Malik

Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Malick, or Melekh (Phoenician: 𐤌𐤋𐤊; Arabic: ملك‎; Hebrew: מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.

Although the early forms of the name were to be found among the Pre-Arab and Pre-Islamic Semites of The Levant, Canaan, and Mesopotamia, it has since been adopted in various other, mainly but not exclusively Islamized or Arabized non-Semitic Asian languages for their ruling princes and to render kings elsewhere. It is also sometimes used in derived meanings.

The female version of Malik is Malikah (Arabic: ملكة‎) (or its various spellings such as Malekeh or Melike), meaning "queen".

The name Malik was originally found among various pre-Arab and non-Muslim Semitic peoples such as the indigenous ethnic Assyrians of Iraq, Amorites, Jews, Arameans, Mandeans, Syriacs, and pre-Islamic Arabs. It has since been spread among various predominantly Muslim and non-Semitic peoples in Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia. Malik is also an angel in the Quran, who never smiled since the day the hellfire was created.

The last name "Malik" or "Malík" may also be of West Slavic origin, most predominantly Polish, Czech, and Slovakian, as it comes from a Polish word "mały" meaning "small". It's comparable with surnames such as "Malicki", "Maliczek", or "Malikowski".[1]

The last name "Malik" also refers to jaat or people belonging to the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana region in India and Pakistan.

Malik is also a common name for boys in Greenlandic, meaning "wave".

Etymology

The earliest form of the name Maloka was used to denote a prince or chieftain in the East Semitic Akkadian language of the Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea.[2] The Northwest Semitic mlk was the title of the rulers of the primarily Amorite, Sutean, Canaanite, Phoenician and Aramean city-states of the Levant and Canaan from the Late Bronze Age. Eventual derivatives include the Aramaic, Neo-Assyrian, Mandic and Arabic forms: Malik, Malek, Mallick, Malkha, Malka, Malkai and the Hebrew form Melek.

Moloch has been traditionally interpreted the epithet of a god, known as "the king" like Baal was an epithet "the master" and Adon an epithet "the lord", but in the case of Moloch purposely mispronounced as Molek instead of Melek using the vowels of Hebrew bosheth "shame".[3]

Malik is also an unrelated Greenlandic Inuit name meaning "wave."[4]

Political

Primarily a malik is the ruling monarch of a kingdom, called mamlaka, title used by the former slaves aka Mamluks (مملوك) royal dynasty of Egypt; that term is however also used in a broader sense, like realm, for rulers with another, generally lower titles, as in Sahib al-Mamlaka. Malik is also used for tribal leaders, e.g. among the Pashtuns.

Some Arab kingdoms are currently ruled by a Malik:

Other historic realms under a Malik include:

The title Malik has also been used in languages which adopted Arabic loanwords (mainly, not exclusively, in Muslim cultures), for various princely or lower ranks and functions.

  • In Armenia, the title of Melik was bestowed upon princes who ruled various principalities, often referred to as Melikdoms.
  • In Georgia, among the numerous Grandees, often related to Armenia:

The word Malik is sometimes used in Arabic to render roughly equivalent titles of foreign rulers, for instance the chronicler Baha al-Din Ibn Shaddad refers to King Richard I of England as Malik al-Inkitar.

  • In Pakistan, Awan heads of villages are called Malik

Divine

  • The sacrament of Holy Leaven in the Assyrian Church of the East[5]
  • It is also one of the Names of God in the Qur'an, and is then al-Malik (الملك) or The King, Lord of the Worlds in the absolute sense (denoted by the definite article), meaning the King of Kings, above all earthly rulers.
    • Hence, Abdelmelik ("servant of [Allah] the King ") is an Arabic male name.
  • In Biblical Hebrew, Moloch is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in North Africa and the Levant.
  • Melqart ("king of the city") was a Phoenician and Punic god.
  • The Melkites (from Syriac malkāyâ, ܡܠܟܝܐ, "imperial") are the members of several Christian churches of the Middle East, originally those who sided with the Byzantine emperor.

