Mammalian Species is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society of Mammalogists. The journal publishes accounts of 25–35 mammal species yearly. The articles summarize the current literature about each mammal and its systematics, genetics, fossil history, distribution, anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, and conservation is described. The journal was established in 1969. The current editor-in-chief is Joseph F. Merritt (University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign).
|Edited by||Joseph F. Merritt|
American Society of Mammalogists (United States)
7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is a zoosterol that functions in the serum as a cholesterol precursor, and is converted to vitamin D3 in the skin, therefore functioning as provitamin-D3. The presence of this compound in human skin enables humans to manufacture vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) from ultraviolet rays in the sun light, via an intermediate isomer pre-vitamin D3. It is also found in the milk of several mammalian species. In insects it is a precursor for the hormone ecdysone, required for reaching adulthood. It was discovered by Nobel-laureate organic chemist Adolf Windaus.American Society of Mammalogists
The American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) was founded in 1919. Its primary purpose is to encourage the study of mammals, and professions studying them. There are over 4,500 members of this society, and they are primarily professional scientists who emphasize the importance of public policy and education. There are several ASM meetings held each year and the society manages several publications such as The Journal of Mammalogy, Special Publications, Mammalian Species, and Society Pamphlets. The most well known of these is The Journal of Mammalogy. The ASM also maintains The Mammal Image Library which contains more than 1300 mammal slides. A president, vice president, recording secretary, secretary-treasurer, and journal editor are all elected by the members to be officers of the society. In addition, ASM is composed of thirty one committees, including the Animal Care and Use Committee, the Conservation Awards Committee, the International Relations Committee, and the Publications Committee. It also provides numerous grants and awards for research and studies on mammals. These awards can go to both scientists and students. The ASM also lists employment opportunities for their members.Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge
Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge, located in Carteret County, North Carolina, is on the end of a peninsula marking the southern end of Pamlico Sound. The refuge lies five miles (8 km) east of the Atlantic Ocean and about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Beaufort, North Carolina. Established in 1964, the refuge consists of approximately 11,000 acres (45 km2) of irregularly flooded, brackish marsh and 3,480 acres (14.1 km2) of pocosin and woodland habitat. The dominant marsh plants include black needlerush, saltmarsh cordgrass, saltmeadow hay, and saltgrass. The woodland areas are dominated by loblolly, longleaf and pond pine. Live oak is also abundant on some upland sites. The marsh and surrounding waters provide wintering habitat for thousands of ducks and nesting habitat for colonial waterbirds.
Mammalian species that inhabit this refuge are gray squirrel, marsh rabbit, white-tailed deer, red fox, raccoon, bobcat, gray fox, nutria, beaver, muskrat, river otter, mink and opossum.Franz Jevne State Park
Franz Jevne State Park is a state park of Minnesota, USA. It is located on the Rainy River (which demarks the Canada–United States border) between International Falls and Baudette in Koochiching County.
Mammalian species of beaver, timber wolf, and moose roam in this park. Many birds are found along the Rainy River by visitors such as various songbirds, woodpeckers, pelicans, and bald eagles.
The land for the 118-acre (0.48 km2) park was donated to the state by the Franz Jevne family; the park was created in 1967 by the Minnesota Legislature.Innoko National Wildlife Refuge
The Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is a national wildlife refuge of the United States located in western Alaska. It consists of 3,850,481 acres (15,582 km2), of which 1,240,000 acres (5,018 km2) is designated a wilderness area. It is the fifth-largest national wildlife refuge in the United States. The refuge is administered from offices in Galena.
The refuge was established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The northern part of the refuge, called Kaiyuh Flats, is adjacent to the Yukon River southwest of Galena. It contains 751,000 acres (3,040 km2). The southern part contains approximately 3,099,000 acres (12,540 km2) of land surrounding the Innoko River. The land is swampy and is the nesting area for hundreds of thousands of birds including ospreys, northern hawk-owls, trumpeter swans, bald eagles, common ravens, short-eared owls, and red-tailed hawks. Mammalian species that habitat this refuge are brown and black bears, moose, wolf packs, Canadian lynx, marten, porcupine, beaver, caribou, river otter, red fox, wolverine, muskrat, and mink.
