938, it was initially known as Ringway Airport, and is still called this locally. In the Second World War, as RAF Ringway, it was a base for the Royal Air Force. The airport is owned and managed by the Manchester Airports Group (MAG), a holding company owned by the Australian finance house IFM Investors and the ten metropolitan borough councils of Greater Manchester, with Manchester City Council owning the largest stake. Ringway, after which the airport was named, is a village with a few buildings and church at the southern edge of the airport.

Future developments include the £800 million Manchester Airport City logistics, manufacturing, office and hotel space next to the airport. Ongoing and future transport improvements include the £290 million Eastern Link relief road, due to open in summer 2019. A High Speed 2 station known as Manchester Interchange, is earmarked for opening in 2033, and will directly connect the airport to Central London in under an hour and create a regular sub-10 minute shuttle service for connecting rail passengers from central Manchester to the Airport - relieving stress on the Styal Line to the Airport from Manchester which has become one of the most congested routes on the National Rail network.After the airport handled a record 27.8 million passengers in 2017, the Airport is currently undergoing a major expansion programme to double the size of Terminal 2, with the first phase due to open in spring 2019. The £1 billion expansion will be completed in 2024 and enable the Terminal 2 to handle 35 million passengers. Capacity exists for up to 50 million passengers annually with two runways, however this potential figure is limited by the airport's restriction to 61 aircraft movements per hour as well as existing terminal sizes to effectively process arrivals and departures.

Manchester Arena bombing

The Manchester Arena bombing was a suicide bombing attack in Manchester, United Kingdom on 22 May 2017. A radical Islamist detonated a shrapnel-laden homemade bomb as people were leaving the Manchester Arena following a concert by the American singer Ariana Grande.

Twenty-three people died, including the attacker, and 139 were wounded, more than half of them children. Several hundred more suffered psychological trauma. The bomber was Salman Ramadan Abedi, a 22-year-old local man of Libyan ancestry. After initial suspicions of a terrorist network, police later said they believed Abedi had largely acted alone but that others had been aware of his plans.

The incident was the deadliest terrorist attack and the first suicide bombing in the United Kingdom since the 7 July 2005 London bombings.

Manchester City F.C.

Manchester City Football Club is a football club based in Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Founded in 1880 as St. Mark's (West Gorton), it became Ardwick Association Football Club in 1887 and Manchester City in 1894. The club's home ground is the City of Manchester Stadium in east Manchester, to which it moved in 2003, having played at Maine Road since 1923.

Manchester City entered the Football League in 1899, and won their first major honour with the FA Cup in 1904. It had its first major period of success in the late 1960s, winning the League, FA Cup and League Cup under the management of Joe Mercer and Malcolm Allison. After losing the 1981 FA Cup Final, the club went through a period of decline, culminating in relegation to the third tier of English football. Having regained their Premier League status in the early 2000s, Manchester City was purchased in 2008 by Abu Dhabi United Group for £210 million and received considerable financial investment.

The club won the Premier League in 2012, 2014 and, most recently in 2018, also becoming the first Premier League team to attain 100 points in a single season. Manchester City's revenue was the fifth highest of a football club in the world in the 2017–18 season at €527.7 million. In 2018, Forbes estimated the club was the fifth most valuable in the world at $2.47 billion.

Manchester United F.C.

Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed "the Red Devils", the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910.

Manchester United have won more trophies than any other club in English football, with a record 20 League titles, 12 FA Cups, 5 League Cups and a record 21 FA Community Shields. United have also won three UEFA Champions Leagues, one UEFA Europa League, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the club became the first in the history of English football to achieve the continental European treble. By winning the UEFA Europa League in 2016–17, they became one of five clubs to have won all three main UEFA club competitions.

The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players. In 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies as manager, including 13 Premier League titles, 5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, between 1986 and 2013, when he announced his retirement.

