Mallorca

Mallorca (Catalan: [məˈʎɔɾkə], Spanish: [maˈʎoɾka]), or Majorca (/məˈjɔːrkə/),[2][3] is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The native language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, which is co-official with Spanish.

The capital of the island, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. The Balearic Islands have been an autonomous region of Spain since 1983.[4] There are two small islands off the coast of Mallorca: Cabrera (southeast of Palma) and Dragonera (west of Palma). The anthem of Mallorca is "La Balanguera".

Like the other Balearic Islands of Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera, the island is an extremely popular holiday destination, particularly for tourists from Germany and the United Kingdom. The international airport, Palma de Mallorca Airport, is one of the busiest in Spain; it was used by 28.0 million passengers in 2017, increasing every year since 2012.[5]

The name derives from Classical Latin insula maior, "larger island". Later, in Medieval Latin, this became Maiorica, "the larger one", in comparison to Menorca, "the smaller one".

Mallorca
Flag of Mallorca
Flag of Mallorca
Mallorca is located in Spain
Mallorca
Mallorca

Localització de Mallorca respecte les Illes Balears
Location in the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands
Geography
LocationMediterranean
CoordinatesCoordinates: 39°37′N 2°59′E / 39.617°N 2.983°E
ArchipelagoBalearic Islands
Total islands5
Major islandsBalearic Islands
Area3,640.11 km2 (1,405.45 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,445 m (4,741 ft)
Highest pointPuig Major
Administration
 Spain
ProvinceBalearic Islands
Capital and largest cityPalma (pop. 404,681)
Demographics
DemonymMajorcan
Population859,289[1] (2015)
Pop. density240.45 /km2 (622.76 /sq mi)

History

Prehistoric settlements

Talaiot
Example of prehistoric talaiot in Majorca
Porc Negre
Archeological evidence indicates the presence of the porc negre (black pig) in pre-Roman settlements.[6]

Little is recorded of the earliest inhabitants of the island. Burial chambers and traces of habitation from the Neolithic period (6000–4000 BC) have been discovered, particularly the prehistoric settlements called talaiots, or talayots. They raised Bronze Age megaliths as part of their Talaiotic culture.[7] A non-exhaustive list is the following:

Phoenicians, Romans, and Late Antiquity

Pollentia 34
Ruins of the Roman city of Pollentia

The Phoenicians, a seafaring people from the Levant, arrived around the eighth century BC and established numerous colonies.[8] The island eventually came under the control of Carthage in North Africa, which had become the principal Phoenician city. After the Second Punic War, Carthage lost all of its overseas possessions and the Romans took over.

The island was occupied by the Romans in 123 BC under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus. It flourished under Roman rule, during which time the towns of Pollentia (Alcúdia), and Palmaria (Palma) were founded. In addition, the northern town of Bocchoris, dating back to pre-Roman times, was a federated city to Rome.[9] The local economy was largely driven by olive cultivation, viticulture, and salt mining. Majorcan soldiers were valued within the Roman legions for their skill with the sling.[10]

In 427, Gunderic and the Vandals captured the island. Geiseric, son of Gunderic, governed Majorca and used it as his base to loot and plunder settlements around the Mediterranean,[11] until Roman rule was restored in 465.

Middle Age and Modern History

Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

In 534, Majorca was recaptured by the Eastern Roman Empire, led by Apollinarius. Under Roman rule, Christianity thrived and numerous churches were built.

From 707, the island was increasingly attacked by Muslim raiders from North Africa. Recurrent invasions led the islanders to ask Charlemagne for help.[11]

Moorish Majorca

Arab baths in palma de mallorca
Arab Baths in Palma

In 902, Issam al-Khawlani(es)(ca) (Arabic: عصام الخولاني‎) conquered the Balearic Islands, ushering in a new period of prosperity under the Emirate of Córdoba. The town of Palma was reshaped and expanded, and became known as Medina Mayurqa. Later on, with the Caliphate of Córdoba at its height, the Moors improved agriculture with irrigation and developed local industries.

The caliphate was dismembered in 1015. Majorca came under rule by the Taifa of Dénia, and from 1087 to 1114, was an independent Taifa. During that period, the island was visited by Ibn Hazm. However, an expedition of Pisans and Catalans in 1114–15, led by Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, overran the island, laying siege to Palma for eight months. After the city fell, the invaders retreated due to problems in their own lands. They were replaced by the Almoravides from North Africa, who ruled until 1176. The Almoravides were replaced by the Almohad dynasty until 1229. Abú Yahya was the last Moorish leader of Majorca.[12]

Medieval Majorca

In the ensuing confusion and unrest, King James I of Aragon, also known as James the Conqueror, launched an invasion which landed at Santa Ponça, Majorca, on 8–9 September 1229 with 15,000 men and 1,500 horses. His forces entered the city of Medina Mayurqa on 31 December 1229. In 1230 he annexed the island to his Crown of Aragon under the name Regnum Maioricae.

