Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
MAB's work engages fully with the international development agenda—specially with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Post 2015 Development Agenda—and addresses challenges linked to scientific, environmental, societal and development issues in diverse ecosystems; from mountain regions to marine, coastal and island areas; from tropical forests to drylands and urban areas. MAB combines the natural and social sciences, economics and education to improve human livelihoods and the equitable sharing of benefits, and to safeguard natural and managed ecosystems, thus promoting innovative approaches to economic development that are socially and culturally appropriate, and environmentally sustainable.
The MAB programme provides a unique platform for cooperation on research and development, capacity-building and networking to share information, knowledge and experience on three interlinked issues: biodiversity loss, climate change and sustainable development. It contributes not only to better understanding of the environment, but also promotes greater involvement of science and scientists in policy development concerning the wise use of biological diversity.
Biosphere reserves are areas comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems. Each reserve promotes solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located.Their status is internationally recognized.
Biosphere reserves are ‘Science for Sustainability support sites’ – special places for testing interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and managing changes and interactions between social and ecological systems, including conflict prevention and management of biodiversity.
Biosphere reserves have three interrelated zones that aim to fulfill three complementary and mutually reinforcing functions:
UNESCO’s intergovernmental structure provides MAB with a framework to help national governments support the planning and implementation of research and training programmes with technical assistance and scientific advice.
Participating countries establish MAB National Committees that ensure maximum national participation in the international programme, defining and implementing each country’s activities. MAB currently operates through 158 National Committees established among the 195 Members States and nine Associate Members States of UNESCO.
The agenda of the MAB Programme is defined by its main governing body, the International Coordinating Council. The MAB Council consists of 34 member states elected by UNESCO’s General Conference. The council elects a chair and five vice-chairpersons from each of UNESCO’s geopolitical regions, one of which functions as a rapporteur. These constitute the MAB Bureau.
The MAB Secretariat is based at UNESCO’s Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences, at UNESCO's headquarter in Paris, and works closely with the different field offices around the world to coordinate the work of the MAB Programme at national and regional levels. Its staff members draw on expertise in many and varied disciplines. MAB is funded through the regular budget of UNESCO and mobilizes funds in-trust granted by Member States, bilateral and multilateral sources, and extra-budgetary funds provided by countries, the private sector and private institutions. MAB-related activities are nationally financed. The programme can grant seed funding to assist countries in developing projects and/or to secure appropriate partnership contributions.
The latest World Congress of Biosphere Reserves took place in Lima, Peru, from 14 to 17 March 2016. This will be the 4th World Congress of Biosphere Reserves and it shall develop a new vision for the decade 2016–2025.
The World Network of Biosphere Reserves is supported by different regional, sub-regional or thematic networks. These are as follows:
Biosphere reserves are established according to the UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to promote sustainable development for conservation of biological and cultural diversity. As of 2016, the Lal Suhanra Biosphere Reserve and Ziarat Juniper Forest are the only two biosphere reserve in Pakistan, which were approved by UNESCO in 1977 and 2013 respectively. A number of initiatives and projects have been undertaken to promote and develop other biosphere reserves in Pakistan but due to weak implementation this has not yet been materialized. In July 2012, Pakistan Museum of Natural History and Beijing Museum of Natural History signed a MoU to work on trans-boundary biodiversity and to improve MAB related activities in the Karakoram, Himalaya, and Hindukush regions.Biosphere reserves of Poland
UNESCO Biosphere Reserves are environment-protected scientific-research institutions of international status that are created with the intent for conservation in a natural state the most typical natural complexes of biosphere, conducting background ecological monitoring, studying of the surrounding natural environment, its changes under the activity of anthropogenic factors.
Biosphere Preserves are created on the base of nature preserves or national parks including to their composition territories and objects of other categories of nature-preserving fund and other lands as well as including in the established order the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in the UNESCO framework "Man and the Biosphere Programme".
The focal point in Poland for the Biosphere Reserves is the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS),
Institute of Geography and Spatial Organisation.California Coast Ranges
The Coast Ranges of California span 400 miles (640 km) from Del Norte or Humboldt County, California, south to Santa Barbara County. The other three coastal California mountain ranges are the Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges and the Klamath Mountains.Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn are part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division. UNESCO has included the "California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve" in its Man and the Biosphere Programme of World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 1983.Khangchendzonga National Park
Khangchendzonga National Park also Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve is a National Park and a Biosphere reserve located in Sikkim, India. It was inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in July 2016, becoming the first "Mixed Heritage" site of India. It was recently included in the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The park gets its name from the mountain Kangchenjunga (alternative spelling Khangchendzonga) which is 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) tall, the third-highest peak in the world. The total area of this park is 849.5 km2 (328.0 sq mi).Lake Sasykkol
Sasykkol Lake (Kazakh: Сасықкөл) is a lake in eastern part of Kazakhstan. It is located at around 46°35′0″N 81°0′0″E. It has an area of 600 km² (736 km² when water level in the lake is high), average depth of 3.3 m and maximum depth of 4.7 m. Fishery on the lake is common. The Mute Swan, Whooper Swan and Spoonbill can be found here.