Manchester United was the highest-earning football club in the world for 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €676.3 million, and the world's most valuable football club in 2018, valued at £3.1 billion. As of June 2015, it is the world's most valuable football brand, estimated to be worth $1.2 billion. After being floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was purchased by Malcolm Glazer in May 2005 in a deal valuing the club at almost £800 million, after which the company was taken private again, before going public once more in August 2012, when they made an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. Manchester United is one of the most widely supported football clubs in the world, and has rivalries with Liverpool, Manchester City, Arsenal, and Leeds United.

Old Trafford

Old Trafford () is a football stadium in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, and the home of Manchester United. With a capacity of 74,994, it is the largest club football stadium (and second largest football stadium overall after Wembley Stadium) in the United Kingdom, and the eleventh-largest in Europe. It is about 0.5 miles (800 m) from Old Trafford Cricket Ground and the adjacent tram stop.

Nicknamed "The Theatre of Dreams" by Bobby Charlton, Old Trafford has been United's home ground since 1910, although from 1941 to 1949 the club shared Maine Road with local rivals Manchester City as a result of Second World War bomb damage. Old Trafford underwent several expansions in the 1990s, and 2000s, including the addition of extra tiers to the North, West and East Stands, almost returning the stadium to its original capacity of 80,000. Future expansion is likely to involve the addition of a second tier to the South Stand, which would raise the capacity to around 88,000. The stadium's record attendance was recorded in 1939, when 76,962 spectators watched the FA Cup semi-final between Wolverhampton Wanderers and Grimsby Town.

Old Trafford has hosted FA Cup semi-finals, England fixtures, matches at the 1966 World Cup and Euro 96 and the 2003 Champions League Final, as well as rugby league's annual Super League Grand Final and the final of two Rugby League World Cups. It also hosted football matches at the 2012 Summer Olympics, including women's international football for the first time in its history.

Ole Gunnar Solskjær

Ole Gunnar Solskjær (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈuːlə ˈɡʉnːɑr ²suːlʂær] (listen); born 26 February 1973) is a Norwegian football manager and former player who is the manager of English club Manchester United. As a player, he spent most of his career playing as a forward for Manchester United.

Before he arrived in England, Solskjær played for Norwegian clubs Clausenengen and Molde. He joined Manchester United in 1996 for a transfer fee of £1.5 million. Nicknamed "the Baby-faced Assassin", he played 366 times for United, and scored 126 goals during a successful period for the club. He was regarded as a "super sub" for his knack of coming off the substitute bench to score late goals. In injury time at the end of the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final, he scored the winning last-minute goal against Bayern Munich, with Manchester United having trailed 1–0 as the game passed 90 minutes, and winning The Treble for United.

In 2007, Solskjær announced his retirement from football after failing to recover from a serious knee injury. However, he remained at Manchester United in a coaching role as well as in an ambassadorial capacity. In 2008, Solskjær became the club's reserve team manager. He returned to his native country in 2011 to manage his former club, Molde, whom he led to their two first ever Tippeligaen titles in his first two seasons with the club. He secured a third title in as many seasons, when his team won the 2013 Norwegian Football Cup Final. In 2014, he served as manager of Cardiff City, during which the club were relegated from the Premier League.

He also supervises a training academy for young footballers in his home town of Kristiansund, and is a patron of the Manchester United Supporters' Trust.

Paul Pogba

Paul Labile Pogba (born 15 March 1993) is a French professional footballer who plays for Premier League club Manchester United and the French national team. He operates primarily as a central midfielder, but can also be deployed as an attacking midfielder, defensive midfielder, and deep-lying playmaker.Born in Lagny-sur-Marne, Pogba showed much promise as a youngster, flourishing as a member of local youth teams. He eventually joined the youth team of Ligue 1 side Le Havre, before a protracted transfer brought him to Manchester United in 2009. After beginning his senior career with Manchester United two years later, limited appearances persuaded him to depart to join Italian side Juventus on a free transfer in 2012, where he helped the club to four consecutive Serie A titles, as well as two Coppa Italia and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. During his time in Italy, Pogba further established himself as one of the most promising young players in the world, and received the Golden Boy award in 2013, followed by the Bravo Award in 2014. In 2016, Pogba was named to the 2015 UEFA Team of the Year, as well as the 2015 FIFA FIFPro World XI, after helping Juventus to the 2015 UEFA Champions League Final, their first in 12 years.