Modern era

Insula Maioricae Vicentius Mut 1683
A 1683 map of Mallorca, by Vicente Mut

From 1479, the Crown of Aragon was in dynastic union with that of Castile. The Barbary corsairs of North Africa often attacked the Balearic Islands, and in response, the people built coastal watchtowers and fortified churches. In 1570, King Philip II of Spain and his advisors were considering complete evacuation of the Balearic islands.[13]

In the early 18th century, the War of the Spanish Succession resulted in the replacement of that dynastic union with a unified Spanish monarchy under the rule of the new Bourbon Dynasty. The last episode of the War of Spanish Succession was the conquest of the island of Mallorca. It took place on 2 July 1715 when the island capitulated to the arrival of a Bourbon fleet. In 1716, the Nueva Planta decrees made Majorca part of the Spanish province of Baleares, roughly the same to present-day Illes Balears province and autonomous community.

20th century and today

A Nationalist stronghold at the start of the Spanish Civil War, Majorca was subjected to an amphibious landing, on 16 August 1936, aimed at driving the Nationalists from Majorca and reclaiming the island for the Republic. Although the Republicans heavily outnumbered their opponents and managed to push 12 km (7.5 mi) inland, superior Nationalist air power, provided mainly by Fascist Italy as part of the Italian occupation of Majorca, forced the Republicans to retreat and to leave the island completely by 12 September. Those events became known as the Battle of Majorca.[14]

Since the 1950s, the advent of mass tourism has transformed the island into a destination for foreign visitors and attracted many service workers from mainland Spain. The boom in tourism caused Palma to grow significantly.

In the 21st century, urban redevelopment, under the so‑called Pla Mirall (English "Mirror Plan"), attracted groups of immigrant workers from outside the European Union, especially from Africa and South America.[15]

Palma

The capital of Majorca, Palma, was founded as a Roman camp called Palmaria upon the remains of a Talaiotic settlement. The turbulent history of the city had it subject to several Vandal sackings during the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It was later reconquered by the Byzantines, established by the Moors (who called it Medina Mayurqa), and finally occupied by James I of Aragon. In 1983, Palma became the capital of the autonomous region of the Balearic Islands.

Climate

The climate of Majorca is a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with mild and stormy winters and hot, bright, dry summers. Precipitation in the Serra de Tramuntana is markedly higher. Summers are hot in the plains, and winters mild, getting colder in the Tramuntana range, where brief episodes of snow during the winter are not unusual. The two wettest months in Mallorca are October and December.[16]

Geography

Regions

Mallorca
Satellite image
Mallorca topo
Topography

Majorca is the largest island of Spain by area and second most populated (after Tenerife in the Canary Islands).[18][19] Majorca has two mountainous regions, the Serra de Tramuntana and Serres de Llevant. Each are about 70 km (43 mi) in length and occupy the northwestern and eastern parts of the island respectively.

The highest peak on Majorca is Puig Major at 1,445 m (4,741 ft) in the Serra de Tramuntana.[20] As this is a military zone, the neighbouring peak at Puig de Massanella is the highest accessible peak at 1,364 m (4,475 ft). The northeast coast comprises two bays: the Badia de Pollença and the larger Badia d'Alcúdia.

The northern coast is rugged and has many cliffs. The central zone, extending from Palma, is a generally flat, fertile plain known as Es Pla. The island has a variety of caves both above and below sea – two of the caves, the above sea level Coves dels Hams and the Coves del Drach, also contain underground lakes and are open to tours. Both are located near the eastern coastal town of Porto Cristo. Small uninhabited islands lie off the southern and western coasts; the Cabrera Archipelago is administratively grouped with Majorca (in the municipality of Palma), while Dragonara is administratively included in the municipality of Andratx. Other notable areas include the Alfabia Mountains, Es Cornadors and Cap de Formentor.

World Heritage Site

The Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011.[21]

Municipalities

Mapa camarques2
Municipalities of Majorca

The island is administratively divided into 53 municipalities. The areas and populations of the municipalities (according to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Spain) are:

