Mali

Coordinates: 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W

Republic of Mali

Motto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French)
"One people, one goal, one faith"
Anthem: "Le Mali" (French)[1]
Location of  Mali  (green)
Location of  Mali  (green)
Location of Mali
Capital
and largest city
Bamako
12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.650°N 8.000°W
Official languagesFrench
Lingua francaBambara
National languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Malian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta
Soumeylou Boubèye Maïga
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
• from Francea
20 June 1960
• as Mali
22 September 1960
Area
• Total
1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi) (23rd)
• Water (%)
1.6
Population
• November 2018 census
19,329,841[2] (67th)
• Density
11.7/km2 (30.3/sq mi) (215th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$44.329 billion[3]
• Per capita
$2,271[3]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$17.407 billion[3]
• Per capita
$891[3]
Gini (2010)33.0[4]
medium
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.427[5]
low · 182th
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
Driving sideright[6]
Calling code+223
ISO 3166 codeML
Internet TLD.ml

Mali (/ˈmɑːli/ (listen); French pronunciation: ​[mali]), officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million.[7] Its capital is Bamako. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and mining. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent,[8] and salt.[9]

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art.[10][11] At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa.[12] In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.

In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad.[13] The conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March[14] and later fighting between Tuareg and rebels. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013.[15] A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.

Etymology

The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire. The name was originally derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning "hippopotamus", but it eventually came to mean "the place where the king lives".[16] The word carries the connotation of strength.[17]

Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali (1965) that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali.[18] One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, and that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name. This name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali, there is one village called Malika which means "New Mali."[19]

Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples.[20][21] It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus "Manden" shifts to /Mali/.[19]

History

MALI empire map
The extent of the Mali Empire's peak
Timbuktu-manuscripts-astronomy-mathematics
The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
GriotsSambala
Griots of Sambala, king of Médina (Fula people, Mali), 1890

Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commodities.[22] These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities.[22] The earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire, which was dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people.[22] The empire expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids.[23]

The Mali Empire later formed on the upper Niger River, and reached the height of power in the 14th century.[23] Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning.[23] The empire later declined as a result of internal intrigue, ultimately being supplanted by the Songhai Empire.[23] The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria. The Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule.[23]

In the late 14th century, the Songhai gradually gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded, ultimately subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali Empire.[23] The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was largely the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha.[23] The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads.[23] Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance.[23]

One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in the 18th century. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the Upper Nile and 'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a sustenance', and especially in 1738–1756, when West Africa's greatest recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts, reportedly killed half the population of Timbuktu."[24]

French colonial rule

Africa. French West Africa. Currently the most important efforts of the Office du Niger are directed toward the... - NARA - 541637
Cotton being processed in Niono into 180 kg (400 lb) bales for export to other parts of Africa and to France, c. 1950

Mali fell under the control of France during the late 19th century.[23] By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan.[23] In early 1959, French Sudan (which changed its name to the Sudanese Republic) and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation. The Mali Federation gained independence from France on 20 June 1960.[23]

Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanese Republic to become the independent Republic of Mali on 22 September 1960, and that date is now the country's Independence Day.[25] Modibo Keïta was elected the first president.[23] Keïta quickly established a one-party state, adopted an independent African and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and implemented extensive nationalization of economic resources.[23] In 1960, the population of Mali was reported to be about 4.1 million.[26]

Moussa Traoré

On 19 November 1968, following progressive economic decline, the Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by Moussa Traoré,[27] a day which is now commemorated as Liberation Day.[28] The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president, attempted to reform the economy. His efforts were frustrated by political turmoil and a devastating drought between 1968 and 1974,[27] in which famine killed thousands of people.[29] The Traoré regime faced student unrest beginning in the late 1970s and three coup attempts. The Traoré regime repressed all dissenters until the late 1980s.[27]

The government continued to attempt economic reforms, and the populace became increasingly dissatisfied.[27] In response to growing demands for multi-party democracy, the Traoré regime allowed some limited political liberalization. They refused to usher in a full-fledged democratic system.[27] In 1990, cohesive opposition movements began to emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise of ethnic violence in the north following the return of many Tuaregs to Mali.[27]

Place de la liberté - Bamako
WWI Commemorative Monument to the "Armée Noire"

Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution.[27] Opposition to the corrupt and dictatorial regime of General Moussa Traoré grew during the 1980s. During this time strict programs, imposed to satisfy demands of the International Monetary Fund, brought increased hardship upon the country's population, while elites close to the government supposedly lived in growing wealth. Peaceful student protests in January 1991 were brutally suppressed, with mass arrests and torture of leaders and participants.[30] Scattered acts of rioting and vandalism of public buildings followed, but most actions by the dissidents remained nonviolent.[30]