Pogba's performances at Juventus allowed him to return to Manchester United in 2016 for a then-world record transfer fee of €105 million (£89.3 million). The fee paid for him remains the highest paid by an English club. In his first season back, he won the League Cup and the Europa League.Internationally, he captained France to victory at the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup and took home the award for the Best Player for his performances during the tournament. He made his debut for the senior team a year later, and featured prominently at the 2014 FIFA World Cup, where he was awarded the Best Young Player Award for his performances. He later represented his nation at UEFA Euro 2016 on home soil, where he finished as a runner-up, before winning the 2018 FIFA World Cup after scoring in the final.

Premier League

The Premier League (often referred to as the English Premier League (EPL) outside England) is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League (EFL).

The Premier League is a corporation in which the member clubs act as shareholders. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches (playing all 19 other teams both home and away). Most games are played on Saturday and Sunday afternoons. The Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league.

The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, and take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal. The deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates €2.2 billion per year in domestic and international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17.The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people. In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity. The Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018.Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United (13), Chelsea (5), Arsenal (3), Manchester City (3), Blackburn Rovers (1), and Leicester City (1). The record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18.

Ryan Giggs

Ryan Joseph Giggs, (born Wilson; born 29 November 1973) is a Welsh football coach and former player. He is the manager of the Wales national team and a co-owner of Salford City. He played his entire professional career for Manchester United, and briefly served as Manchester United's interim manager.

The son of rugby union, and Wales international rugby league footballer Danny Wilson, Giggs was born in Cardiff but moved to Manchester at the age of six when his father joined Swinton RLFC. Predominantly a left winger, he began his career with Manchester City, but joined Manchester United on his 14th birthday in 1987. He made his professional debut for the club in 1991 and spent the next 23 years in the Manchester United first team. At the end of the 2013–14 season, he was named as Manchester United's interim player-manager following the sacking of David Moyes. He was named as assistant manager under Moyes' permanent replacement, Louis van Gaal, on 19 May 2014; he retired from playing the same day. He holds the club record for competitive appearances. At international level, Giggs played for the Wales national team 64 times between 1991 and 2007, and was named as the captain of the Great Britain team that competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics. He is one of only 28 players to have made over 1,000 career appearances.Giggs is the most decorated player in football history. During his time at United, he won 13 Premier League winner's medals, four FA Cup winner's medals, three League Cup winner's medals, two UEFA Champions League winner's medals, a FIFA Club World Cup winners medal, an Intercontinental Cup winner's medal, a UEFA Super Cup winner's medal and nine FA Community Shield winner's medals. Manchester United and Liverpool are the only clubs in English football history to have won more league championships than Giggs. Giggs captained United on numerous occasions, particularly in the 2007–08 season when regular captain Gary Neville was ruled out with various injuries.

Giggs also has a number of personal achievements. He was the first player in history to win two consecutive PFA Young Player of the Year awards (1992 and 1993), though he did not win the PFA Player of the Year award until 2009. He was the only player to play in each of the first 22 seasons of the Premier League, as well as the only player to score in each of the first 21 seasons. He was elected into the PFA Team of the Century in 2007, the Premier League Team of the Decade in 2003, as well as the FA Cup Team of the Century. Giggs holds the record for the most assists in Premier League history, with 271. He was named as BBC Sports Personality of the Year in 2009. In addition to the many honours Giggs has received within football, he was appointed an OBE in the Queen's 2007 Birthday Honours List for his services to football.

Sergio Agüero

Sergio Leonel Agüero (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈseɾxjo le.oˈnel aˈɣweɾo]; born 2 June 1988) is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a striker for Premier League club Manchester City and the Argentine national team.

Agüero began his career at Independiente. On 5 July 2003, he became the youngest player to play in the Argentine Primera División on his debut at 15 years and 35 days, breaking the record previously established by Diego Maradona in 1976. In 2006, he moved to Europe to play for La Liga side Atlético Madrid, for a transfer fee of €23 million and made a name for himself, attracting attention from Europe's top clubs by scoring 101 goals in 234 appearances while winning the UEFA Europa League and the UEFA Super Cup in 2010.