Municipality Area
(km2)
Census Population
1 November 2001
Census Population
1 November 2011
Estimated Population
1 January 2017
Alaró 45.7 4,050 5,273 5,389
Alcúdia 60.0 12,500 18,914 19,395
Algaida 89.8 3,749 5,272 5,430
Andratx 81.5 7,753 11,234 10,930
Ariany 23.1 766 892 854
Artà 139.8 6,176 7,562 7,541
Banyalbufar 18.1 517 559 495
Binissalem 29.8 5,166 7,640 8,143
Búger 8.29 950 1,014 1,046
Bunyola 84.7 5,029 6,270 6,636
Calvià 145.0 35,977 49,807 49,063
Campanet 34.6 2,309 2,536 2,512
Campos 149.7 6,360 9,712 10,418
Capdepera 54.9 8,239 11,281 11,267
Consell 13.7 2,407 3,778 3,962
Costitx 15.4 924 1,113 1,247
Deià 15.2 654 684 637
Escorca 139.4 257 258 217
Esporles 35.3 4,066 4,845 4,942
Estellencs 13.4 347 363 305
Felanitx 169.8 14,882 18,045 17,333
Fornalutx 19.5 618 695 663
Inca 58.3 23,029 30,359 31,255
Lloret de Vistalegre 17.4 981 1,308 1,277
Lloseta 12.1 4,760 5,690 5,799
Llubí 34.9 1,806 2,235 2,206
Llucmajor 327.3 24,277 35,995 35,513
Manacor 260.3 31,255 40,348 41,095
Mancor de la Vall 19.9 892 1,321 1,449
Maria de la Salut 30.5 1,972 2,122 2,159
Marratxí 54.2 23,410 34,538 36,383
Montuïri 41.1 2,344 2,856 2,836
Muro 58.6 6,107 7,010 6,829
Palma 208.7 333,801 402,044 406,492
Petra 70.0 1,911 2,876 2,794
Pollença 151.7 13,808 16,057 16,157
Porreres 86.9 4,069 5,459 5,256
Puigpunyent 42.3 1,250 1,878 1,997
Santa Eugènia 20.3 1,224 1,686 1,653
Santa Margalida 86.5 7,800 11,725 11,801
Santa María del Camí 37.6 4,959 6,443 7,062
Santanyí 124.9 8,875 12,427 11,348
Sant Joan 38.5 1,634 2,029 2,064
Sant Llorenç des Cardassar 82.1 6,503 8,490 8,328
Sa Pobla 48.6 10,388 12,999 12,793
Selva 48.8 2,927 3,699 3,869
Sencelles 52.9 2,146 3,113 3,154
Ses Salines 39.1 3,389 5,007 4,860
Sineu 47.7 2,736 3,696 3,641
Sóller 42.8 10,961 13,882 13,936
Son Servera 42.6 9,432 11,915 11,265
Valldemossa 42.9 1,708 1,990 1,950
Vilafranca de Bonany 24.0 2,466 2,984 3,047

Culture

Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria

Arxiduc2
A sculpture of Ludwig Salvator, in Majorca

Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (Catalan: Arxiduc Lluís Salvador) was the architect of tourism in the Balearic Islands. He first arrived on the island in 1867, travelling under his title "Count of Neuendorf". He later settled on Majorca, buying up wild areas of land in order to preserve and enjoy them. Nowadays, a number of trekking routes are named after him.[22]

Ludwig Salvator loved the island of Majorca. He became fluent in Catalan, carried out research into the island's flora and fauna, history, and culture to produce his main work, Die Balearen, an extremely comprehensive collection of books about the Balearic Islands, consisting of 7 volumes. It took him 22 years to complete.[23]

Chopin in Majorca

Fryderyk Chopin Valldemosa
Chopin's piano in Valldemossa, Majorca

The Polish composer and pianist Frédéric Chopin, together with French writer Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (pseudonym: George Sand), resided in Valldemossa in the winter of 1838–39. Apparently, Chopin's health had already deteriorated and his doctor recommended that he go to the Balearic Islands to recuperate, where he still spent a rather miserable winter.[24][25]

Nonetheless, his time in Majorca was a productive period for Chopin. He managed to finish the Preludes, Op. 28, that he started writing in 1835. He was also able to undertake work on his Ballade No. 2, Op. 38; two Polonaises, Op. 40; and the Scherzo No. 3, Op. 39.[26]

Literature and painting

French writer Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (pseudonym: George Sand), at that time in a relationship with Chopin, described her stay in Majorca in A Winter in Majorca, published in 1855. Other famous writers used Majorca as the setting for their works: While on the island, the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío started writing the novel El oro de Mallorca, and wrote several poems, such as La isla de oro.[27] Many of the works of Baltasar Porcel take place in Majorca. Ira Levin set part of his dystopian novel This Perfect Day in Majorca, making the island a centre of resistance in a world otherwise dominated by a computer.

Agatha Christie visited the island in the early 20th century and stayed in Palma and Port de Pollença.[28] She would later write the book Problem at Pollensa Bay and Other Stories, a collection of short stories, of which the first one takes place in Port de Pollença, starring Parker Pyne.

Jorge Luis Borges visited Majorca twice, accompanied by his family.[29] He published his poems La estrella (1920) and Catedral (1921) in the regional magazine Baleares.[30] The latter poem shows his admiration for the monumental Cathedral of Palma.[31]

Nobel prize winner Camilo José Cela came to Majorca in 1954, visiting Pollença, and then moving to Palma, where he settled permanently.[32] In 1956, Cela founded the magazine Papeles de Son Armadans.[33] He is also credited as founder of Alfaguara.

Rgravesgrave
Grave of Robert Graves

The English poet Robert Graves moved to Mallorca with his family in 1946. The house is now a museum. He died in 1985 and his body was buried in the small churchyard on a hill at Deià.[34]

Music and dance

The Ball dels Cossiers is the island's traditional dance. It is believed to have been imported from Catalonia in the 13th or 14th century, after the Argonian conquest of the island under King Jaime I.[35] In the dance, three pairs of dancers, who are typically male, defend a "Lady," who is played by a man or a woman, from a demon or devil. Another Majorcan dance is Correfoc, an elaborate festival of dance and pyrotechnics that is also of Catalan origin. The island's folk music strongly resembles that of Catalonia, and is centered around traditional instruments like the xeremia (bagpipes) and guitarra de canya (a reed or bone xylophone-like instrument suspended from the neck).[36] While folk music is still played and enjoyed by many on the island, a number of other musical traditions have become popular in Majorca in the 21st century, including electronic dance music, classical music, and jazz, all of which have annual festivals on the island.[37]

Art

Joan Miró, a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist, had close ties to the island throughout his life, he married Pilar Juncosa in Palma in 1929 and settled permanently in Majorca in 1954.[38] The Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró in Majorca has a collection of his works. Es Baluard in Palma is a museum of modern and contemporary art which exhibits the work of Balearic artists and artists related to the Balearic Islands.

