Manaslu

Manaslu (Nepali: मनास्लु, also known as Kutang) is the eighth highest mountain in the world at 8,163 metres (26,781 ft) above sea level. It is located in the Mansiri Himal, part of the Nepalese Himalayas, in the west-central part of Nepal. Its name, which means "mountain of the spirit", comes from the Sanskrit word manasa, meaning "intellect" or "soul". Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956 by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition. It is said that "just as the British consider Everest their mountain, Manaslu has always been a Japanese mountain".[3][4]

Manaslu Peak
Manaslu Peak

Manaslu is the highest peak in the Gorkha District and is located about 64 km (40 mi) east of Annapurna. The mountain's long ridges and valley glaciers offer feasible approaches from all directions, and culminate in a peak that towers steeply above its surrounding landscape, and is a dominant feature when viewed from afar.[5][4][6][7]

The Manaslu region offers a variety of trekking options. The popular Manaslu trekking route of 177 kilometres (110 mi) skirts the Manaslu massif over the pass down to Annapurna. The Nepalese Government only permitted trekking of this circuit in 1991.[8] The trekking trail follows an ancient salt-trading route along the Burhi Gandak River. En route, 10 peaks over 6,500 metres (21,300 ft) are visible, including a few over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). The highest point reached along the trek route is the Larkya La at an elevation of 5,106 metres (16,752 ft). As of May 2008, the mountain has been climbed 297 times with 53 fatalities.[9][5][10]

The Manaslu Conservation Area has been established with the primary objective of achieving conservation and sustainable management of the delimited area, which includes Manaslu.[11]

Manaslu
Sunrise, Manaslu
Manaslu at sunrise
Highest point
Elevation8,163 m (26,781 ft) [1]
Ranked 8th
Prominence3,092 m (10,144 ft) [2]
Ranked 80th
Isolation106 kilometres (66 mi)
ListingEight-thousander
Ultra
Coordinates28°32′58″N 84°33′43″E / 28.54944°N 84.56194°ECoordinates: 28°32′58″N 84°33′43″E / 28.54944°N 84.56194°E[1]
Naming
Native nameमनास्लु  (Sanskrit)
English translationMountain of the spirit
Geography
Manaslu is located in Nepal
Manaslu
Manaslu
Nepal
LocationGorkha, Manang-Gandaki Zone, Nepal
Parent rangeMansiri Himal, Himalayas
Climbing
First ascentMay 9, 1956 by a Japanese team[1]
(First winter ascent 12 January 1984 Maciej Berbeka and Ryszard Gajewski)
Easiest routesnow/ice climb

General

Set in the northern Himalayan range in the Gorkha District of Nepal, Manaslu is a serrated "wall of snow and ice hanging in the sky". The three sides of the mountain fall in steps to terraces down below, which are sparsely inhabited with agricultural operations practiced on the land. Apart from climbing Manaslu, trekking is popular in this mountain region, as part of the Manaslu Circuit, a notable path by trekkers in Nepal.[5]

The Manaslu Conservation Area, declared as such in December 1998 under the National Parks and Wild Life Conservation Act, subsumes Manaslu within it. The area covered under the conservation zone is 1,663 square kilometres (642 sq mi) and is managed by the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC) of Nepal. The status of "conservation area" applied to the Manaslu area or region was with the basic objective "To conserve and sustainable management of the natural resources and rich cultural heritage and to promote ecotourism to improve livelihood of the local people in the MCA region."[11]

Manaslu Himal, as it is popularly known among trekkers, provides views of the snow-covered mountains of the Himalayas and allows close interaction with the different ethnic groups who live in hill villages scattered along the trek route.[12]

The trekking route is through mountainous terrain prone to the consequences of monsoon rainfall, land slides and land falls. Hypothermia and altitude sickness, as well as encounters with passing yaks, are common. Trekking to Manaslu is thus a test of endurance.[13]

Geography

Manaslu, from base camp trip
Manaslu from base camp

The region, which is also termed the Manaslu Conservation Area, comprises sub-tropical Himalayan foothills to arid Trans-Himalayan high pastures bordering Tibet. Starting from Arughat and extending into the Larkhe La pass, the area covers six climatic zones: the tropical and sub-tropical zone, elevation varies from 1,000–2,000 metres (3,300–6,600 ft); the temperate zone (within elevation range of 2,000–3,000 metres (6,600–9,800 ft); the sub-alpine zone elevation range of 3,000–4,000 metres (9,800–13,100 ft); the alpine zone, a range of 4,000–5,000 metres (13,000–16,000 ft)) meadows; and the arctic zone (lying above 4,500 metres (14,800 ft)). The zones coalesce with the variation of the altitude from about 600 metres (2,000 ft) in the tropical zone to the 8,156 metres (26,759 ft) summit of Manaslu in the arctic zone.[4][14][15]

