Manakin

The manakins are a family, Pipridae, of small suboscine passerine birds. The group contains some 60 species distributed through the American tropics. The name is from Middle Dutch mannekijn "little man" (also the source of the different bird name mannikin).[1]

Manakins
Flickr - Rainbirder - Long-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis)
Male long-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Parvorder: Tyrannida
Family: Pipridae
Rafinesque, 1815
Species

Many, see text

Manakin (Pipridae) area
Manakin range

Description

They range in size from 7 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in) and in weight from 8 to 30 g (0.28 to 1.06 oz). The genus Tyranneutes comprise the smallest manakins, the genus Antilophia are believed to be the largest (since the genus Schiffornis are no longer considered manakins). They are compact stubby birds with short tails, broad and rounded wings, and big heads. The bill is short and has a wide gap. Females and first-year males have dull green plumage; most species are sexually dichromatic in their plumage,[2] the males being mostly black with striking colours in patches,[3] and in some species having long, decorative tail or crown feathers or erectile throat feathers. In some species, males from two to four years old have a distinctive subadult plumage.[2]

The syrinx or "voicebox" is distinctive in manakins, setting them apart from the related families Cotingidae and Tyrannidae. Furthermore, it is so acutely variable within the group that genera and even species may be identified by the syrinx alone, unlike birds of most oscine families. The sounds made are whistles, trills, and buzzes.[2]

Distribution and habitat

Manakins occur from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil, and on Trinidad and Tobago as well. They are highly arboreal and are almost exclusively forest and woodland birds. Most species live in humid tropical lowlands, with a few in dry forests, river forests,[2] and the subtropical Andes.[4] Some highland species have altitudinal migrations.

Behaviour and ecology

Feeding

Manakins feed in the understorey on small fruit (but often remarkably large for the size of the bird[4]) including berries, and to a lesser degree, insects. Since they take fruit in flight as other species "hawk" for insects, they are believed to have evolved from insect-eating birds. Females have big territories from which they do not necessarily exclude other birds of their species, instead feeding somewhat socially. Males spend much of their time together at courtship sites. Manakins sometimes join mixed feeding flocks.[2]

Reproduction

Many manakin species have spectacular lekking courtship rituals, which are especially elaborate in the genera Pipra and Chiroxiphia. The members of the genera Machaeropterus and Manacus have heavily modified wing feathers, which they use to make buzzing and snapping sounds.

Building of the nest (an open cup, generally low in vegetation), incubation for 18 to 21 days, and care of the young for 13 to 15 days are undertaken by the female alone, since most manakins do not form stable pairs. (The helmeted manakin does form pairs, but the male's contribution is limited to defending the territory.) The normal clutch is two eggs, which are buff or dull white, marked with brown.[2]

Lekking polygyny seems to have been a characteristic of the family's original ancestor, and the associated sexual selection led to an adaptive radiation in which relationships may be traced by similarities in displays. An evolutionary explanation connecting lekking to fruit-eating has been proposed.[2]

Species list

The family Pipridae was introduced (as Pipraria) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815.[5][6] The members of the genus Schiffornis were previously placed in this family, but are now placed in Tityridae.[7]

Image Genus Living Species
Dixiphia pipra - male Pseudopipra Kirwan et al, 2016
Rabo de arame Pipra Linnaeus, 1764
Golden-headed Manakin RWD Ceratopipra Bonaparte, 1854
Lepidothrix coronata 1 Lepidothrix Bonaparte, 1854
Antilophia galeata -Reserva Ambiental, Piraju, Sao Paulo, Brasil -male-8 (1) Antilophia L. Reichenbach, 1850
Flickr - Rainbirder - Long-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis) Chiroxiphia Cabanis, 1847
Pin-tailed manakin (Ilicura militaris) Ilicura L. Reichenbach, 1850
Masius chrysopterus - male Masius Bonaparte, 1850
White-Ruffed Manakin Corapipo Bonaparte, 1854
White-collared Manakin - Sarapiqui - Costa Rica MG 0596 (26585018422) Manacus Brisson, 1760
Machaeropterus deliciosus -NW Ecuador-6 Machaeropterus Hahn, 1819
Xenopipo Cabanis, 1847
Green Manakin fem - South Ecuador S4E1153 (16638948837) Cryptopipo Ohlson et al., 2013
  • Green manakin, Cryptopipo holochlora
  • Lita manakin, Cryptopipo (holochlora) litae
Chloropipo Cabanis & Heine, 1859
Heterocercus flavivertex - Yellow-crowned Manakin Heterocercus Strickland, 1850
Neopelma chrysolophum - Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin Neopelma P.L. Sclater, 1861
Tyranneutes virescens - Tiny tyrant Manakin Tyranneutes P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1881