Film

The Evolution Mallorca International Film Festival is the fastest growing Mediterranean film festival and has occurred annually every November since 2011, attracting filmmakers, producers, and directors globally. It is hosted at the Teatro Principal in Palma de Mallorca[39]

Majorcan cartographic school

Majorca and Minorca by Piri Reis
Map of Majorca and Menorca by the Ottoman admiral Piri Reis

Majorca has a long history of seafaring. The Majorcan cartographic school or the "Catalan school" refers to a collection of cartographers, cosmographers, and navigational instrument makers that flourished in Majorca and partly in mainland Catalonia in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. Majorcan cosmographers and cartographers developed breakthroughs in cartographic techniques, namely the "normal portolan chart", which was fine-tuned for navigational use and the plotting by compass of navigational routes, prerequisites for the discovery of the New World.

Cuisine

Ensaimada
Ensaïmades, a type of Majorcan pastry product

In 2005, there were over 2,400 restaurants on the island of Majorca according to the Majorcan Tourist Board, ranging from small bars to full restaurants. Olives and almonds are typical of the Majorcan diet. Among the foods that are typical from Majorca are sobrassada, arròs brut (saffron rice cooked with chicken, pork and vegetables), and the sweet pastry ensaïmada. Also Pa amb oli is a popular dish. [40]

Herbs de Majorca is a herbal liqueur.

Language

The main language spoken on the island is Catalan.[41] The two official languages of Majorca are Catalan and Spanish.[41] The local dialect of Catalan spoken in the island is mallorquín, with slightly different variants in most villages. The education is bilingual in Catalan and Spanish, with some knowledge of English.[42]

In 2012, the then-governing People's Party announced its intention to end preferential treatment for Catalan in the island's schools to bring parity to the two languages of the island. It was said that this could lead Majorcan Catalan to become extinct in the fairly near future, as it was being used in a situation of diglossia in favour of the Spanish language.[43] As of 2016, with the most recent election in May 2015 sweeping a pro-Catalan party and president into power, the Popular Party's policy of trilingualism has been dismantled,[44] making this outcome unlikely.

Economy

Cala Llombards 04
The beaches in the southeast of Mallorca are tourist attractions.

Since the 1950s, Majorca has become a major tourist destination, and the tourism business has become the main source of revenue for the island.[45] In 2001, the island received millions of tourists, and the boom in the tourism industry has provided significant growth in the economy of the country.

The island's popularity as a tourist destination has steadily grown since the 1950s, with many artists and academics choosing to visit and live on the island. Visitors to Majorca continued to increase with holiday makers in the 1970s approaching 3 million a year. In 2010 over 6 million visitors came to Majorca. In 2013, Majorca was visited by nearly 9.5 million tourists, and the Balearic Islands as a whole reached 13 million tourists.[46]

Majorca has been jokingly referred to as the 17th Federal State of Germany, due to the high number of German tourists.[47][48]

With thousands of rooms available Majorca's economy is largely dependent on its tourism industry. Holiday makers are attracted by the large number of beaches, warm weather, and high-quality tourist amenities.

Attempts to build illegally caused a scandal in 2006 in Port Andratx that the newspaper El País named "caso Andratx".[49] A main reason for illegal building permits, corruption and black market construction is that communities have few ways to finance themselves other than through permits.[50] The former mayor was incarcerated since 2009 after being prosecuted for taking bribes to permit illegal housebuilding.[51][52]

Top 10 arrivals by nationality

Data from Institute of Statistics of Balearic Islands[53]

Rank Country or territory 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
1  Germany 3,237,745 3,731,458 3,710,313 3,450,687 3,308,604 2,224,709
2  United Kingdom 1,985,311 2,165,774 2,105,981 1,986,354 1,898,838 1,324,294
3  Spain 1,059,612 1,088,973 985,557 1,192,033 1,195,822 759,825
4 Nordic Countries 641,920 758,940 758,637 668,328 572,041 387,875
5  Benelux 345,837 366,130 363,911 360,973 368,930 284,845
6   Switzerland 325,241 334,871 312,491 292,226 280,401 188,826
7  France 323,241 328,681 337,891 349,712 316,124 187,589
8  Italy 203,520 165,473 154,227 173,680 200,851 135,535
9  Austria 163,477 175,530 160,890 138,287 181,993 107,991
10  Ireland 104,556 100,059 104,827 115,164 158,646 68,456

Politics and government

Official Emblem of the Mallorca Island Council
Emblem of the Majorca Insular Council

Regional government

The Balearic Islands, of which Majorca forms part, are one of the autonomous communities of Spain. As a whole, they are currently governed by the Balearic Islands Socialist Party (PSIB-PSOE), with Francina Armengol as their President.