Manaslu (8,163m)
The morning view of Manaslu from Samagoan Village

Manaslu is known in the Tibetan language as "Kutan l", in which "tang" means the Tibetan word for a flat place. It is a very large peak with an elevation of 8,156 metres (26,759 ft) (the world's eighth highest mountain). In view of its favourable topography of long ridges and glacial valleys, Manaslu offers several routes to mountaineers. Important peaks surrounding Manaslu include Ngadi Chuli, Himalchuli and Baudha. A glacial saddle known as Larkya La, with an elevation of 5,106 metres (16,752 ft), lies north of Manaslu. The peak is bounded on the east by the Ganesh Himal and the Buri Gandaki River gorge, on the west by the deep fissures of the Marysyangdi Khola with its Annapurna range of hills, to the south is the Gorkha town at the foot of the hill (from where trekking operates during the season), which is an aerial distance of 48 kilometres (30 mi) to the peak. There are six established trek routes to the peak, and on the mountain the south face is reportedly the most difficult for climbing.[4][14]

Climate

The permanent snow line is reckoned above 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) elevation. Precipitation in the area is both from snowfall and rainfall; the average annual rainfall is about 1,900 millimetres (75 in), mostly during the monsoon period, which extends from June to September. The temperatures in the area also vary widely with the climatic zone: in the subtropical zone, the average summer and winter temperatures vary in the range of 31–34 °C (88–93 °F) and 8–13 °C (46–55 °F) respectively; in the temperate climatic zone, the summer temperatures are 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and winter temperatures are −2–6 °C (28–43 °F) when snow and frost are also experienced; in the subalpine zone, during December to May snowfall generally occurs and the mean annual temperature is 6–10 °C (43–50 °F). The arctic zone is distinct and falls within the permanent snow line; there, the temperatures lie much below freezing.[15]

Major peaks

Manaslu Himal air view
Major peaks of Mansiri Himal range (left to right): Manaslu, Ngadi Chuli, Himalchuli

There are other major peaks in the region, namely Himalchuli (7,893 m or 25,896 ft), Ngadi Chuli (7,871 m or 25,823 ft), Shringi (7,187 m or 23,579 ft), Langpo (6,668 m or 21,877 ft) and Saula (6,235 m or 20,456 ft)[16]

Ecosystem

Fauna

Unlike many other regions, this valley is a sanctuary to many highly endangered animals, including snow leopards and Red pandas. Other mammals include lynx, Asian black bear, grey wolf, dhole, Assam macaque, Himalayan musk deer, blue sheep, Himalayan tahr, mainland serow, Himalayan goral, woolly hare, horseshoe bat, Himalayan mouse-hare and black-lipped pika.[16] Over 110 species of birds, 33 mammals, 11 butterflies and 3 reptiles have been recorded.[15][17] Conservation of wild life in the area has been achieved by monks of the monasteries in the area by putting a hunting ban in place. This action has helped the wildlife to prosper. The area is now an important habitat for the snow leopard, grey wolf, musk deer, blue sheep and the Himalayan tahr.[11]

A total of 110 species of birds have been identified in the area, including golden eagle, Eurasian griffon, Himalayan griffon, blood, impeyan, kalij and koklass pheasants, Himalayan and Tibetan snow cocks and the crimson horned pheasant.[16]

Vegetation

Three main categories of vegetation have been identified in the area. These are categorised on the basis of the altitude as Low hill, Middle mountain and High mountain types with its exclusive types of dominant forests and other associated species. The types of vegetation, however, tend to overlap the adjoining ones at places. Depending on the microclimate and other aspects, an overlap of vegetation is noticed in adjacent areas. However, the forest types are fairly well defined. The flora in different forest types also does not show much variation. The valley basin has a rich ecotone diversity and includes nineteen different types of forests, most prominently rhododendron, and also Himalayan blue pine, which is flanked by Ganesh Himal and the Sringi ranges. Medicinal herbs and aromatic plants, have also been recorded in different forests types and adjoining vegetation. Overall, the presence of 19 types of forests and other forms of dominant vegetation have been recorded from the area.[15][17] An estimated 1,500–2,000 plant species grow here.[16]

Ethnic groups

There are two ethnicities mainly inhabiting this region; Nubri and Tsum. The branching off of the river at Chhikur divides these two ethnic domains. While Nubri has been frequently visited after Nepal opened itself for the tourism in 1950, Tsum still retains much of its traditional culture, art, and tradition. In the central hills of the region, Gurungs are the main ethnic group who have joined the Brigade of Gurkhas in large numbers. Closer to Tibet, the Bhutias (also spelled Bhotias), akin to the Sherpa group, of Tibetan ethnicity dominate the scene as can be discerned from their flat roofed houses, and they are distinctly Buddhists. The region is dotted with austere monasteries, mani walls, chortens and other Buddhist religious landmarks.