Compound and derived titles

  • Malika is the female derivation, a term of Arabic origin used in Persia as the title for a Queen consort. Frequently also used as part of a lady's name, e.g. Malika-i-Jahan 'Queen of the World'.
  • Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malik (female Sahibat us-Sumuw al-Malik) is an Arabic title for His/Her Royal Highness, notably for Princes in the dynasty of the Malik of Egypt.

The following components are frequently part of titles, notably in Persian (also used elsewhere, e.g. in India's Moghol tradition):

  • - ul-Mulk (or ul-Molk): - of the kingdom; e.g. Malik Usman Khan, who served the Sultan of Gujarat as Governor of Lahore, received the title of Zubdat ul-Mulk 'best of the kingdom' as a hereditary distinction, which was retained as part of the style of his heirs, the ruling Diwans (only since 1910 promoted to Nawab) of Palanpur.
  • - ul-Mamaluk (plural of ul-mulk): - of the kingdoms.

In the great Indian Muslim salute state of Hyderabad, a first rank- vassal of the Mughal padshah (emperor) imitating his lofty Persian court protocol, the word Molk became on itself one of the titles used for ennobled Muslim retainers of the ruling Nizam's court, in fact the third in rank, only below Jah (the highest) and Umara, but above Daula, Jang, Nawab, Khan Bahadur and Khan; for the Nizam's Hindu retainers different titles were used, the equivalent of Molk being Vant.

Usage in South Asia

Pashtun usage

The Arabic term came to be adopted as a term for "tribal chieftain" in Afghanistan and the tribal areas of Pakistan, especially among Pashtuns, for a tribal leader or a chieftain. In tribal Pashtun society the Maliks serve as de facto arbiters in local conflicts, interlocutors in state policy-making, tax-collectors, heads of village and town councils and delegates to provincial and national jirgas as well as to Parliament. Malik is a common surname among every Pashtun family leader to solve the problem at the time of conflict with another family.

Punjabi usage

In the Punjab, "Malik", literally meaning "King" is a title used by some well-reputed specific Punjabi aristocrat bloodlines with special lineage, more formally known as Zamindars. The Actual clan to hold and originate this esteemed title is the Malik-Awan clan which is also associated with different aspects throughout different generations and periods of history, It is believed that they originated as a clan of warriors who later on settled as wealthy landlords. The Malik-Awan clan holds significant historical importance & are considered as royalty among the Punjabi caste system. They are well known for their way of life as well as their martial traditions. war customs and tribal status. The Malik-Awan Clan ranks among the Chief Clans of the Awan Tribe, residing predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Pakistani Punjab. As per historical interpretations the Awan tribe traces its bloodline to a well known Arab Conqueror Sayyed Qutb Shah ibn Ya‘lā, al-Gilani, Who is also a recognized descendant of the fourth caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib.

General usage

Malik or Malek is a common element in first and family names, usually without any aristocratic meaning, However Malik is a large community and a well known clan of the Awan tribe in Pakistan with Arab heritage.

Some Maliks (Urdu: ملک) are also a clan of Hindu Rajput Sikh Rajput and Muslim Rajput, Hindu Jat, Muslim Jat and a few Sikh Jat, found primarily in India and Pakistan. (There also exist Hindu Punjabi Maliks that are part of the Khukhrain or Arora communities but they are entirely different from Jats). The Muslim Malik Jat community is settled all over Pakistan and the Sikh Malik in India. The Malik are also known as the Ghatwala. They are descended from Mann Jats. The Gathwala are now designating themselves as Maliks. Due to popularity of the Malik title many low-tier Punjabi sub-casts such as Gujarati Punjabis, Teli Punjabis and many others have adapted the title to gain acceptance in the Punjabi caste system.