References

  1. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary (2nd ed., 2005), p. 1032.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Prum, Richard O.; Snow, David W. (2003). "Manakins". In Perrins, Christopher (ed.). The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 434–437. ISBN 978-1-55297-777-4.
  3. ^ Lanyon, Scott N. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 167–168. ISBN 978-1-85391-186-6.
  4. ^ a b Snow, D. W. (2004). Family Pipridae (Manakins). Pp. 110-169 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Christie, D. A. eds (2004). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 9. Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-69-5
  5. ^ Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1815). Analyse de la nature ou, Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés (in French). Palermo: Self-published. p. 66.
  6. ^ Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 149, 252.
  7. ^ Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, & K. J. Zimmer. 2007. A classification of the bird species of South America. Archived 2009-03-02 at the Wayback Machine American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 12 December 2007.

Further reading

  • Ohlson, J.I.; Fjeldså, J.; Ericson, P.G.P. (2013). "Molecular phylogeny of the manakins (Aves: Passeriformes: Pipridae), with a new classification and the description of a new genus". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 69 (3): 796–804. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.06.024.

External links

Araripe manakin

The Araripe manakin (Antilophia bokermanni) is a critically endangered bird from the family of manakins (Pipridae). It was discovered in 1996 and scientifically described in 1998. The species epithet commemorates Brazilian zoologist and wildlife filmmaker Werner Bokermann, who died in 1995. Because of its helmet-like crown it has received the Portuguese name soldadinho-do-araripe which means "little soldier of Araripe". This name also associates it with the related, but more widespread, helmeted manakin (Antilophia galeata), which is known simply as the soldadinho.

Blue-crowned manakin

The blue-crowned manakin (Lepidothrix coronata) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. The males have a brilliant blue cap; some have black, others have green body plumage, but the relationship between the subspecies is not well understood.

It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.

Blue-rumped manakin

The blue-rumped manakin (Lepidothrix isidorei) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Its natural habitat is montane forests and, in Ecuador, the species is considered a foothill specialty. These tiny manakins, which average 8 cm (3.1 in) in length, are infrequently encountered away from their leks, where the black, white-capped and blue backed males display for female attentions.

Blue manakin

The blue manakin or swallow-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia caudata) is a small species of bird in the family Pipridae. It is found mainly in the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and far north-eastern Argentina. Its typical habitat is wet lowland or montane forest and heavily degraded former forest. Males have a bright blue body, black head wings and tail and a red crown. Females and juveniles are olive-green. At breeding time, males are involved in lekking behaviour when they sing and dance to impress females. This is a common species with a wide range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".

Cinnamon neopipo

The cinnamon neopipo or cinnamon manakin-tyrant (Neopipo cinnamomea) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is the only member of the genus Neopipo.It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

Fiery-capped manakin

The fiery-capped manakin (Machaeropterus pyrocephalus) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family, the manakins. It is one of three species in the genus Machaeropterus. It is named for its bright yellow head feathers.

Golden-headed manakin

The golden-headed manakin (Ceratopipra erythrocephala) is a small passerine bird which breeds in tropical Central and South America in both wet and dry forests, secondary growth and plantations. It is a small mannakin, about 9.4 centimetres (3.7 in) long. Males are entirely black apart from a golden head, yellow bill, white and red thighs and pink legs. Females and juveniles are olive-green with pink legs. At breeding time, males are involved in a cooperative lekking behaviour during which they jump, slide and dart from perch to perch. This is a fairly common species with a wide range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".

Green manakin

The green Manakin (Cryptopipo holochlora) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It occurs in humid forest in lowlands and foothills. The distribution is disjunct, with one population in the western Amazon Basin and adjacent east Andean foothills in south-eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador and eastern Peru, and another population in the humid Chocó in eastern Panama, western Colombia and north-western Ecuador. It has been suggested that the latter population may be a separate species, the Lita Manakin (Cryptopipo litae). As suggested by its common name both the male and the female of the green manakin are overall green. It remains fairly common locally (but is easily overlooked), and is consequently considered to be of least concern by BirdLife International and IUCN.