History

Manaslu, from Timang
Manaslu from Timang Village

In 1950, H. W. Tilman was the first European to lead an expedition to the Annapurna Range with a small party of five compatriots. They walked on foot from the Kathmandu valley (six days of trekking from the valley), and using Manang as their base camp they started exploring the mountain ranges, peaks and valleys of the Annapurna massif. During this exploration, while making a reconnaissance of the higher reaches of the Dudh Khola, they clearly saw Manaslu from Bumtang. Three months later, after their aborted trip to Annapurna IV, Tilman, accompanied by Major J. O. M. Roberts, trekked to Larkya La pass and from there saw Manaslu and its plateau and concluded that there was a direct route to the summit, although they did not make an attempt on it.[18]

After the reconnaissance visit by Tilman, there were four Japanese expeditions between 1950 and 1955 that explored the possibility of climbing Manaslu by the north and east faces.[19]

In 1952, a Japanese reconnaissance party visited the area after the monsoon season. In the following year (1953), a team of 15 climbers led by Y. Mita, after setting up base camp at Samagaon, attempted to climb via the east side but failed to reach the summit. In this first attempt by a Japanese team to summit via the north-east face, three climbers reached a height of 7,750 metres (25,430 ft), before turning back.[20]

In 1954, a Japanese team approaching from the Buri Gandaki route to the peak faced a hostile group of villagers at Samagaon camp. The villagers thought that the previous expeditions had displeased the gods, causing the avalanches that destroyed the Pung-gyen Monastery and the death of 18 people. As a result of this hostility, the team made a hasty retreat to Ganesh Himal.[21] To appease local sentiments, a large donation was made to rebuild the monastery. However, this philanthropic act did not ease the atmosphere of distrust and hostility towards Japanese expeditions. Even the expedition in 1956 which successfully climbed the mountain faced this situation and as a result the next Japanese expedition only took place in 1971.[3]

In 1956, Toshio Imanishi (Japan) and Gyaltsen Norbu (Sherpa) made the first ascent of Manaslu on May 9, 1956.[22] The Japanese expedition was led by Maki Yūkō, also known as Aritsune Maki.

In 1956, David Snellgrove, a noted scholar in Tibetan culture and religion, undertook a seven-month sojourn of mid-west and central Nepal. The route that he followed, accompanied by three Nepalese people, was via Bumtang and Buri Gandaki river and crossing over to the Larkya La.[21]

1970s

The next successful climb to the summit of Manaslu was in 1971. On May 17, 1971, Kazuharu Kohara and Motoki, part of an 11-man Japanese team, reached the summit via the north-west spur.[9] Also in 1971, Kim Ho-sup led a Korean expedition attempt via the north-east face. Kim Ki-sup fell to his death on May 4.[9] In 1972, the south-west face was climbed for the first time by Reinhold Messner as part of an Austrian expedition.[23][9] In 1972 only, the Koreans attempted the north-east face. On April 10, an avalanche buried their camp at 6,500 metres (21,300 ft), killing fifteen climbers including ten Sherpas and the Korean expedition leader Kim Ho-sup,[24] and Kazunari Yasuhisa from Japan.[9] On April 22, 1973, Gerhard Schmatz, Sigi Hupfauer and a Sherpa climber reached the summit via the north-east face. In the same year, a Spanish expedition led by Jaume Garcia Orts could reach only to 6,100 metres (20,000 ft).[9] The first Japanese women expedition led by Kyoko Sato was successful on May 4, 1974, when all members reached the summit after a failed attempt from the East ridge. They were thus the first women team (Naoko Nakaseko, Masako Uchida, Mieko Mori) with Jambu Sherpa to climb an 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) peak. However, one climber died on May 5 when she fell between camps 4 and 5.[9]

Manaslu - Thulagi Chuli - Ngadi Chuli
Manaslu (L), Thulagi (M), Ngadi Chuli (Peak 29, R)
1980s

In the pre-monsoon period of 1980, a South Korean team led by Li In-jung reached the summit via the normal route, which was the eighth ascent to the peak.[19] The year 1981 marked several expeditions: the largest contingent of 13 climbers of a team organized by the Sport-Eiselin of Zurich led by H. V. Kaenel, made it to the summit along the normal route; in autumn, French mountaineers opened a new route, a variation of the west face route; and a Japanese team, led by Y. Kato, made an ascent via the normal route.[19] In 1983, two climbers from Yugoslavia, trying to climb the peak from the south face, were buried under an avalanche. One of them was Nejc Zaplotnik, a notable climber of Slovenian origin. A Korean team reached the summit in the autumn of the same year. A German team led by G. Harter was successful in climbing the peak via the south face, which followed the "1972 Tyrolean Route".[19]