List of notable Maliks

See also

  • Melech (name), a given name of Hebrew origin that means 'king'.
  • Maluku islands, an archipelago in Indonesia whose name is thought to have been derived from the Arab traders' term for the region, Jazirat al-Muluk ('the island of many kings').[8]
  • Minicoy, an island in India that was the ancient capital of Lakshadweepa, whose local name (Maliku) is thought to have been derived from the Arab traders' term for it, Jazirat al-Maliku ('the island of the king').[9]

References

  1. ^ "Meaning and Origin of Malik - FamilyEducation". baby-names.familyeducation.com.
  2. ^ F.Leo Oppenheim - Ancient Mesopotamia
  3. ^ "Molech". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. Retrieved 22 March 2008.
  4. ^ "Search results for "Malik" - Nordic Names Wiki - Name Origin, Meaning and Statistics". www.nordicnames.de.
  5. ^ Bowker, John (2003). "Malka or Malca". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191727221. Retrieved 30 July 2016 – via Oxford Reference.
  6. ^ "Leaders & Heroes". My Site.
  7. ^ "Malik Riaz can help lift Pakistan sports: Saeed Hai", The News International, Karachi, 15 February 2015. Retrieved on 26 February 2015.
  8. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
  9. ^ Lutfy, Mohamed Ibrahim. Thaareekhuge therein Lakshadheebu
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ibn al-Hakam (Arabic: عبد الملك ابن مروان بن الحكم‎, translit. ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam; June/July 646 – 9 October 705) was the fifth Umayyad caliph, ruling from April 685 until his death.

Abd al-Malik belonged to the first generation of born Muslims and his early life in Medina was occupied by pious pursuits. He held various administrative or military posts under his father, the governor of Medina, Marwan I, and Caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680), founder of the Umayyad Caliphate. At the time of Abd al-Malik's accession, Umayyad authority had collapsed as a result of the Second Muslim Civil War and had begun to be reconstituted in Syria and Egypt during the short reign of his father, in 684–685. After a failed invasion of Iraq in 686, Abd al-Malik focused on securing Syria before further attempts to conquer the rest of the caliphate from his principal rival, the Mecca-based, Caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. To that end, he concluded an unfavorable truce with a reinvigorated Byzantine Empire in 689, fended off a coup attempt in Damascus by his kinsman, al-Ashdaq, in the following year and reincorporated the rebellious Qaysi tribes of the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia) into the army in 691. He subsequently conquered Zubayrid Iraq and dispatched his general, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, to Mecca where he killed Ibn al-Zubayr in late 692, thereby unifying the caliphate under Abd al-Malik's suzerainty.

As Abd al-Malik's viceroy in the east, al-Hajjaj firmly established the caliph's authority in Iraq and Khurasan, having stamped out opposition by the Kharijites and the Arab tribal nobility by 702. In the west, Abd al-Malik's brother, Abd al-Aziz, maintained peace and stability in Egypt while Umayyad troops retook Qayrawan, which later served as the launchpad for the conquests of western North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. The caliph's final years were marked by the domestically peaceful and prosperous consolidation of power. The foundations Abd al-Malik established enabled his son and successor, al-Walid I (r. 705–715), who largely maintained his father's policies, and al-Hajjaj, to oversee the Umayyad Caliphate's territorial and economic zenith.

In a significant departure from his predecessors, rule over the caliphate was centralized under Abd al-Malik, following the elimination of his rivals. Gradually, loyalist Arab troops from Syria were tasked with maintaining order in the provinces as dependence on less reliable, localized Arab garrisons receded. In tandem, the traditional military stipends to veterans of the early Muslim conquests and their descendants were abolished, with salaries being restricted to those in active service. The most consequential of Abd al-Malik's reforms were the introduction of a single Islamic currency in place of Byzantine and Sasanian coinage and the establishment of Arabic as the language of the bureaucracy in place of Greek and Persian in Syria and Iraq, respectively. These measures led to renewed war with Byzantium, this time ending in Umayyad advances into Armenia. Conflict with external and domestic Christian forces and rival claimants to Islamic leadership, along with his Muslim upbringing, influenced Abd al-Malik's aforementioned efforts to proscribe a distinctly Islamic character to the Umayyad state. Another manifestation of this initiative was his founding of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which is the earliest known religious structure built by a Muslim ruler and the possessor of the earliest epigraphic proclamations of Islam and the prophet Muhammad.

Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi

Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi (Arabic: عبد الملك بدر الدين الحوثي‎) is a leader of the Zaidi revolution movement Ansar Allah (Houthis). His brothers Yahia Badreddin al-Houthi and Abdul-Karim Badreddin Al-Houthi are also leaders of the group, as was his late brother Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi. Abdul-Malik Houthi is the leading figure in a revolution starting in the Sa'dah province in northern Yemen, which has been continuing from 2004 to the present day. The uprising has been called the Houthi Rebellion due to his leadership. The Zaidi community comprises around half of the population of Yemen, concentrated in the north. In traditional Zaidi religious belief, if there is no clear leader for the Zaidi community, an Imam/Caliph can emerge through armed struggle. Yemen was formerly ruled by a Zaidi Imamah/Caliphate, which ended in 1962.

Adam Malik

For the Malaysian tennis player, see Adam Malik (tennis).Adam Malik Batubara (22 July 1917 – 5 September 1984) was Indonesia's third vice president, a senior diplomat, former foreign minister, and one of the pioneers of Indonesian journalism.

Anu Malik

Anwar Sardar Malik (born 2 November 1960), best known as Anu Malik, is an Indian music director and singer. He is an Indian National Award and Filmfare Award winning music director, who primarily composes music for the Hindi film industry. Known as one of the mega music composers of 90s in India, he is the son of Sardar Malik. Anu Malik made his debut as a music composer in 1980 with the film Hunterwali 77. He is also the only Music Director in Bollywood to win Filmfare Special Award(For the movie Refugee).

As a music director, he has composed music for various genres of films, and has created several commercially successful songs for the Hindi (Bollywood) film music industry. Malik is known for the use of the tabla in his songs, including "Taal Pe Ja"' and "Mere Humsafar" from the film Refugee, "Tumse Milke Dilka Jo Haal" from Main Hoon Na, "Eli Re Eli" from Yaadein and "Baazigar O Baazigar" from the film Baazigar.

In 1993, Malik created the songs for Mahesh Bhatt’s Sir and Phir Teri Kahaani Yaad Aayee, along with music for Baazigar, Main Khiladi Tu Anari (1994) and Akele Hum Akele Tum (1995). Later, his music for Virasat (1997) and Border (1997) and his songs for Indra Kumar's Ishq (1997) were commercially successful. This was followed by the music for Jaanam Samjha Karo (1999), Baadshah (1999), Josh (2000), Refugee (2000), Har Dil Jo Pyaar Karega (2000) and Fiza (2000).

In 2001, Malik gave music in the films like Mujhe Kuch Kehna Hai, Aks, Ajnabee, Yaadein and Aśoka. In 2004, he composed the music for Main Hoon Na (2004), Fida (2004) and Murder (2004). His recent work includes music for Kambakkht Ishq, Shootout at Wadala, Yamla Pagla Deewana and Dum Laga Ke Haisha.Malik had been judging the television show Indian Idol since its inception until October 2018 when he left the show following allegations of sexual harassment.

Armaan Malik

Armaan Malik (born 22 July 1995) is an Indian playback singer and actor. A finalist on Zee Tv's Sa Re Ga Ma Pa L'il Champs, Armaan advanced to eighth place with public votes. He is the brother of composer Amaal Mallik. previously represented by Universal Music India, and now signed on by T-Series. His first on-screen appearance was in the film Kaccha Limboo in the year 2011.