Lake Sasykkol is part of the Alakol Biosphere Reserve, designated by UNESCO as part of its Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2013.Letea Forest
Letea Forest is the oldest natural reservation in Romania. It was established in 1938, when the Romanian Council of Ministers passed Decision No. 645 declaring the forest a nature reserve. It is located between the Sulina and Chilia branches of Danube in the Danube Delta. It covers an area of approximately 2,825 ha (6,980 acres).
This forest was the initial foundation of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, which has been declared a World Heritage Site. It was internationally recognized as a Biosphere Reserve under UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme in 1992.It has a subtropical aspect, due to the presence of the tropical creeper named Periploca graeca. This is a Mediterranean plant which finds its most northern refuge in the Danube Delta. Along with this, types of liana and other climbing plants are woven on the branches of the trees, such as the wild vine, the hop plant and the ivy.Letea Forest is formed mainly from trees like white poplar, black poplar, elm tree, English oak, silver lime, narrow-leafed ash and common alder. Along with those above, it is completed by a rich scale of sub-shrub species.It is also home for a rich fauna like the red-footed falcon, the white-tailed eagle, the roller, the hoopoe, the Vipera ursinii and the Danube Delta horse. There are approximately 1600 insect species identified.National Parks of Ukraine
National nature parks of Ukraine are preservation territories that are part of the Nature-Preservation Fund of Ukraine. The total area protected by national parks is approximately 1,111,600 hectares (11,116 km2), for an average of 22,685 hectares (226.85 km2) but a median of only 14,836 hectares (148.36 km2) at Zalissya. The largest national park is Upper Pobozhia in Khmelnytskyi Oblast: at over 100,000 hectares (1,000 km2). The smallest park is Derman-Ostroh National Nature Park, at less than 5,500 hectares (55 km2).
This category of the Nature-Preservation Fund was mainly established after the fall of the Soviet Union. There were very few parks in Ukraine and most of them were in the West.Protected areas of Croatia
The main protected areas of Croatia are national parks, nature parks and strict reserves. There are 444 protected areas of Croatia, encompassing 9% of the country. Those include 8 national parks in Croatia, 2 strict reserves and 11 nature parks. The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Velebit Nature Park is a part of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The strict and special reserves, as well as the national and nature parks, are managed and protected by the central government, while other protected areas are managed by counties. In 2005, the National Ecological Network was set up, as the first step in preparation of the EU accession and joining of the Natura 2000 network.The total area of all national parks in the country is 994 km2 (384 sq mi), of which 235 km2 (91 sq mi) is sea surface.
Each of the national parks is maintained by a separate institution, overseen and funded by the government ministry of nature conservation and spatial development. The State Institute for Nature Protection provides centralized oversight and expertise.Red River Delta
The Red River Delta (Vietnamese: Đồng Bằng Sông Hồng, or Châu Thổ Sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Binh River in northern Vietnam. The delta has the smallest area but highest population and population density of all regions. The region measuring some 15,000 square km is well protected by a network of dikes. It is an agriculturally rich area and densely populated. Most of the land is devoted to rice cultivation.Eight provinces together with two municipalities, the capital Hanoi and the port Haiphong form the delta. It has a population of almost 19 million.
The Red River Delta is the cradle of the Vietnamese nation. Water puppetry originated in the rice paddies here.
The region was bombed by United States warplanes during the Vietnam War.