On May 10, 1983, four men from the Joint Services East Nepal Expedition made the first British ascent of Manaslu North using a totally new route, special permission from the Nepalese Government having been granted to access an area normally denied to Europeans; the team was led by Major Douglas Keelan of the Royal Marines and included members from the Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and Royal Marines.[25]

During the winter of 1983–84, a Polish team led by L. Korniszewski successfully followed the Tyrolean Route. In the spring season of 1984, a Yugoslav team led by A. Kunaver climbed the peak via the south face. During the same year, in autumn, Polish teams climbed the south ridge and south-east face.[19] On January 12, 1984, Maciej Berbeka and Ryszard Gajewski of a Polish expedition made the first winter ascent via the normal route.[4]

On November 9, 1986, Jerzy Kukuczka, Artur Hajzer, and Carlos Carsolio made the first climb of the east summit (7894 m) of Manaslu.[4] The next day, Kukuczka and Hajzer reached the summit via a new route, ascending the east ridge and descending the north-east face.[19]

1990s

On May 2, 1993, Sepp Brunner, Gerhard Floßmann, Sepp Hinding and Dr. Michael Leuprecht reached the summit via the normal route and descended on skis from 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) to the basecamp. The Austrian expedition was led by Arthur Haid.[26] On December 8, 1995, Anatoli Boukreev summited Manaslu with the Second Kazakhstan Himalaya Expedition. On May 12, 1996, Carlos Carsolio and his younger brother Alfredo, reached the summit of Manaslu. For Carsolio it was his fourteenth and final eight-thousander, becoming the fourth person in history and the youngest to achieve the feat.[27] In 1997, Charlie Mace made the first American ascent.[9]

2000s

During the spring of 2000, there were four expeditions to Manaslu. One climb was on the east face by the 'Japan 2000 Expedition' led by Yoshio Maruyama. The other three were on the north-east ridge: the ETB 2000 Expedition of Spain led by Felix Maria I. Iriate; the 2000 Korean Manaslu Expedition of Korea led by Han Wang Yong; and the Manaslu 2000 Expedition from Italy led by Franco Brunello.[28] On May 22, 2001, a three-member team of Ukraine Himalaya 2001 Expedition comprising Serguiy Kovalov, Vadim Leontiev and Vladislav Terzyul successfully summited Manaslu via the challenging south-east face; all climbed without oxygen support. During the autumn of 2001, three members and a sherpa of the Japan Workers Alpine Federation climbed the peak via the north-east face on October 9, 2001.[29]

On May 13, 2002, five Americans, Tom Fitzsimmons, Jerome Delvin, Michael McGuffin, Dan Percival and Brian Sato and two Sherpas reached the summit.[4][30]

Piotr Pustelnik and Krzysztof Tarasewicz climbed Manaslu on May 17, 2003. However, Dariusz Zaluski, Anna Czerwinska and Barbara Drousek, who started the climb after Piotr and Krzysztof, had to turn back due to strong winds and bad weather. With this ascent Pustelnik has summited 12 of the world's 14 highest peaks (Broad Peak and Annapurna are left).[31]

On May 29, 2006, Australian mountaineer Sue Fear died after falling into a crevasse on her descent after summitting. In 2008, Valerie Parkinson was the first British woman to climb Manaslu.[32]

2010s

In 2011 Arjun Vajpai an Indian mountaineer summitted Manaslu on the 5th of October and became the youngest climber in the world to have summitted Manaslu at the age of 18.[33]

Eleven climbers were killed in an avalanche on September 23, 2012.[34]

September 25, 2014 – Polish ski-mountaineer Andrzej Bargiel set a record time from base camp to summit at 14 hours 5 minutes and also record time for base-peak-base of 21 hours 14 minutes.[35]

Risk

Traditionally, the "spring" or " pre-monsoon" season, is the least hazardous for bad weather, snowfall and avalanches. Manaslu is one of the more risky 8000ers to climb: as of May 2008, there have been 297 ascents of Manaslu and 53 deaths on the mountain,[10] making it "the 4th most dangerous 8000m peak, behind Annapurna, Nanga Parbat, and K2."[4]

Trekking in the region

Manaslu (1)

The Manaslu region offers a variety of trekking options. The Manaslu Circuit Trek now usually starts in Arughat Bazaar and ends two to three weeks later in Besisahar, the starting point of the Annapurna Circuit Trek. Until recently the trek required camping, but building of tea-houses means the trek can be completed using local accommodation. The trek requires a Restricted Area Permit of $70 per week. It depends on season [36] and that trekkers travel in a group of at least two persons with a registered guide. The trek lies on the newly developed Great Himalaya Trail.