Agüero moved to Premier League club Manchester City in July 2011 for an undisclosed fee thought to be in the region of £35 million. On the last day of his debut season with the club, he scored a 94th-minute winner against Queens Park Rangers that earned City its first league title in 44 years. At the end of the 2015–16 season, of players who had played at least two seasons in the Premier League, Agüero had the highest goals per minute ratio in the history of the competition since its formation in 1992, averaging a goal every 106 minutes, ahead of Thierry Henry. He also holds the joint-record for the most goals scored in a single Premier League match – five – and the fastest to do so, in 23 minutes and 34 seconds of match time. In November 2017, Agüero became Manchester City's all-time highest goal-scorer, scoring his 178th City goal against Napoli. Agüero is currently the 7th highest goalscorer in Premier League history, and the highest non-European scorer in the history of the Premier League, with over 100 goals in the division.

At the international level, Agüero represented the Argentina under-20 team at the FIFA U-20 World Cup in 2005 and in 2007, winning both tournaments. He played at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, scoring two goals in the 3–0 semi-final win against Brazil as Argentina went on to win the gold medal. Agüero was selected to represent Argentina in the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the 2011 Copa América, the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the 2015 Copa América, and the Copa América Centenario, reaching the finals of the latter three tournaments. He also participated in the 2018 FIFA World Cup, where he scored his first and second World Cup goals for Argentina.

He wears "Kun" on his shirt, a childhood nickname based on the title character from the cartoon Kum-Kum.

The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to owners or shareholders.The current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format. As of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834. The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia (founded in 2013) and Guardian US (founded in 2011). The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion, and its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial (despite the high proportion of privately educated journalists writing for it) has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today.In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what [they] see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company (PAMCo) stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018. It was also reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions; other "quality" brands included The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and the i. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month.Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone. The investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, and subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts. It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most recently in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance.

University of Manchester

The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century.

The main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK (out of 167 including the Open University), and the largest single-site university. The university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts (6th place nationally behind Oxford, UCL, Cambridge, Imperial and Edinburgh). It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Edinburgh. It is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings. In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U.S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality (GPA) of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework.The university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope.The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are currently among its staff – more than any other British university.

Wayne Rooney

Wayne Mark Rooney (born 24 October 1985) is an English professional footballer who plays for Major League Soccer club D.C. United. He has played much of his career as a forward, and he has also been used in various midfield roles. He is the record goalscorer for the England national team and for Manchester United. At club level, he has won every honour available in English, European and Continental football, with the exception of the European Super Cup. Along with Michael Carrick, he is the only English player to win the Premier League, FA Cup, UEFA Champions League, League Cup, UEFA Europa League and FIFA Club World Cup.Rooney joined the Everton youth team at the age of 9, and made his professional debut for the club in 2002 at the age of 16. He spent two seasons at the Merseyside club, before moving to Manchester United for £25.6 million in the 2004 summer transfer window. He won 16 trophies with the club, including five Premier League titles, the FA Cup and the Champions League in 2008. He scored 253 goals for United in all competitions to make him their top goalscorer of all time, with 183 Premier League goals being the most scored by a player for any single club. Rooney's 208 Premier League goals make him the Premier League's second top scorer of all time behind only Alan Shearer. He also has the third-highest number of assists in the Premier League, with 103.Rooney made his senior international debut for England in February 2003 aged 17, becoming the youngest player to represent England (a record since broken by Theo Walcott) and he is England's youngest ever goalscorer. He played at UEFA Euro 2004 and scored four goals, briefly becoming the youngest goalscorer in the history of the European Championship. Rooney has since featured at the 2006, 2010 and 2014 World Cups and was widely regarded as his country's best player. He has won the England Player of the Year award four times, in 2008, 2009, 2014 and 2015. With 53 goals in 120 international caps, Rooney is England's all-time record goalscorer and second most-capped player, behind Peter Shilton. Along with David Beckham, Rooney is the most red-carded player for England, having been sent off twice.