Family of Barack Obama

The family of Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States, and his wife Michelle Obama is made up of people of Kenyan (Luo), African-American, and Old Stock American (including originally English, Scots-Irish, Welsh, German, and Swiss) ancestry. Their immediate family was the First Family of the United States from 2009 to 2017. The Obamas are the first First Family of African-American descent.

Malcolm X

Malcolm X

(1925–1965) was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was a popular figure during the civil rights movement. He is best known for his controversial advocacy for the rights of blacks; some consider him a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans, while others accused him of preaching racism and violence.

Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, he relocated to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in 1943, after spending his teenage years in a series of foster homes following his father's murder and his mother's placement in a mental hospital. In New York, he engaged in several illicit activities, and was sentenced to ten years in prison in 1946 for larceny and breaking and entering. In prison he joined the Nation of Islam‍—‌changing his name to Malcolm X because, he later wrote, Little was the name that "the white slavemaster ... had imposed upon my paternal forebears"‍—‌and quickly became one of its most influential and visible leaders after his parol in 1952.

During the civil rights movement, Malcolm X served as the public face of the controversial group for a dozen years, where he advocated for black supremacy, the separation of black and white Americans, and rejected the notion of the civil rights movement for its emphasis on racial integration. He also expressed pride in some of the Nation's social achievements, particularly its free drug rehabilitation program. In the 1950s he came under surveillance by the Federal Bureau of Investigation because of the Nation's alleged links to communism.

In the 1960s, grew disillusioned with the Nation of Islam, particularly with its leader Elijah Muhammad. Expressing regret about his time with them, which he had come to regard as largely wasted, he instead embraced Sunni Islam. He began to advocate for racial integration and disavowed racism after completing Hajj, after which he became known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz. After a brief period of travel across Africa, he repudiated the Nation of Islam, and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) to emphasize Pan-Africanism.

Throughout 1964, Malcolm X's conflict with the Nation of Islam intensified and he received repeated death threats. On February 21, 1965 he was assassinated by three members of the Nation of Islam as he prepared to deliver an address at the Audubon Ballroom in Manhattan. Conspiracy theories regarding the assassination persist, particularly accusations that Nation of Islam leaders or law enforcement officials were involved.

Hundreds of streets and schools in the United States are named for Malcolm X, and Malcolm X Day is commemorated in many U.S. cities and a number of countries.

Malek Tappeh

Malek Tappeh (Persian: ملك تپه‎, also Romanized as Malek Tappeh; also known as Malik Tappeh and Malik Tepe) is a village in Miyan Darband Rural District, in the Central District of Kermanshah County, Kermanshah Province, Iran.

Malik clan (Gujarat)

The Malik is a community found in the state of Gujarat in India. Many members of the Malik clan that migrated to Pakistan after independence settled in Karachi, Sindh.