Manakin-Sabot, Virginia

Manakin-Sabot, consisting of the villages of Manakin and Sabot, is an unincorporated community in Goochland County, Virginia, United States. It is located northwest of Richmond in the Piedmont and is part of the Greater Richmond region.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Goochland County, Virginia

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Goochland County, Virginia.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Goochland County, Virginia, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map.There are 25 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted June 7, 2019.

Orange-crested manakin

The orange-crested manakin (Heterocercus aurantiivertex) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It is found in Ecuador and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical swamps and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

Powhatan County, Virginia

Powhatan County () is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,046. Its county seat is Powhatan.Powhatan County is included in the Greater Richmond Region.

The James River forms the county's northern border, and the Appomattox River is on the south side. The county is named for the paramount chief of the powerful confederacy of tribes of Algonquian-speaking Native Americans in the Tidewater in 1607, when the British settled at Jamestown. Historically this Piedmont area had been occupied by the Siouan-speaking Monacan. They moved further west, abandoning villages in this area, under pressure from colonists.

In 1700 French Huguenot refugees settled at a Monacan abandoned village, which they renamed as Manakin Town. It was located about 20 miles above the falls on the James River. French refugees also settled on the other side of the river in two villages now known collectively as Manakin-Sabot in nearby Goochland County to the north.

Red-capped manakin

The red-capped manakin (Ceratopipra mentalis) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family.

It is found in Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Panama.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

The bird is probably best known for the male's unusual courting method whereby he shuffles rapidly backwards across a branch, akin to a speedy moonwalk.

Saffron-crested tyrant-manakin

The saffron-crested tyrant-manakin (Neopelma chrysocephalum), or Saffron-crested Neopelma, is a species of bird in the Pipridae family, the manakins.

Tiny tyrant-manakin

The tiny tyrant-manakin or tiny tyranneutes (Tyranneutes virescens) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family.

It is found in Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

White-crowned manakin

The white-crowned manakin (Pseudopipra pipra) is a small passerine bird in the manakin family Pipridae. It is a resident breeder in the tropical New World from Costa Rica to northeastern Peru and eastern Brazil. It was traditionally placed in the genus Pipra, but is now placed in its own monotypic genus Pseudopipra. It is a small, compact bird about 10 cm (3.9 in) long. Males have black plumage with a white crown which can be erected as a crest. Females and juveniles are olive-green, with a grey head and throat, and greyish-green or olive underparts. At breeding time, males are involved in a lekking behaviour. This is a fairly common species with a wide range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".

White-ruffed manakin

The white-ruffed manakin (Corapipo altera) is a sub-oscine, passerine bird in the manakin family. It is a resident breeder in the tropical New World from eastern Honduras to northwestern Venezuela. Its typical habitat is wet forest, adjacent clearings and tall secondary growth. It is a small, plump bird about 10 centimetres (4 in) long. Males have glossy blue-black plumage with a white erectile ruff on the throat and females are green. At breeding time, males are involved in lekking behaviour on the forest floor during which they puff out their neck feathers. This is a fairly common species with a wide range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".

Wied's tyrant-manakin

The Wied's tyrant-manakin (Neopelma aurifrons) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family.

It is endemic to Atlantic moist forests in eastern Brazil. It was previously considered conspecific with Neopelma chrysolophum.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

Wire-tailed manakin

The wire-tailed manakin (Pipra filicauda) is a species of bird in the Pipridae family. It forms a superspecies with both the Band-tailed Manakin (Pipra fasciicauda) and the Crimson-hooded Manakin (Pipra aureola).

It is found upriver in the western Amazon Basin and the neighboring countries of northern Peru, eastern Ecuador and Colombia, and southern and western portions of Venezuela. In Venezuela it occurs upriver in the Orinoco River basin, but not the final 1300 km; its range in Venezuela continues around the Andes cordillera to the northwestern coast. In northwest Brazil, the species ranges from Roraima and Amazonas west to Venezuela and Colombia, and southwest from Rondônia and Acre to Peru and Ecuador.

Wire-tailed manakin's natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.