March Revolution

From 22 March through 26 March 1991, mass pro-democracy rallies and a nationwide strike was held in both urban and rural communities, which became known as les évenements ("the events") or the March Revolution. In Bamako, in response to mass demonstrations organized by university students and later joined by trade unionists and others, soldiers opened fire indiscriminately on the nonviolent demonstrators. Riots broke out briefly following the shootings. Barricades as well as roadblocks were erected and Traoré declared a state of emergency and imposed a nightly curfew. Despite an estimated loss of 300 lives over the course of four days, nonviolent protesters continued to return to Bamako each day demanding the resignation of the dictatorial president and the implementation of democratic policies.[31]

26 March 1991 is the day that marks the clash between military soldiers and peaceful demonstrating students which climaxed in the massacre of dozens under the orders of then President Moussa Traoré. He and three associates were later tried and convicted and received the death sentence for their part in the decision-making of that day. Nowadays, the day is a national holiday in order to remember the tragic events and the people that were killed.[32] The coup is remembered as Mali's March Revolution of 1991.

By 26 March, the growing refusal of soldiers to fire into the largely nonviolent protesting crowds turned into a full-scale tumult, and resulted in thousands of soldiers putting down their arms and joining the pro-democracy movement. That afternoon, Lieutenant Colonel Amadou Toumani Touré announced on the radio that he had arrested the dictatorial president, Moussa Traoré. As a consequence, opposition parties were legalized and a national congress of civil and political groups met to draft a new democratic constitution to be approved by a national referendum.[31]

Amadou Toumani Touré presidency

In 1992, Alpha Oumar Konaré won Mali's first democratic, multi-party presidential election, before being re-elected for a second term in 1997, which was the last allowed under the constitution. In 2002 Amadou Toumani Touré, a retired general who had been the leader of the military aspect of the 1991 democratic uprising, was elected.[33] During this democratic period Mali was regarded as one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa.[34]

Slavery persists in Mali today with as many as 200,000 people held in direct servitude to a master.[35] In the Tuareg Rebellion of 2012, ex-slaves were a vulnerable population with reports of some slaves being recaptured by their former masters.[36]

Northern Mali conflict

Le Mali confronté aux sanctions et à lavancée des rebelles islamistes (6904946068)
Tuareg separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012

In January 2012 a Tuareg rebellion began in Northern Mali, led by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA).[37] In March, military officer Amadou Sanogo seized power in a coup d'état, citing Touré's failures in quelling the rebellion, and leading to sanctions and an embargo by the Economic Community of West African States.[38] The MNLA quickly took control of the north, declaring independence as Azawad.[39] However, Islamist groups including Ansar Dine and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), who had helped the MNLA defeat the government, turned on the Tuareg and took control of the North[40] with the goal of implementing sharia in Mali.[41][42]

On 11 January 2013, the French Armed Forces intervened at the request of the interim government. On 30 January, the coordinated advance of the French and Malian troops claimed to have retaken the last remaining Islamist stronghold of Kidal, which was also the last of three northern provincial capitals.[43] On 2 February, the French President, François Hollande, joined Mali's interim President, Dioncounda Traoré, in a public appearance in recently recaptured Timbuktu.[44]

Geography

Mali sat
Satellite image of Mali
Mali map of Köppen climate classification
Mali map of Köppen climate classification
Hand der Fatima
Landscape in Hombori

Mali is a landlocked country in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria. It lies between latitudes 10° and 25°N, and longitudes 13°W and 5°E. Mali borders Algeria to the north-northeast, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast to the south, Guinea to the southwest, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west.

At 1,242,248 square kilometres (479,635 sq mi), Mali is the world's 24th-largest country and is comparable in size to South Africa or Angola. Most of the country lies in the southern Sahara Desert, which produces an extremely hot, dust-laden Sudanian savanna zone.[45] Mali is mostly flat, rising to rolling northern plains covered by sand. The Adrar des Ifoghas massif lies in the northeast.

Mali lies in the torrid zone and is among the hottest countries in the world. The thermal equator, which matches the hottest spots year-round on the planet based on the mean daily annual temperature, crosses the country.[45] Most of Mali receives negligible rainfall and droughts are very frequent.[45] Late June to early December is the rainy season in the southernmost area. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common, creating the Inner Niger Delta.[45] The vast northern desert part of Mali has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification (BWh) with long, extremely hot summers and scarce rainfall which decreases northwards. The central area has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification (BSh) with very high temperatures year-round, a long, intense dry season and a brief, irregular rainy season. The little southern band possesses a tropical wet and dry climate. (Köppen climate classification (AW) In review, Mali's climate is subtropical to arid, with February to June being the hot, dry season. June to November is rainy, humid and mild. November to February is the cool, dry season.