Malik ibn Anas

Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist. Born in the city of Medina, Malik rose to become the premier scholar of prophetic traditions in his day, which he sought to apply to "the whole legal life" in order to create a systematic method of Muslim jurisprudence which would only further expand with the passage of time. Referred to as the Imam of Medina by his contemporaries, Malik's views in matters of jurisprudence were highly cherished both in his own life and afterwards, and he became the founder of one of the four orthodox legal schools of Sunni law, the Maliki rite, which became the normative rite for the Sunni practice of much of North Africa, Andalusia, a vast portion of Egypt, and some parts of Syria, Yemen, Sudan, Iraq, and Khorasan, and the standard rite for several prominent orthodox Sufi orders, including the Shadiliyya and the Tijaniyyah.Perhaps Malik's most famous accomplishment in the annals of Islamic history is, however, his compilation of the Muwatta, one of the oldest and most revered Sunni hadith collections and one of "the earliest surviving Muslim law-book[s]," in which Malik attempted to "give a survey of law and justice; ritual and practice of religion according to the consensus of Islam in Medina, according to the sunna usual in Medina; and to create a theoretical standard for matters which were not settled from the point of view of consensus and sunna." Composed in the early days of the Abbasid caliphate, during which time there was a burgeoning "recognition and appreciation of the canon law" of the ruling party, Malik's work aimed to trace out a "smoothed path" (which is what al-muwaṭṭaʾ literally means) through "the farreaching differences of opinion even on the most elementary questions." Hailed as "the soundest book on earth after the Quran" by al-Shafi'i, the compilation of the Muwatta led to Malik being bestowed with such reverential epithets as Shaykh of Islam, Proof of the Community, Imam of the Abode of Emigration, and Knowledgeable Scholar of Medina in later Sunni tradition.According to classical Sunni tradition, the Prophet Muhammad foretold the birth of Malik, saying: "Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of knowledge and they shall find no one more expert than the knowledgable scholar of Medina," and, in another tradition, "The people ... shall set forth from East and West without finding a sage other than the sage of the people in Medina." While some later scholars, such as Ibn Hazm and Tahawi, did cast doubt on identifying the mysterious wise man of both these traditions with Malik, the most widespread interpretation nevertheless continued to be that which held the personage to be Malik. Throughout Islamic history, Malik was venerated as an exemplary figure in all the traditional schools of Sunni thought, both by the exoteric ulema and by the mystics, with the latter often designating him as a saint in their hagiographies. Malik's most notable student, al-Shafi'i, who would himself become the founder of another of the four orthodox legal schools of Sunni law, later said of his teacher: "No one constitutes as great a favor to me in the Religion of God as Malik ... when the scholars of knowledge are mentioned, Malik is the guiding star."

Mike Tyson

Michael Gerard Tyson (born June 30, 1966) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 2005. He reigned as the undisputed world heavyweight champion and holds the record as the youngest boxer to win a heavyweight title at 20 years, four months and 22 days old. Tyson won his first 19 professional fights by knockout or stoppage, 12 of them in the first round. He won the WBC title in 1986 after stopping Trevor Berbick in the second round, and added the WBA and IBF titles after defeating James Smith and Tony Tucker in 1987. This made Tyson the first heavyweight boxer to simultaneously hold the WBA, WBC and IBF titles, and the only heavyweight to successively unify them.

Tyson became the lineal champion in 1988 when he knocked out Michael Spinks in 91 seconds of the first round. He successfully defended his titles nine times, which included victories over Larry Holmes and Frank Bruno. In 1990, Tyson lost the titles to underdog Buster Douglas, who knocked him out in the tenth round. Attempting to regain the titles, Tyson defeated Donovan Ruddock twice in 1991, but pulled out of a fight with then-undisputed heavyweight champion Evander Holyfield (who had defeated Douglas later in 1990) due to a rib injury.

In 1992, Tyson was convicted of rape and sentenced to six years in prison, but was released on parole after serving three years. After his release in 1995, he engaged in a series of comeback fights. He won the WBC and WBA titles in 1996, after stopping Frank Bruno and Bruce Seldon. With his defeat of Bruno, Tyson joined Floyd Patterson, Muhammad Ali, Tim Witherspoon, Evander Holyfield, and George Foreman as the only men in boxing history to have regained a heavyweight championship after having lost it. After being stripped of the WBC title in the same year, Tyson lost the WBA title to Evander Holyfield by an eleventh round stoppage. Their 1997 rematch ended when Tyson was disqualified for biting Holyfield's ears.

In 2002, Tyson fought for the world heavyweight title again at the age of 35, losing by knockout to Lennox Lewis. Tyson retired from professional boxing in 2006, after being knocked out in consecutive matches against Danny Williams and Kevin McBride. Tyson declared bankruptcy in 2003, despite having received over $30 million for several of his fights and $300 million during his career. At the time the media reported that he had approximately $23 million of debt.Tyson was known for his ferocious and intimidating boxing style as well as his controversial behavior inside and outside the ring. Nicknamed "Iron" and "Kid Dynamite" in his early career, and later known as "The Baddest Man on the Planet", Tyson is considered one of the best heavyweights of all time. Tyson holds the third longest unified championship reign in heavyweight history at eight consecutive defenses. He currently ranks No. 15 in BoxRec's ranking of the greatest heavyweight boxers in history. He was ranked No. 16 on The Ring's list of 100 greatest punchers of all time, and No. 1 in the ESPN.com list of "The Hardest Hitters in Heavyweight History". Sky Sports described him as "perhaps the most ferocious fighter to step into a professional ring". He has been inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame and the World Boxing Hall of Fame.