In 2009–10, Rooney was awarded the PFA Players' Player of the Year and the FWA Footballer of the Year. He won the Premier League Player of the Month award five times, a record only bettered by Steven Gerrard and Harry Kane. His displays at the start of the decade saw him come fifth in the vote for the 2011 FIFA Ballon d'Or and he was named in the FIFA World XI for 2011. Rooney has won the Goal of the Season award by the BBC's Match of the Day poll on three occasions, with his bicycle kick against city rivals Manchester City winning the Premier League Goal of the 20 Seasons award.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.7
 
 
43
34
 
 
2
 
 
45
34
 
 
2.4
 
 
48
37
 
 
2
 
 
54
39
 
 
2.4
 
 
59
45
 
 
2.6
 
 
64
50
 
 
2.6
 
 
68
54
 
 
3.1
 
 
68
54
 
 
2.9
 
 
63
50
 
 
3
 
 
57
46
 
 
3.1
 
 
48
39
 
 
3.1
 
 
45
36
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Climate data for Manchester (MAN), elevation: 69 m or 226 ft, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1958–2004
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
16.5
(61.7)
21.7
(71.1)
25.1
(77.2)
26.7
(80.1)
31.3
(88.3)
32.2
(90.0)
33.7
(92.7)
28.4
(83.1)
25.6
(78.1)
17.7
(63.9)
15.1
(59.2)
33.7
(92.7)
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.6
(45.7)
10.0
(50.0)
12.6
(54.7)
16.1
(61.0)
18.6
(65.5)
20.6
(69.1)
20.3
(68.5)
17.6
(63.7)
13.9
(57.0)
10.0
(50.0)
7.4
(45.3)
13.5
(56.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
4.6
(40.3)
6.7
(44.1)
8.8
(47.8)
11.9
(53.4)
14.6
(58.3)
16.6
(61.9)
16.4
(61.5)
14.0
(57.2)
10.7
(51.3)
7.1
(44.8)
4.6
(40.3)
10.0
(50.0)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.6
(34.9)
3.3
(37.9)
4.9
(40.8)
7.7
(45.9)
10.5
(50.9)
12.6
(54.7)
12.4
(54.3)
10.3
(50.5)
7.4
(45.3)
4.2
(39.6)
1.8
(35.2)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −12.0
(10.4)
−13.1
(8.4)
−9.7
(14.5)
−4.9
(23.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
0.8
(33.4)
5.4
(41.7)
3.6
(38.5)
0.8
(33.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−13.5
(7.7)
−13.5
(7.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.3
(2.85)
51.4
(2.02)
61.2
(2.41)
54.0
(2.13)
56.8
(2.24)
66.1
(2.60)
63.9
(2.52)
77.0
(3.03)
71.5
(2.81)
92.5
(3.64)
81.5
(3.21)
80.7
(3.18)
828.8
(32.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.1 9.7 12.3 11.2 10.4 11.1 10.9 12.0 11.1 13.6 14.1 13.5 142.9
Average snowy days 6 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 20
Average relative humidity (%) 87 86 85 85 85 87 88 89 89 89 88 87 88
Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.5 73.9 99.0 146.9 188.3 172.5 179.7 166.3 131.2 99.3 59.5 47.1 1,416.2
Source #1: Met Office[73] NOAA (relative humidity and snow days 1961–1990)[74]
Source #2: KNMI[75][76]
Destinations from Manchester
England
Scotland
Wales
England
Scotland
Wales
Northern Ireland
The City of Manchester
About Manchester
Parliament
constituencies
Geographic areas
Statutory City Region
Metropolitan districts
Major settlements
Rivers
Topics
Buildings and structures in Manchester, England
Skyscrapers (over 100 metres)
Highrises (over 50 metres)
Notable lowrises
(city centre or Grade II* listed)
Mills and warehouses
Religious
(Grade I or II* listed)
Transportation
Entertainment
Sports venues
Memorials and sculptures
Bridges
Districts
Councils
Local elections
Cheshire
Cumbria
Greater Manchester
Lancashire
Merseyside
Commonwealth Games host cities

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