The trek follows an ancient salt–trading route along the steep sided Budhi Gandaki river. From Deng, the slopes of ravines ease and views of snow peaks start appearing from Ligaon (Lhi). Further from Lhogaon (Lho), an impressive view of Manaslu, with its double peak, appears described as "a soaring monarch with a double-edged summit towering above fields of barley".[20]

Manaslu circuit trek
Manaslu circuit trek

The route follows the pine-forested Syala village, which has the backdrop of many horseshoe-shaped peaks, and reaches the village of Samagaon (Sama) at the foot of Manaslu. There is a Buddhist monastery at Samagaon, where monks and nuns reside. After half a day's trek from Samagaon, the village of Samdo is reached. Samdo is the highest village in the Budhi Gandaki valley and is inhabited by Bhotias. This village commands a view of the valley and Pang Phuchi village with a backdrop of the Tibetan border. Further trekking leads along a major secondary valley to the Larkha La (Larkja La). Along this route, Cheo Himal, Himlung Himal (Nemjung) and Kang Guru are seen, along with occasional views of the Annapurna Massif. From here, the meadowland of Bimtang (Bimdakhoti) at elevation 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) is reached, from where Manaslu is clearly visible. From Manaslu, the circuit passes through Dudh Khola (a tributary of Marshyangdi river), criss-crosses Marsyangdi River before reaching Bhulbule, Tarukha Ghat, crosses the Chepe Khola and Dorandi Khola before returning to Gorkha.[20]

Two alternative routes are also popular. One is on the Annapurna Circuit trail but leaves it at Dharapani to reach Manang, crossing Thorong La and Jomsom (Kali Gandaki valley). From Jomsom flights depart to Pokhara. The other alternative route is from Bhulbule, crossing Marsyangdi to Khudi, divert from Annapurna trail and trek cross country through valleys and ridges to Sisuwa town on the bank of Begnas Tal. From here a road approach is available to Pokhara.[37]

When trekking through the Manaslu region, ten peaks of over 6,500 metres (21,300 ft) in height are visible, including peaks of over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) elevation. People add Tsum Valley and the Ganesh Himal Base Camp as acclimatization trips before going on expeditions through the high passes. The Tsum region, which was restricted for tourists for a long time, is now the centre of attraction for intrepid trekkers, with the government of Nepal recently opening it for group tourists. In order to retain its pristine culture and sustain its fragile ecosystem, the Tsum Welfare Committee is involved in the promotion of responsible tourism in Tsum. However, local participation for sustainable tourism is still a challenging task with a long road ahead.[38]

Area development project

Under loan funds provided by the Asian Development Bank, the government of Nepal has an infrastructure project titled "Manaslu Eco-tourism Development Project" under implementation. The objective is to improve the capacity of the Manaslu area to support tourism in an environmentally benign manner.[11]

See also

References

  • Mayhew, Bradley; Bindloss, Joe (2009). Trekking in the Nepal Himalaya. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-188-0. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
  • Messner, Reinhold (1999). All 14 Eight-Thousanders. The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-0-89886-660-5. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  • Reynolds, Kev (2000). Manaslu: A Trekker's Guide. Introduction. Milnthorpe: Cicerone Press Limited. ISBN 1 85284 302 0. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
Footnotes
  1. ^ a b c "Mountaineering in Nepal Facts & Figures" (PDF). Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Civil Aviation. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal. July 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-04-25. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
  2. ^ "High Asia II: Himalaya of Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and adjoining region of Tibet". Peaklist.org. Retrieved 2014-05-29.
  3. ^ a b Mayhew, p. 326
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Manaslu". Summitpost. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
  5. ^ a b c Reynolds, pp. 11–15
  6. ^ "Circuit". Mountain Club. Archived from the original on 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  7. ^ "Manaslu Region Trekking". Lumbini Media.
  8. ^ Aryal, Rakesh. "Trekking Permission". Around Manaslu Trek. Around Manaslu Trek P. Ltd.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Manaslu Facts and History". K2 News. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
  10. ^ a b "Statistics for Manaslu". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  11. ^ a b c d "Manaslu Conservation Area Project (MCAP)". National Trust for Nature Conservation. Archived from the original on 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  12. ^ Reynolds, p. 9
  13. ^ Reynolds, p. 8
  14. ^ a b Reynolds, p. 11
  15. ^ a b c d "Manaslu Conservation area". Department of National parks and Wild Life Conservation. Archived from the original on 2014-04-25. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  16. ^ a b c d Shah, Karan Bahadur; et al. Project Proposal for Manaslu Conservation Area.
  17. ^ a b "Biodiversity of Nepal". Biodiversity of Nepal. Archived from the original on 2008-03-22. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  18. ^ Reynolds, pp. 13–14
  19. ^ a b c d e f Messner, p. 32
  20. ^ a b c Reynolds, pp. 11–12
  21. ^ a b Reynolds, p. 14
  22. ^ "The Ascent of Manaslu". The Himalayan Journal. Himalayan Club. 20. 1957. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
  23. ^ "Manaslu, South Face". Climbs And Expeditions. American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 18 (2): 484. 1973. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
  24. ^ "Manaslu, East Face". Climbs And Expeditions. American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 18 (2): 484. 1973. Retrieved 2016-11-11.
  25. ^ Joint Services postal cover RAF(AC)6
  26. ^ "1993 Tyrolean Ski Expedition".
  27. ^ "Estadishcas". Climb Alpino Mexicano. Archived from the original on March 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  28. ^ "Manaslu 2000". Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  29. ^ "Manaslu 2001 News and Expeditions". k2news.com. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  30. ^ "2002 American Manaslu Expedition". EverestNews.com. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
  31. ^ "Manaslu 2003 featuring Piotr Pustelnik". Everest News.com. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  32. ^ "Manaslu Expedition 8163m". Project Himalaya. Archived from the original on 2010-03-02. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  33. ^ "Arjun becomes youngest to scale 8,156-m-high Mt Manaslu". rediff.com. October 5, 2011. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
  34. ^ "Avalanche kills climbers at one of world's highest peaks". CNN. September 23, 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  35. ^ "Speed on Manaslu: Andrzej Bargiel's New Record". ExplorersWeb.com. Retrieved 2014-10-11.
  36. ^ "Permit fee as per season". Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  37. ^ Reynolds, p. 13
  38. ^ "Tsum Welfare Committee". Retrieved 2010-04-12.