Mali has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited. Mali is estimated to have in excess of 17,400 tonnes of uranium (measured + indicated + inferred).[46][47] In 2012, a further uranium mineralized north zone was identified.[48] Mali faces numerous environmental challenges, including desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate supplies of potable water.[45]

Regions and cercles

Since 2016, Mali has been divided into ten regions and the District of Bamako.[49] Each region has a governor.[50] The implementation of the two newest regions, Taoudénit (formerly part of Tombouctou Region) and Ménaka (formerly Ménaka Cercle in Gao Region), has been ongoing since January 2016;[51][52] a governor and transitional council has been appointed for both regions.[53] The ten regions in turn are subdivided into 56 cercles and 703 communes.[54]

The régions and Capital District are:

Region name Area (km2) Population
Census 1998
Population
Census 2009
Kayes 119,743 1,374,316 1,996,812
Koulikoro 95,848 1,570,507 2,418,305
Bamako
Capital District
252 1,016,296 1,809,106
Sikasso 70,280 1,782,157 2,625,919
Ségou 64,821 1,675,357 2,336,255
Mopti 79,017 1,484,601 2,037,330
Tombouctou
(Timbuktu)
496,611 442,619 681,691
Gao 89,532 341,542 544,120
Kidal 151,430 38,774 67,638
Taoudénit
Ménaka 81,040

Extent of central government control

In March 2012, the Malian government lost control over Tombouctou, Gao and Kidal Regions and the north-eastern portion of Mopti Region. On 6 April 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad unilaterally declared their secession from Mali as Azawad, an act that neither Mali nor the international community recognised.[55] The government later regained control over these areas.

Politics and government

Dioncounda Traore photo officielle de campagne 3 Mali 2012
Ex-Malian Transition President Dioncounda Traoré

Until the military coup of 22 March 2012[14][56] and a second military coup in December 2012,[57] Mali was a constitutional democracy governed by the Constitution of 12 January 1992, which was amended in 1999.[58] The constitution provides for a separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.[58] The system of government can be described as "semi-presidential".[58] Executive power is vested in a president, who is elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage and is limited to two terms.[58][59]

The president serves as a chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces.[58][60] A prime minister appointed by the president serves as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of Ministers.[58][61] The unicameral National Assembly is Mali's sole legislative body, consisting of deputies elected to five-year terms.[62][63] Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly.[64] The assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the government.[62][65]

Mali's constitution provides for an independent judiciary,[62][66] but the executive continues to exercise influence over the judiciary by virtue of power to appoint judges and oversee both judicial functions and law enforcement.[62] Mali's highest courts are the Supreme Court, which has both judicial and administrative powers, and a separate Constitutional Court that provides judicial review of legislative acts and serves as an election arbiter.[62][67] Various lower courts exist, though village chiefs and elders resolve most local disputes in rural areas.[62]

Foreign relations

Rutte and Touré
Former President of Mali Amadou Toumani Touré and Minister-president of the Netherlands Mark Rutte

Mali's foreign policy orientation has become increasingly pragmatic and pro-Western over time.[68] Since the institution of a democratic form of government in 2002, Mali's relations with the West in general and with the United States in particular have improved significantly.[68] Mali has a longstanding yet ambivalent relationship with France, a former colonial ruler.[68] Mali was active in regional organizations such as the African Union until its suspension over the 2012 Malian coup d'état.[68][69]

Working to control and resolve regional conflicts, such as in Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, is one of Mali's major foreign policy goals.[68] Mali feels threatened by the potential for the spillover of conflicts in neighboring states, and relations with those neighbors are often uneasy.[68] General insecurity along borders in the north, including cross-border banditry and terrorism, remain troubling issues in regional relations.[68]

In early 2019, Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for an attack on a United Nations base in Mali that killed 10 peacekeepers from Chad. 25 people were reported to have been injured in the attack. Al Qaeda's stated reason for the attack was Chad's re-establishing diplomatic ties with Israel. The base was attacked in Anguelhok, a village located in an especially unstable region of the country.[68][70]

Military

Mali's military forces consist of an army, which includes land forces and air force,[71] as well as the paramilitary Gendarmerie and Republican Guard, all of which are under the control of Mali's Ministry of Defense and Veterans, headed by a civilian.[72] The military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization.[72]

Economy

Djenne market
A market scene in Djenné
Kalabougou potters (6392346)
Kalabougou potters
Usine de coton CMDT
Cotton processing at CMDT