The autonomous government for the island, called Consell Insular de Mallorca (Majorca Insular Council), is responsible for culture, roads, railways (see Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca) and municipal administration. The current president (as of June 2015) is Miquel Ensenyat, of More for Mallorca.

Spanish Royal Family

The members of the Spanish Royal Family spend their summer holidays[54] in Majorca where the Marivent Palace is located.[55] The Marivent Palace is the royal family's summer residence. While most royal residences are administered by Patrimonio Nacional, the Marivent Palace, in Palma de Mallorca, one of many Spanish royal sites, is under the care of Government of the Balearic Islands. As a private residence it is rarely used for official business. Typically, the whole family meets there and on the Fortuna yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions.[56] The Marivent Palace is used for some unofficial business, as when President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela visited King Juan Carlos in 2008[57] to mend their relationship and normalize diplomatic relations after the King famously[58] said to him, "Why don't you shut up?" during the Ibero-American Summit in November 2007.[59]

Majorcans

Ars Magna de Ramon Llull
Ars magna, by Ramon Llull

Some of the earliest famous Majorcans lived on the island before its reconquest from the Moors. Famous Majorcans include:

Notable residents, alive in modern times

Transport

Gallery

Cathedral palma mallorca spain 2007 08 15

La Seu, Palma Cathedral

PuigMajor5

Lakes Cúber and Gorg Blau, Serra de Tramuntana

Puig Major 21

Puig Major, highest peak on Majorca

Porta Pollença Sunrise Bird

Sunrise across Pollensa Bay, Port de Pollença

Cap de ses Salines

Cap de Ses Salines

Spain mallorca cala agulla a

Cala Agulla, Capdepera

Mallorca schönste Strände Cala Amarador (30182046834)

Aerial of Cala Amarador beach

Mallorca schönste Strände Westküste Bucht (30697030362)

Aerial of Cala Llombards beach

Mallorca S'Arenal beach (30813844605)

S'Arenal Platja de Palma

Mallorca Palma Strand (30725674811)

Platja de Palma beach

Mallorca Platja de Palma Strand (30178917243)

Aerial of Platja de Palma beach

See also

References

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  3. ^ Keenan, Steve (6 July 2009). "Mallorca v Majorca: which is correct?". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  4. ^ Tisdall, Nigel (2003). Mallorca. Reference to Balearic Islands autonomy. Thomas Cook Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 9781841573274.
  5. ^ "Presentación". AENA Aeropuerto de Palma de Mallorca (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  6. ^ "The Mallorca Black pig: Production system, conservation and breeding strategies", J. Jaume, M. Gispert, M.A. Oliver, E. Fàbrega, N. Trilla, and J. Tibau. Institut Balear de Biologia Animal. 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2017
  7. ^ Tisdall, Nigel (2003). Mallorca. Reference to Talayot Culture on the island. Thomas Cook Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 9781841573274.
  8. ^ "Spain". dlthede.net. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
  9. ^ Oppidum Bocchoritanum. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites .
  10. ^ History of Mallorca. North South Guides.
  11. ^ a b The Dark Ages in Mallorca mallorcaincognita.com, not dated
  12. ^ Moorish Mallorca mallorcaincognita.com, not dated.
  13. ^ The Pillage People, Contemporary Balears.
  14. ^ The Spanish Civil War, Hugh Thomas (2001)
  15. ^ "Large rise in number of foreign nationals". The Mallorca. 15 January 2009.
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  17. ^ a b "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981–2010)". Archived from the original on 18 November 2012.
  18. ^ Cifra de población referida al 1 January 2009 según el Instituto Nacional de Estadística
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  26. ^ Zamoyski (2010), p. 168 (loc. 2646).
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  28. ^ "Agatha Christie: inspired by Mallorca – Illes Balears". Govern de les Illes Balears. Archived from the original on 2014-12-30. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
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  30. ^ "Jorge Luis Borges — Revistas y Diarios" [Jorge Luis Borges — Journals and Diaries] (in Spanish). Argentine Cultural Ephemerides. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014.
  31. ^ Carlos Meneses. "Borges y España — Mallorca en Borges" [Borges and Spain — Mallorca in Borges]. Centro Virtual Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  32. ^ José Carlos Llop (17 January 2002). "Cautivos en la isla: En la muerte de Camilo José Cela" [Captives on the island: In the death of Camilo José Cela]. EL Cultural (in Spanish).
  33. ^ "El nacimiento de Papeles de Son Armadans" [The birth of Papeles de Son Armadans]. Papeles de Son Armadans (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  34. ^ Barkham, Patrick (27 October 2012). "'I didn't just bury the past, I buried it alive'". The Guardian.
  35. ^ "Ritual made dance: the Ball dels Cossiers". Illes Balears.
  36. ^ "Traditional music and dance in Mallorca". My Guide Mallorca. September 9, 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
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1998–99 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup

The 1998–99 season of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup club tournament was the last season of the competition before it was abolished. Lazio won the final against Mallorca to earn their only title in the competition. Chelsea were the defending champions, but were eliminated in the Semi-Finals By Mallorca.