Further reading

  • The ascent of Manaslu. Maki, Yuko and Imanishi, T. (1957). Himalayan Journal (20). Accessed 2011-12-28.
  • Maki, Aritsune (1956). The ascent of Manaslu. Mainichi, Tokyo.
  • Maki, Aritsune, ed. (1957). Manaslu: For Boys and Girls. Mainichi, Tokyo.
  • Yoda, Takayoshi (1956). The Ascent of Manaslu in Photographs. Mainichi-Newspapers, Tokyo.

External links

Aarupokhari

Arupokhari (आरूपोखारी), also spelled Aarupokhari, is a village development committee in Gorkha District in the Gandaki Zone of northern-central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 5,465 and had 898 houses in the town.Arupokhari sits on a foothill on top of which there is a Hindu temple. The town's water sources are springs that come out of the ground. There is electricity, but it is intermittent. From the village, one can see Manaslu in the Ganesh range to the north.

Ajay Kothiyal

Colonel Ajay Kothiyal, KC, SC, VSM (Retd) is one of the highly decorated officers of the Indian Army. He is also a renowned mountaineer as well as philanthropist and was the Principal of Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarakhand.Colonel Kothiyal (then Major) was part of the first team of the Indian Army that successfully summited the Mount Everest in 2001, under the leadership of Brigadier Krishan Kumar AVSM.

On 12 May 2003, Indian Army had carried out its first surgical strike in Pulwama district under the leadership of Major Kothiyal. He was wounded in the operation, in which 7 terrorists were neutralized. He was awarded Kirti Chakra.

In 2011, He decided to scale the eighth highest peak in the world, Mt Manaslu. No Indian had ever successfully climbed this mountain. Fighting harsh weather and inhospitable conditions, his team unfurled the Indian Flag at the peak of Manaslu on 9th May 2011. He was awarded “Vishisht Seva Medal”.

In 2012, Colonel Kothiyal led a team of seven female officers from Indian army and successfully scaled the world's highest peak for the second time. Mrs Pratibha Singh Patil, President of India at that time,awarded him Shaurya Chakra

In 2013, Kedarnath temple, India's pilgrimage shrine was hit by natural disaster in which many lost lives. Colonel Kothiyal and his team were among the first to reach the affected area. He was given the responsibility of search and rescue operations. Under his supervision, Kedarnath was rebuilt and restored to its pristine form.

In the same year, he also started a nonprofit trust called Youth Foundation to help the rural youth in Garhwal region to join the Indian Military and Para Military Services. The Foundation also helps in providing medical facilities to the poor people in Garhwal region.

Archalbot

Archalbot is a village development committee in Lamjung District in the Gandaki Zone of northern-central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 1650 people living in 333 individual households.The paddy fields for rice farming and the terraces are a characteristic of the village area. Nearby is the Tamang community of Phurano Dobar, which was recently installed with a clean water system. Surrounding the VDC are rhododendron forests, which give view to the Himalayan peaks from the Annapurnas in the west to Manaslu to the Langtang area in the east.