The refuge has no road access from outside and contains no roads. Air access can be arranged in McGrath.List of critically endangered mammals
As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 205 critically endangered mammalian species, including 30 which are tagged as possibly extinct.1 3.7% of all evaluated mammalian species are listed as critically endangered.
The IUCN also lists 58 mammalian subspecies as critically endangered.
Of the subpopulations of mammals evaluated by the IUCN, 17 species subpopulations have been assessed as critically endangered.
Additionally 783 mammalian species (14% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status. As these species typically have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically likely to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of critically endangered mammalian species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN. Species considered possibly extinct by the IUCN are marked as such. Species and subspecies which have critically endangered subpopulations (or stocks) are indicated. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.List of extinct animals of the Philippines
The Philippines had a large and diverse group of mammalian species in the past. They are widely distributed across the archipelago. However, they became extinct due to several factors. There are at least eight mammalian species that have been extinct since the Pleistocene Epoch. A fossil species of Sirenia has been found on Palawan and went extinct during the Miocene. Other unknown species of extinct deer, buffalo, pig and small mammals are only known from incomplete fossil remains known from Pleistocene. The Asian elephant was introduced to the Philippines, originally transported to the Sultanate of Sulu and Maguindanao, but became extinct on those areas or were transported back to Sabah for unknown reasons sometime during the 13th to 16th(?) century. One former species of bat known as Acerodon lucifer was thought to be extinct, but is now synonymous with the giant golden-crowned flying fox. Thus, the species still thrives in the archipelago, but is locally extinct on the island of Panay.
Paleontological and archeological findings yielded information regarding the extinct Mammalian species found in the Philippines through the excavation of various sites in the country.Long-legged bat
The long-legged bat (Macrophyllum macrophyllum) is a member of the Phyllostomidae family in the order Chiroptera. Both males and females of this species are generally small, with wingspans reaching 80mm and average weights ranging between 6 and 9 grams. The facial structure of these bats includes a shortened rostrum with a prominent noseleaf. The most defining feature of these bats however, is their long posterior limbs that extend farther than most Phyllostomidae bats. At the ends of these hind legs, the Long-Legged Bat has abnormally large feet equipped with strong claws.Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge
The Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge is a federally protected wildlife refuge located within Hyde County, North Carolina, United States. North Carolina's largest natural lake, Lake Mattamuskeet, is located entirely within the National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge has a total area of 50,173 acres (203.04 km2).It is home to the mammalian species white-tailed deer, river otters, red wolves, bobcats, and black bears.
The Lake Mattamuskeet Pump Station, also known as Mattamuskeet Lodge, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.Maximum life span
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death. The term can also denote an estimate of the maximum amount of time that a member of a given species could survive between birth and death, provided circumstances that are optimal to that member's longevity.
Most living species have at least one upper limit on the number of times the cells of a member can divide. This is called the Hayflick limit, although number of cell divisions does not strictly control lifespan.N-acetyltransferase
N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines, arylhydroxylamines and arylhydrazines. They have wide specificity for aromatic amines, particularly serotonin, and can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without CoA. N-acetyltransferases are cytosolic enzymes found in the liver and many tissues of most mammalian species, except the dog and fox, which cannot acetylate xenobiotics.Acetyl groups are important in the conjugation of metabolites from the liver, to allow excretion of the byproducts (phase II metabolism). This is especially important in the metabolism and excretion of drug products (drug metabolism).Neuropeptide FF
NPFF Neuropeptide FF (FLFQPQRFa) is a mammalian amidated neuropeptide originally isolated from bovine brain and characterized as a pain-modulating peptide, with anti-opioid activity on morphine-induced analgesia.