2002–03 Copa del Rey

The 2002–03 Copa del Rey was the 101st staging of the Copa del Rey.

The competition started on 28 August 2002 and concluded on 28 June 2003 with the final, held at the Martinez Valero in Elche, in which Mallorca lifted the trophy for the first time ever with a 3–0 victory over Recreativo de Huelva.

2003 Copa del Rey Final

The 2003 Copa del Rey Final was the 101st final since its establishment. The match took place on 28 June 2003 at the Estadio Manuel Martínez Valero, Elche. The match was contested by RCD Mallorca and Recreativo de Huelva, and it was refereed by Eduardo Iturralde González. RCD Mallorca lifted the trophy for the first time in their history with a 3-0 victory over Recreativo de Huelva.

2007–08 La Liga

The 2007–08 La Liga season, the 77th since its establishment, started on 25 August 2007 and finished on 18 May 2008. Real Madrid defended their La Liga title successfully after a 2–1 victory over Osasuna. This season, all European leagues ended earlier than the previous season, due to the UEFA Euro 2008 championship. It also was the first year of the new La Liga television agreement that had La Sexta mark its first year of television broadcasting.

Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands (; Catalan: Illes Balears, pronounced [ˈiʎəz bələˈas]; Spanish: Islas Baleares, pronounced [ˈizlaz βaleˈaɾes]) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

The four largest islands are Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, and Formentera. Many minor islands and islets are close to the larger islands, including Cabrera, Dragonera, and S'Espalmador. The islands have a Mediterranean climate, and the four major islands are all popular tourist destinations. Ibiza, in particular, is known as an international party destination, attracting many of the world's most popular DJs to its nightclubs. The islands' culture and cuisine are similar to those of the rest of Spain, but have their own distinctive features.

The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain, with Palma de Mallorca as the capital. The 2007 Statute of Autonomy declares the Balearic Islands as one nationality of Spain. The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Spanish.

Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in Balearic Islands

The Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in the Balearic Islands, are organized by Balearic Football Federation :

Primera Regional Preferente de Mallorca (Level 5)

Regional Preferente de Menorca (Level 5)

Regional de Ibiza y Formentera (Level 5)

Primera Regional de las Islas Baleares (Level 6)

Segunda Regional de las Islas Baleares (Level 7)

Tercera Regional de las Islas Baleares (Level 8)

Ensaïmada

The ensaïmada (Catalan pronunciation: [ənsə.iˈmaðə], pl. ensaïmades) is a pastry product from Mallorca. It is a common cuisine eaten in most former Castilian territories in Latin America and the Philippines. The first written references to the Majorcan ensaïmada date back to the 17th century. At that time, although wheat flour was mainly used for making bread, there is evidence that this typical pastry product was made for festivals and celebrations.

The ensaïmada de Mallorca is made with strong flour, water, sugar, eggs, mother dough and a kind of reduced pork lard named saïm. The handmade character of the product makes it difficult to give an exact formula, so scales have been established defining the proportion of each ingredient, giving rise to an excellent quality traditional product. The name comes from the Catalan word saïm, which means 'pork lard' (from the Arabic shahim, meaning 'fat').

In Mallorca and Ibiza there is a sweet called greixonera made with ensaïmada pieces left over from the day before.

Herbs de Majorca

Herbs de Majorca (Catalan: Herbes de Mallorca; Spanish: Hierbas Mallorquinas) is a Majorcan herbal liqueur made from anise and other aromatic plants such as camomile, fennel, lemon, lemon verbena, marjoram, mint, orange, and rosemary.Green or amber in colour, it is usually served as a digestif, after a meal. Traditionally, dry and sweet varieties are produced. A mixed blend, or "semi", is also made, to suit modern customer tastes. Some bottles have a dried piece of a plant in them.A form of the generic Hierbas, Herbs de Majorca has a protected designation of origin and can only be made in Majorca.A common brand is 'Tunel', first produced in 1898.

Kingdom of Majorca

The Kingdom of Majorca (Catalan: Regne de Mallorca, IPA: [ˈreŋnə ðə məˈʎɔɾkə]; Spanish: Reino de Mallorca; Latin: Regnum Maioricae) was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror. After the death of his firstborn son Alfonso, a will was written in 1262 and created the kingdom to cede it to his son James. The disposition was maintained during successive versions of his will and so when James I died in 1276, the Crown of Aragon passed to his eldest son Peter, known as Peter III of Aragon or Peter the Great. The Kingdom of Majorca passed to James, who reigned under the name of James II of Majorca. After 1279, Peter III of Aragon established that the king of Majorca was a vassal to the king of Aragon. The title continued to be employed by the Aragonese and Spanish monarchs until its dissolution by the 1715 Nueva Planta decrees.

Marco Asensio

Marco Asensio Willemsen (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmaɾko aˈsensjo]; born 21 January 1996) is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a winger and attacking midfielder for Real Madrid and the Spain national team.