Ashish Mane

Ashish Mane (Born 14 August 1990) is one of the prominent professional mountaineer from India. He has scaled Mt. Everest (2012)., Mt. Lhotse (2013), Mt. Makalu (2014), Mt Manaslu (2017) and Kanchenjunga (2019). Ashish is the only climber from Maharashtra as of now, to ascend five of the fourteen Eight-thousander|peaks over 8,000 metres means about 26,000 ft above sea level. In the year 2016, he attempted to scale Daulagiri, but due to technical reasons he had to quit the expedition

Doychin Vasilev

Doychin Vasilev (Bulgarian: Дойчин Василев, born 12 June 1944 in Sofia) is a Bulgarian alpinist and cinematographer who has climbed five Himalayan 8,000 m peaks: Dhaulagiri (in 1995), Mount Everest (1997), Makalu (1998), and Shishapangma and Cho Oyu (1999). President of Alpine Club Vihren, Sofia. Participant in the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition Tangra 2004/05, noted by Discovery Channel as a timeline event in Antarctic exploration.Documentaries by Doychin Vasilev: Chomolungma (1997), Makalu (1998), Manaslu (1999), and White Dreams (2001)

Gorkha District

Gorkha District (Nepali: गोरखा जिल्ला Listen ), a part of Gandaki Pradesh, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal and connected historically with the creation of the modern Nepal and the name of the legendary Gurkha soldiers. The district, with Gorkha Municipality (previously known as Prithivi Narayan Nagarpalika) as its district headquarters, covers an area of 3,610 km² and has a population (2001) of 288,134. It is the location of the Manakamana Temple. Also, the temples of great sage Gorakh Nath and goddess Gorakh Kali temple is located in district, after which the district got its name. Four major rivers run within and along it - the Chepe, Daraudi, Marsyangdi, and Budhi Gandaki.

Kinga Baranowska

Kinga Baranowska (born 17 November 1975 in Wejherowo) is a Polish mountaineer. She currently lives in Warsaw.Kinga summited her first eight-thousander, Cho Oyu, in 2003. She failed on an attempt to reach one of the most difficult seven-thousanders, Jengish Chokusu in Tian-Shan range. In 2006, she successfully reached the top of Broad Peak. On June 11, 2007, she summited Mount McKinley, following this up just five weeks later - on July 18 - with a successful climb of Nanga Parbat. One year later, she summited Dhaulagiri (May 1, 2008) – her first attempt to reach the summit from north-east face, in September 2007, failed.

Ms. Baranowska summited Dhaulagiri along with other prestigious climbers on May 1, 2008. Fellow summitters included: Ivan Vallejo (his 14th 8000er), Ferrán Latorre, Nacho Orviz, Fernando Gonzalez-Rubio, Edurne Pasaban (her 10th 8000er), Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner (her 11th 8000er), David Göttler, Carlos Pauner (his 8th 8000er), Marta Alejandre, Asier izaguirre, Alex Txicon, Muptu Sherpa and Kinga Baranowska Dhaulagiri in 40 km/h winds, thunder and lightning on the summit.

On 18 May 2009, Kinga Baranowska became the first Polish woman (Alpinus Expedition Team, KW Warsaw) to summit Kangchenjunga (8586 m), which is located on the India-Nepal border. Kangchenjunga has been summited in high winds - however, descent on Kang is reportedly very difficult.Kinga Baranowska is the first Polish female climber to reach the collective summits of Dhaulagiri, Manaslu and Kangchenjunga. Kinga’s summits include: Cho Oyu (8201 m) - October, 2003; Broad Peak (8047 m) - July 22, 2006 - the 11th female ascent; Nanga Parbat (8125 m) July 18, 2007; Dhaulagiri (8167 m) May 1, 2008; Manaslu (8156 m) October 5, 2008; Kangchenjunga (8586 m) May 18, 2009; Annapurna (8091 m) April 27, 2010; Lhotse (8516 m) May 25, 2012; Gasherbrum II (8035 m) July 17, 2015. She attempted Makalu (8481 m) in May 2013, but failed to reach summit due to early monsoon.She climbs without the use of supplemental oxygen.

List of deaths on eight-thousanders

The eight-thousanders are the 14 mountains that rise more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) above sea level; they are all in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges.

This is a list of mountaineers who have died on these mountains.

List of highest mountains on Earth

There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than 7,200 metres (23,622 ft) above sea level. The vast majority of these mountains are located on the edge of the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. Only those summits are included that, by an objective measure, may be considered individual mountains as opposed to subsidiary peaks.

Maciej Berbeka

Maciej Berbeka (17 October 1954, Zakopane, Poland – 6 March 2013, Broad Peak, Baltistan) was a Polish mountaineer, mountain guide UIAGM and member of TOPR. He and his teammate Tomasz Kowalski went missing on 6 March 2013 as they were descending from Broad Peak. They were declared dead two days later.Berbeka's accomplishments include making the first winter ascent of the eight-thousanders Manaslu, on 12 January 1984, with Ryszard Gajewski; of Cho Oyu, on 12 February 1985, with Maciej Pawlikowski (the only winter ascent on eight-thousander made along a new route); and of Broad Peak, on 5 March 2013 with Adam Bielecki, Tomasz Kowalski and Artur Małek. He also climbed and summited Annapurna and Mount Everest. He was also the first person in the world to have reached 8000 m winter in Karakoram - Rocky Summit (8028 m) of 1988, on 6 March. This occurred exactly 25 years to the day before he was reported missing on Broad Peak.