Names of God in Islam

According to a hadith, there are at least 99 Attributes of Allah, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى‎ Beautiful Names of Allah). The names are also called 99 Attributes of Allah.

Nidal Hasan

Nidal Malik Hasan (born September 8, 1970) is an American convicted of fatally shooting 13 people and injuring more than 30 others in the Fort Hood mass shooting on November 5, 2009. Hasan was a United States Army Medical Corps psychiatrist who admitted to the shootings at his court-martial in August 2013. A jury panel of 13 officers convicted him of 13 counts of premeditated murder, 32 counts of attempted murder, and unanimously recommended he be dismissed from the service and sentenced to death. Hasan is incarcerated at the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas awaiting execution.

During the six years that Hasan was an intern and resident at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, colleagues and superiors were concerned about his job performance and comments. Hasan was not married at the time and was being described as socially isolated, stressed by his work with soldiers, and upset about their accounts of warfare. Two days before the shooting, which occurred less than a month before he was due to deploy to Afghanistan, Hasan gave away many of his belongings to a neighbor.Prior to the shooting, Hasan had expressed critical views described by colleagues as "anti-American". An investigation conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) concluded that his e-mails with the late Imam Anwar al-Awlaki were related to his authorized professional research and that he was not a threat. The FBI, Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Senate all conducted investigations after the shootings. The DoD classified the events as "workplace violence", pending prosecution of Hasan in a court-martial. The Senate released a report describing the mass shooting as "the worst terrorist attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001".The decision by the Army not to charge Hasan with terrorism was controversial.

Red Skull

The Red Skull (Johann Schmidt) is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is usually depicted as the archenemy of the superhero Captain America. Portrayed as a Nazi agent, the character was created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, and first appeared in Captain America Comics #7 (October 1941).

The character has been adapted to a variety of other media platforms, including animated television series, video games and live-action feature films. He was portrayed by actor Scott Paulin in the 1990 direct-to-video film Captain America, and then by Hugo Weaving in the 2011 film Captain America: The First Avenger and by Ross Marquand in the 2018 film Avengers: Infinity War, the latter two both set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

The Red Skull was ranked number 21 on Wizard magazine's Top 100 Greatest Villains Ever list and ranked as IGN's 14th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.

Shoaib Malik

Shoaib Malik (born 1 February 1982) is a Pakistani cricketer and former captain of the Pakistani side from 2007 to 2009. He learnt cricket from Mr Bhanu Prakash. He is an occasional captain of Pakistan national cricket team He made his One-Day International debut in 1999 against the West Indies and his Test debut in 2001 against Bangladesh. On 3 November 2015, he announced his retirement from Test cricket to focus on 2019 Cricket World Cup. On 2 July 2018, he became the first male cricketer to play 100 T20Is.Shoaib Malik has taken over 150 ODI wickets, and has a batting average in the mid 30s in both Test and ODI cricket. His bowling action has come under scrutiny (particularly his doosra) but he has had elbow surgery to correct this. Malik was ranked second, behind teammate Shahid Afridi, in the ICC ODI all-rounder rankings in June 2008. In March 2010, Malik received a one-year ban from international cricket from the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB); the ban was overturned two months later. On 13 September 2017, Malik became the highest run–scorer in T20I for Pakistan. On 1 July 2018, Malik also became the first Asian batsman to score 2,000 runs in T20Is, and third overall and first player to play 100 T20Is in the world.