After starting out at Mallorca, he signed with Real Madrid in November 2014, being consecutively loaned to his former club as well as Espanyol. Upon his return, he went on to win several honours, including two Champions League trophies.

Asensio made his senior debut for Spain in 2016. He represented the nation at the 2018 World Cup.

Miguel Ángel Nadal

Miguel Ángel Nadal Homar (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel ˈaŋxel naˈðal oˈmaɾ]; born 28 July 1966) is a Spanish retired footballer. Nicknamed The Beast, he based his game in a tremendous physical display, also being adaptable to various defender and midfielder positions.

He began and ended his career with Mallorca, but his greatest achievements came whilst at Barcelona during the so-called Dream Team era. During 19 professional seasons, he played in 492 matches (462 of those in La Liga).

A very important part of Spain's setup during the 1990s, Nadal represented the nation in three World Cups and at Euro 1996. In 2007, The Times placed him at number 47 in their list of the 50 hardest footballers in history.

Més per Mallorca

Més per Mallorca (English: More for Majorca, MÉS) is a Majorcan political coalition formed by Socialist Party of Majorca (PSM), IniciativaVerds (IV) and Entesa per Mallorca (ExM), as well as some small independent, local parties around the island. It was created in 2010 by the PSM, Left Initiative (Iniciativa) and The Greens (EV) under the name PSM–Iniciativa–Verds. After the merger of Iniciativa and EV into IV in 2010, and with the incorporation of ExM in 2011, it was renamed as PSM–IniciativaVerds–Entesa. In 2013, the current name was adopted.

Palma de Mallorca

Palma de Mallorca, since December 2016 Palma ( or , Catalan: [ˈpalmə], Spanish: [ˈpalma]), is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situated on the south coast of Mallorca on the Bay of Palma. The Cabrera Archipelago, though widely separated from Palma proper, is administratively considered part of the municipality. As of 2018, Palma de Mallorca Airport serves over 29 million passengers per year.

Palma de Mallorca Airport

Palma de Mallorca Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Palma de Mallorca, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Palma de Mallorca; IATA: PMI, ICAO: LEPA; also known as Son Sant Joan Airport or Aeroport de Son Sant Joan) is an international airport located 8 km (5.0 mi) east of Palma, Majorca, Spain, adjacent to the village of Can Pastilla. The airport on the Balearic Islands is Spain's third largest airport after Madrid–Barajas and Barcelona-El Prat. Palma de Mallorca was used by 27.9 million passengers in 2017. The airport is the main base for the Spanish carrier Air Europa and also a focus airport for Ryanair, EasyJet, Vueling and Jet2.com. The airport shares runways with the nearby Son Sant Joan Air Force Base, operated by the Spanish Air Force.

RCD Mallorca

Real Club Deportivo Mallorca, S.A.D. (Spanish: [reˈal ˈkluβ ðepoɾˈtiβo maˈʎoɾka], Catalan: Reial Club Deportiu Mallorca [rəˈjal ˈklub dəpuɾˈtiw məˈʎɔɾkə]) is a Spanish football team based in Palma, in the Balearic Islands. Founded on 5 March 1916 it currently plays in Segunda División, holding home games at the Estadi de Son Moix.

Team colours are red shirts with black shorts and black socks.

RCD Mallorca B

RCD Mallorca B, S.A.D. is a Spanish football team based in Palma, Majorca, in the Balearic Islands. Founded in 1967, it is the reserve team of RCD Mallorca and currently plays in Tercera División – Group 11, holding home matches at Estadio Son Bibiloni, with a capacity of 1,900 seats.

Unlike in England, reserve teams in Spain play in the same football pyramid as their senior team rather than a separate league.

Socialist Party of Majorca

The Socialist Party of Majorca (Catalan: Partit Socialista de Mallorca, PSM; IPA: [pəɾˈtit susi.əˈlistə ðə məˈʎɔɾkə]), officially PSM–Entesa after the incorporation of Entesa per Mallorca (ExM) in February 2013, is a political party in Majorca, Spain. The PSM defines itself as socialist, environmentalist, and Catalan nationalist, from a Majorcan point of view.

Vuelta a Mallorca

The Challenge Vuelta Ciclista a Mallorca (English: Tour of Majorca, Catalan: Challenge Volta Ciclista a Mallorca) is a series of four (five until 2012) professional one day road bicycle races held on the Spanish island of Mallorca in late January or early February. The event is used as an early season preparatory event by many of the top teams in readiness for the bigger races later in the season. The five races are ranked 1.1 on the UCI Europe Tour.

Although the race styles itself as the "Tour of Majorca" it has never been allowed to be classed as a multi day stage race by the sports governing body the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) because the race rules allows riders not to participate on certain days if they don’t want to. However, there is an unofficial overall classification winner taken on total time over five days. This laid back attitude by the race organisers makes the race popular with team managers who can bring a large squad (sometimes as many as 20 riders) and interchange them over the five days. Apart from the overall classification on time there are the usual Mountains, Points and Sprints competitions associated with any stage race. There is also a competition for the top Majorcan based rider, in the past this has been won by Vicente Reynès, Antonio Colóm and Antonio Tauler.