Manaslu Conservation Area

Manaslu Conservation Area is a protected area in Nepal. Established in 1998 it covers 1,663 km2 (642 sq mi) in the Mansiri Himal range of the Himalayas in the Gorkha District. The area comprises mountains, glaciers, and watercourses.

In elevation, the area ranges from 1,400 to 8,156 m (4,593 to 26,759 ft) at the peak of Manaslu.

Mansiri Himal

Mansiri Himal is a small, high subrange of the Himalaya in north-central Nepal, about 100 km northwest of Kathmandu. The Marsyangdi River separates the Mansiri from the Annapurnas to the southwest, then an upper tributary Dudh Khola separates Peri Himal to the northwest. On the east side, the Burhi (Budhi) Gandaki separates the Mansiri from Ganesh Himal, Serang or Sringi Himal and Kutang Himal. All these streams are tributary to the Gandaki.

The Mansiri range is also known as Manaslu Himal or the Gurkha Massif. It contains these peaks among Earth's twenty highest (with at least 500m topographic prominence):

Manaslu, 8,156 m (26,759 ft), 8th highest

Himalchuli, 7,893 m (25,896 ft), 18th highest

Ngadi Chuli, 7,871 m (25,823 ft), 20th highestThe Mansiri range is notable for its local relief. It rises 7,000 m (23,000 ft) above the Marsyangdi valley floor in less than 30 km (18 mi) horizontal distance.

Nicolas Bonnet

Nicolas Bonnet (born November 6, 1984) is a French ski mountaineer, runner, mountain guide and coach of the national team.

Bonnet was born in Briançon. He started ski mountaineering in 1998 and competed first in 2002. He holds several national titles in different age classes. In 2006, he was also 2006 "junior" class World champion of vertical race, and placed 1st in the "junior" class at the Patrouille des Glaciers as well as at the short distance race of the Pierra Menta. On April 12, 2007 he broke his own course record on the Pelvoux course with a total time of 3 hours 18 minutes. Together with the Germans Benedikt Böhm and Sebastian Haag he planned a speed ski mountaineering tour on the Manaslu, but had to withdraw due to the bad weather conditions and danger of avalanches. He is member of the Team Ecrins Hautes-Alpes and belongs to the national selection since 2007.

Reinhold Messner

Reinhold Andreas Messner (German pronunciation: [ˈʁaɪ̯nhɔlt ˈmɛsnɐ]; born 17 September 1944) is an Italian mountaineer, adventurer, explorer, and author from the trilingual Italian province of South Tyrol.

He made the first solo ascent of Mount Everest, the first ascent of Everest without supplemental oxygen, along with Peter Habeler, and was the first climber to ascend all fourteen peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level. He was also the first person to cross Antarctica and Greenland with neither snowmobiles nor dog sleds. Furthermore, he crossed the Gobi Desert alone. Messner also published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and explorer. In 2018 he received jointly with Krzysztof Wielicki the Princess of Asturias Award in the category of Sports.

Ryszard Gajewski

Ryszard Gajewski (born October 5, 1954 in Zakopane) is a Polish mountaineer best known for the first winter ascent of Manaslu on January 12, 1984 together with Maciej Berbeka.

Sarankot

Sarangkot is a former Village Development Committee west of Pokhara in Kaski District Gandaki Zone. In 2015, it was annexed to Pokhara 26. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a total population of 5,060 with 1,010 individual households.The village is located on Sarangkot mountain at an altitude of 1600m and is renowned for its panoramic Himalayan views Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Manaslu as well as down on the city of Pokhara and Phewa lake. In recent years, Sarangkot has become a hotspot for paragliding.

Solar eclipse of November 23, 1965

An annular solar eclipse occurred on November 23, 1965. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide. Annularity was visible from the Soviet Union (today's eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and southwestern Tajikistan), Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Nepal (including the capital city Kathmandu), southwestern Sikkim (now merged with India), Burma, southwestern tip of Sainyabuli Province in Laos, Cambodia, South Vietnam (now belonging to Vietnam), Spratly Islands, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Territory of Papua New Guinea (today's Papua New Guinea), and Gilbert and Ellice Islands (the part now belonging to Kiribati). 8 of the 14 eight-thousanders—Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu, Shishapangma, Cho Oyu, Everest, Lhotse and Makalu, as well as the highest peak of Oceania, Puncak Jaya, lie in the path of annularity.

Sue Fear

Susan Erica Fear (18 March 1963 – 28 May 2006) was an Australian mountain climber, supporter of the Fred Hollows Foundation and a 2005 recipient of the Order of Australia Medal. Her life and climbing career is illustrated in her biography Fear No Boundary: The Road to Everest and Beyond, written by fellow climber Lincoln Hall and Fear, published in 2005.

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