In humans, Neuropeptide FF peptides are encoded by the NPFF gene. Two genes encoding two different receptors (NPFF1 and NPFF2) and two precursors (NPFFA and NPFFB) have been cloned in several mammalian species.Penile spines
Many mammalian species have developed keratinized penile spines along the glans and/or shaft, which may be involved in sexual selection. These spines have been described as being simple, single-pointed structures (macaques) or complex with two or three points per spine (strepsirrhines). Penile spine morphology may be related to mating system.Purple acid phosphatases
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) (EC 126.96.36.199) are metalloenzymes that hydrolyse phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic condition. In their oxidised form, PAPs in solution are purple in colour. This is due to the presence of a dinuclear iron centre, to which a tyrosine residue is connected via a charge transfer. This metallic centre is composed of Fe3+ and M, where M is Fe3+, Zn2+, Mg2+ or Mn2+. The conserved Fe3+ is stabilised in the ferric form, whereas M may undergo reduction. Upon treatment with mild reductants, PAPs are converted to their enzymatically active, pink form. Treatment with strong reducing agents dissociates the metallic ions, and renders the enzyme colourless and inactive.PAPs are highly conserved within eukaryotic species, with >80% amino acid homology in mammalian PAPs, and >70% sequence homology in PAPs of plant origin. However sequence analysis reveals that there is minimal homology between plant and mammal PAPs (<20%), except for the metal-ligating amino acid residues which are identical. The metallic nucleus of PAPs also varies between plants and mammals. Mammalian PAPs which have been isolated and purified have, to this point, been composed exclusively of iron ions, whereas in plants the metallic nucleus is composed of Fe3+ and either Zn2+ or Mn2+. PAPs have also been isolated in fungi, and DNA sequences encoding for possible PAPs have been identified in prokaryotic organisms, such as in Cyanobacteria spp. and Mycobacteria spp.Currently there is no defined nomenclature for this group of enzymes, and a variety of names exists. These include purple acid phosphatase (PAP), uteroferrin (Uf), type 5 acid phosphatase (Acp 5) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, TRACP, TR-AP). There is, however, a consensus in the literature that purple acid phosphatase (PAP) relates to those found in non-mammalian species and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) to those found in mammalian species.
Uteroferrin, bovine spleen PAP and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase all refer to mammalian PAPs, whereby research on PAPs expressed in various tissues diverged. Subsequent research has proven that all of these enzymes are the same entity.Rhogeessa
Rhogeessa is a genus of bats within the vesper bats family, Vespertilionidae.St. Joe National Forest
The St. Joe National Forest is a U.S. National Forest located in the Idaho panhandle and is one of three forests that are aggregated into the Idaho Panhandle National Forests (the other two are the Coeur d'Alene and Kaniksu National Forests). In descending order of land area St. Joe National Forest is located in parts of Shoshone, Latah, Clearwater, and Benewah counties. It has a total area of 867,882 acres (3,512 km2).St. Joe is home to a numerous variety of mammalian species including white-tailed deer, mule deer, raccoon, elk, moose, black bear, grizzly bear, coyote, skunk, timber wolf, cougar, marten, beaver, bobcat, river otter, mink, and wolverine. Bird species include wild turkey, grouse, ravens, blue jays, bald eagle, osprey, golden eagle, California quails, and numerous types of owls.
The forest headquarters is located in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. There are local ranger district offices located in Avery and St. Maries.Sundevall's jird
Sundevall's jird (Meriones crassus) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae. It is found in Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Niger, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates and possibly Mali.Its natural habitat is hot deserts.TLR10
Toll-like receptor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR10 gene. TLR10 has also been designated as CD290 (cluster of differentiation 290).
TLR10 has not been extensively studied because it is a pseudogene in mice, though all other mammalian species contain an intact copy of the TLR10 gene. Unlike other TLRs, TLR10 does not activate the immune system and has instead been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling on primary human cells. This makes TLR10 unique among the TLR family. No ligand is currently known for TLR10.Teat
A teat is the projection from the udder or mammary glands of mammals from which milk flows or is ejected for the purpose of feeding young. In many mammals the teat projects from the udder. The number of teats vary by mammalian species and often corresponds to the size of an average litter for that animal.
In some cases, the teats of female animals are milked for the purpose of human consumption.
The quality of some domesticated animals is determined by the establishment of desired characteristics, such as teat size and placement.