The first day of racing is the Trofeo Mallorca which is a criterium (circuit race) around the streets of Palma. The second day is the Trofeo Cala Millor, sometimes called the Trofeo Alcúdia. These two opening days are run over a fairly flat course and result in a sprint finish. The Trofeo Pollença (day three) and Trofeo Sóller (day four) are contested over a more hilly course using the climbs of the Col de Sóller (501 metres) and the Col de Puig Major (850 metres) amongst others on the route. These two hilly days usually decide the outcome of the unofficial overall classification over the five days. The final days racing is the Trofeo Calvià which takes place on an undulating course over a series of small climbs.

Top class riders such as Laurent Jalabert, Alex Zülle and Alejandro Valverde have won the overall classification at the Vuelta a Mallorca; however, Spanish rider Francesco Cabello who rode for the Kelme team throughout his career, holds the record for the most victories, taking three overall victories in Majorca in 1996, 2000 and 2002. In 2004 Colóm became the first rider who was a native of the island of Majorca to take the overall classification.

The Vuelta a Mallorca receives heavy sponsorship from Tourism section of the local Majorcan government (Govern de la Illes Balears). The race was first held in 1992 and for the first three years was just open to Spanish teams, however in 1995 foreign squads were invited for the first time with teams such as Telekom and TVM attending. In 1998 Léon van Bon of the Dutch Rabobank squad became the first overall winner riding for a non Spanish team.

Xueta

The Xuetes (Catalan pronunciation: [ʃuˈətə]; singular Xueta, also known as Xuetons and spelled as Chuetas) are a social group on the Spanish island of Majorca, in the Mediterranean Sea, who are descendants of Majorcan Jews that either were conversos (forcible converts to Christianity) or were Crypto-Jews, forced to keep their religion hidden. They practiced strict endogamy by marrying only within their own group. Many of their descendants observe a syncretist form of Christian worship known as Xueta Christianity.

The Xuetes were stigmatized up until the first half of the 20th century. In the latter part of the century, the spread of freedom of religion and laïcité reduced both the social pressure and community ties. An estimated 18,000 people in the island carry Xueta surnames in the 21st century, but only a small fraction of the society (including those with Xueta surnames) is aware of the complex history of this group.

Climate data for Palma de Mallorca, Port (1981–2010) (Satellite view)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
15.5
(59.9)
17.2
(63.0)
19.2
(66.6)
22.5
(72.5)
26.5
(79.7)
29.4
(84.9)
29.8
(85.6)
27.1
(80.8)
23.7
(74.7)
19.3
(66.7)
16.5
(61.7)
21.8
(71.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
11.9
(53.4)
13.4
(56.1)
15.5
(59.9)
18.8
(65.8)
22.7
(72.9)
25.7
(78.3)
26.2
(79.2)
23.5
(74.3)
20.2
(68.4)
15.8
(60.4)
13.1
(55.6)
18.2
(64.8)
Average low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.4
(47.1)
9.6
(49.3)
11.7
(53.1)
15.1
(59.2)
18.9
(66.0)
21.9
(71.4)
22.5
(72.5)
19.9
(67.8)
16.6
(61.9)
12.3
(54.1)
9.7
(49.5)
14.6
(58.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43
(1.7)
37
(1.5)
28
(1.1)
39
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
11
(0.4)
6
(0.2)
22
(0.9)
52
(2.0)
69
(2.7)
59
(2.3)
48
(1.9)
449
(17.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 6 5 5 4 2 1 2 5 7 6 7 53
Mean monthly sunshine hours 167 170 205 237 284 315 346 316 227 205 161 151 2,779
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[17]
Climate data for Palma de Mallorca Airport (1981–2010) (Satellite view)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
15.4
(59.7)
17.5
(63.5)
19.8
(67.6)
23.7
(74.7)
28.1
(82.6)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
27.9
(82.2)
23.9
(75.0)
19.0
(66.2)
16.1
(61.0)
22.4
(72.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
9.8
(49.6)
11.3
(52.3)
13.6
(56.5)
17.5
(63.5)
21.7
(71.1)
24.8
(76.6)
25.1
(77.2)
22.2
(72.0)
18.5
(65.3)
13.7
(56.7)
10.8
(51.4)
16.5
(61.7)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
4.0
(39.2)
5.2
(41.4)
7.4
(45.3)
11.3
(52.3)
15.4
(59.7)
18.3
(64.9)
18.9
(66.0)
16.5
(61.7)
13.1
(55.6)
8.3
(46.9)
5.4
(41.7)
10.6
(51.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37
(1.5)
32
(1.3)
26
(1.0)
34
(1.3)
32
(1.3)
12
(0.5)
5
(0.2)
17
(0.7)
50
(2.0)
62
(2.4)
55
(2.2)
48
(1.9)
411
(16.2)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 5 5 5 4 2 1 2 4 6 6 6 51
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163 166 202 234 283 316 342 315 222 203 162 152 2,756
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[17]
Mallorca
Menorca
Ibiza
Formentera

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