In August 2018, during the 2018 Caribbean Premier League tournament, he became the fourth batsman to score 8,000 runs in T20s.

Slumdog Millionaire

Slumdog Millionaire is a 2008 British drama film that is a loose adaptation of the novel Q & A (2005) by Indian author Vikas Swarup, telling the story of Jamal Malik, age 18, from the Juhu slums of Mumbai. Starring Dev Patel as Jamal, and filmed in India, the film was directed by Danny Boyle, written by Simon Beaufoy, and produced by Christian Colson, with Loveleen Tandan credited as co-director.As a contestant on the Indian version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Jamal Malik surprises everyone by being able to answer every question correctly. Accused of cheating, Jamal recounts his life story to the police, illustrating how he is able to answer each question correctly.

After its world premiere at the Telluride Film Festival and later screenings at the Toronto International Film Festival and the London Film Festival, Slumdog Millionaire had a nationwide release in the United Kingdom on 9 January 2009, in India on 22 January 2009, and in the United States on 23 January 2009.Regarded as a sleeper hit, Slumdog Millionaire was widely acclaimed, being praised for its plot, soundtrack, direction, and performances, especially Patel's. It was nominated for ten Academy Awards in 2009 and won eight—the most for any 2008 film—including Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Adapted Screenplay. It won seven BAFTA Awards including Best Film, five Critics' Choice Awards and four Golden Globes. However it was also the subject of controversy, especially in India, due to its portrayal of Indian society, the use of the word "slumdog" in the title and the exploitation of some of the younger actors.

Veena Malik

Veena Malik (born Zahida Malik) is a Pakistani actress, TV host, reality television personality and model who has appeared in Lollywood and Bollywood films. Malik made her film debut in 2000 with Sajjad Gul's Tere Pyar Mein.In 2002, she starred in Akbar Khan's Yeh Dil Aap Ka Huwa and Sassi Punno and later played roles in female-centric films such as Koi Tujh Sa Kahan (2005), Mohabbatan Sachiyan (2007), Kyun Tum Se Itna Pyar Hai (2005), Kabhi Pyar Na Karna (2008) and Ishq Be Parwah (2008). In 2012, she was seen in Bollywood with a comedy film Daal Mein Kuch Kaala Hai. The following year, she appeared in the comedy-drama Zindagi 50-50, Supermodel and the Kannada film Dirty Picture: Silk Sakkath Maga which was a box office hit. She also appeared in 2014 horror film Mumbai 125 KM 3D. She was a contestant on Bigg Boss in 2010.

Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai

Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai (lit. What is this relationship called?) is a Hindi-Language television drama airing on weekdays on Star Plus. It premiered on 12 January 2009 and is one of the longest running Indian television series. The show is produced by Rajan Shahi under the banner Director's Kut Productions. It starred Hina Khan and Karan Mehra, and 2016 onward, features Shivangi Joshi and Mohsin Khan in lead roles. In March 2019, the series led to the creation of a spin-off titled "Yeh Rishtey Hain Pyaar Ke", starring Rhea Sharma and Shaheer Sheikh.

Zayn Malik

Zain Javadd "Zayn" Malik (; born 12 January 1993), known mononymously as Zayn, is an English singer and songwriter. Born and raised in Bradford, West Yorkshire, Malik auditioned as a solo contestant for the British music competition The X Factor in 2010. After being eliminated as a solo performer, Malik was brought back into the competition, along with four other contestants, to form the boy band that would become known as One Direction. Malik left the group in March 2015 and subsequently signed a solo recording contract with RCA Records.

Adopting a more alternative R&B music style with his debut studio album Mind of Mine (2016) and its lead single, "Pillowtalk", Malik became the first British male artist to debut at number one in both the UK and US with a debut single and debut album. Malik is the recipient of several accolades, including an American Music Award, Billboard Music Award and MTV Video Music Award. In December 2018, he released his second studio album, Icarus Falls.

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