The region was designated as the Red River Delta Biosphere Reserve as part of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2004.Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve
The Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve was designated in 2001 under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve spans a total of 1.5 million hectares consisting of five counties in Nova Scotia, Canada: Annapolis, Digby, Queens, Shelburne and Yarmouth. The core protected areas of the biosphere reserve are Kejimkujik National Park and the Tobeatic Wilderness Area.Three Sisters Wilderness
The Three Sisters Wilderness is a wilderness area in the Cascade Range, within the Willamette and Deschutes National Forests in Oregon, United States. It comprises 286,708 acres (1,160.27 km2), making it the second largest wilderness area in Oregon, after the Eagle Cap Wilderness. It was established by the United States Congress in 1964 and is named for the Three Sisters volcanoes. The wilderness boundary encloses the Three Sisters as well as Broken Top, which is southeast of South Sister.Three Sisters was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve under the Man and the Biosphere Programme in 1976, and was one of 17 reserves in the United States withdrawn from the programme in June 2017.Oregon Route 242 separates the Three Sisters Wilderness from the Mount Washington Wilderness to the north, while the Waldo Lake Wilderness shares the southern boundary.The three peaks were known by pioneers as Faith, Hope and Charity. Nearby landmarks include The Husband, The Wife, and the Little Brother.Tourism in Vietnam
Tourism in Vietnam is a component of the modern Vietnamese economy. In 2018, Vietnam received 15.5 million international arrivals, up from 2.1 million in the year 2000. The Vietnam National Administration of Tourism is following a long-term plan to diversify the tourism industry, which brings foreign exchange into the country.Tourist arrivals in Vietnam have continued to rise in recent years. In 2008, Vietnam received 4.218 million international tourists, in 2009 the number was 3.8 million, down 11%. In 2012, Vietnam received 6.84 million tourists. This was a 13% increase from 2011 figure of 6 million international visitors, which was itself a rise of 2 million visitors relative to 2010 arrivals. In 2016, Vietnam welcomed 10 million international visitors which represented a 26% increase from the previous year.Tuchola Landscape Park
Tuchola Landscape Park (Tucholski Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in north-central Poland, established in 1985, covering an area of 369.83 square kilometres (142.79 sq mi) in the Tuchola Forests close to the town of Tuchola.
The Park is shared between two voivodeships: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship and Pomeranian Voivodeship. Within Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship it lies in Tuchola County (Gmina Tuchola, Gmina Cekcyn, Gmina Gostycyn, Gmina Lubiewo, Gmina Śliwice). Within Pomeranian Voivodeship it lies in Chojnice County (Gmina Chojnice, Gmina Czersk). Within the Landscape Park are eight nature reserves.
The Park (together with the Wda, Wdzydze and Zaborski Landscape Parks) forms the buffer zone of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve, designated under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2010. The core area of the Biosphere Reserve consists of Tuchola Forest National Park and the nature reserves lying within the Landscape Parks of the buffer zone.Wda Landscape Park
Wda Landscape Park (Wdecki Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in north-central Poland, established in 1993, covering an area of 237.86 square kilometres (91.84 sq mi). It takes its name from the Wda river.
The Park lies within Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship: in Świecie County (Gmina Drzycim, Gmina Jeżewo, Gmina Lniano, Gmina Osie, Gmina Warlubie) and Tuchola County (Gmina Cekcyn, Gmina Śliwice). Within the Landscape Park are five nature reserves.
The Park (together with the Tuchola, Wdzydze and Zaborski Landscape Parks) forms the buffer zone of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve, designated under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2010. The core area of the Biosphere Reserve consists of Tuchola Forest National Park and the nature reserves lying within the Landscape Parks of the buffer zone.Wdzydze Landscape Park
Wdydze Landscape Park (Wdzydzki Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in northern Poland, established in 1983, covering an area of 178.32 square kilometres (68.85 sq mi).
The Park lies within Pomeranian Voivodeship, in Kościerzyna County (Gmina Dziemiany, Gmina Karsin, Gmina Kościerzyna, Gmina Lipusz, Gmina Stara Kiszewa).
The Park (together with the Tuchola, Wda and Zaborski Landscape Parks) forms the buffer zone of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve, designated under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2010. The core area of the Biosphere Reserve consists of Tuchola Forest National Park and the nature reserves lying within the Landscape Parks of the buffer zone.World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Africa
Under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB), there are 70 biosphere reserves recognized as part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in African States as of 2016. These are distributed across 28 countries. While biosphere reserves in West African, East African, Central African and Southern African countries are organised in the AfriMAB regional network, biosphere reserves in Northern African countries are organised in the ArabMAB, UNESCO's regional MAB network (see World Network of Biosphere Reserves in the Arab States for reserves in these countries).World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Latin America and the Caribbean
Under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme, there are 125 biosphere reserves recognized as part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in Latin America and the Caribbean (as of April, 2016). These are distributed across 21 countries in the region.World Network of Biosphere Reserves in the Arab States
Under UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme, there are 31 biosphere reserves recognised as part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in the African States and Arab States. These are distributed across 11 countries in the region as of March 2018.Zaborski Landscape Park
Zaborski Landscape Park (Zaborski Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in northern Poland, established in 1990, covering an area of 340.26 square kilometres (131.38 sq mi) north of the town of Chojnice. It surrounds Tuchola Forest National Park.
The Park lies within Pomeranian Voivodeship, in Chojnice County (Gmina Brusy, Gmina Chojnice). Within the Landscape Park are five nature reserves.
The Park (together with the Tuchola, Wda and Wdzydze Landscape Parks) forms the buffer zone of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve, designated under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2010. The core area of the Biosphere Reserve consists of Tuchola Forest National Park and the nature reserves lying within the Landscape Parks of the buffer zone.
UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme World Network of Biosphere Reserves