The Central Bank of West African States handles the financial affairs of Mali and additional members of the Economic Community of West African States. Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world.[71] The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500.[73]

Mali underwent economic reform, beginning in 1988 by signing agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.[73] During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed public enterprises. Since the agreement, sixteen enterprises were privatized, 12 partially privatized, and 20 liquidated.[73] In 2005, the Malian government conceded a railroad company to the Savage Corporation.[73] Two major companies, Societé de Telecommunications du Mali (SOTELMA) and the Cotton Ginning Company (CMDT), were expected to be privatized in 2008.[73]

Between 1992 and 1995, Mali implemented an economic adjustment programme that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in financial imbalances. The programme increased social and economic conditions, and led to Mali joining the World Trade Organization on 31 May 1995.[74]

Mali is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[75] The gross domestic product (GDP) has risen since. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3.4 billion,[76] and increased to US$5.8 billion in 2005,[73] which amounts to an approximately 17.6 percent annual growth rate.

Mali is a part of the "Franc Zone" (Zone Franc), which means that it uses the CFA franc. Mali is connected with the French government by agreement since 1962 (creation of BCEAO). Today all seven countries of BCEAO (including Mali) are connected to French Central Bank.[77]

Agriculture

Mali's key industry is agriculture. Cotton is the country's largest crop export and is exported west throughout Senegal and Ivory Coast.[78][79] During 2002, 620,000 tons of cotton were produced in Mali but cotton prices declined significantly in 2003.[78][79] In addition to cotton, Mali produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops. Gold, livestock and agriculture amount to 80% of Mali's exports.[73]

Eighty percent of Malian workers are employed in agriculture. 15 percent of Malian workers are employed in the service sector.[79] Seasonal variations lead to regular temporary unemployment of agricultural workers.[80]

Mining

In 1991, with the assistance of the International Development Association, Mali relaxed the enforcement of mining codes which led to renewed foreign interest and investment in the mining industry.[81] Gold is mined in the southern region and Mali has the third highest gold production in Africa (after South Africa and Ghana).[78]

The emergence of gold as Mali's leading export product since 1999 has helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Ivory Coast crises.[82] Other natural resources include kaolin, salt, phosphate, and limestone.[73]

Energy

Electricity and water are maintained by the Energie du Mali, or EDM, and textiles are generated by Industry Textile du Mali, or ITEMA.[73] Mali has made efficient use of hydroelectricity, consisting of over half of Mali's electrical power. In 2002, 700 GWh of hydroelectric power were produced in Mali.[79]

Energie du Mali is an electric company that provides electricity to Mali citizens. Only 55% of the population in cities have access to EDM.[83]

Transport infrastructure

In Mali, there is a railway that connects to bordering countries. There are also approximately 29 airports of which 8 have paved runways. Urban areas are known for their large quantity of green and white taxicabs. A significant sum of the population is dependent on public transportation.

Society

Demographics

Mali - Bozo girl in Bamako
A Bozo girl in Bamako
Population in Mali[7]
Year Million
1950 4.7
2000 11
2016 18

In 2016, Mali's population was an estimated 18 million[7]. The population is predominantly rural (68 percent in 2002), and 5–10 percent of Malians are nomadic.[84] More than 90 percent of the population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in Bamako, which has over 1 million residents.[84]

In 2007, about 48 percent of Malians were younger than 12 years old, 49 percent were 15–64 years old, and 3 percent were 65 and older.[71] The median age was 15.9 years.[71] The birth rate in 2014 is 45.53 births per 1,000, and the total fertility rate (in 2012) was 6.4 children per woman.[71][85] The death rate in 2007 was 16.5 deaths per 1,000.[71] Life expectancy at birth was 53.06 years total (51.43 for males and 54.73 for females).[71] Mali has one of the world's highest rates of infant mortality,[84] with 106 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007.[71]

Ethnicity

Mali1974-151 hg
The Tuareg are historic, nomadic inhabitants of northern Mali.

Mali's population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups. The Bambara (Bambara: Bamanankaw) are by far the largest single ethnic group, making up 36.5 percent of the population.[84]

Collectively, the Bambara, Soninké, Khassonké, and Malinké (also called Mandinka), all part of the broader Mandé group, constitute 50 percent of Mali's population.[71] Other significant groups are the Fula (French: Peul; Fula: Fulɓe) (17 percent), Voltaic (12 percent), Songhai (6 percent), and Tuareg and Moor (10 percent).[71] In Mali as well as Niger, the Moors are also known as Azawagh Arabs, named after the Azawagh region of the Sahara. They speak mainly Hassaniya Arabic which is one of the regional varieties of Arabic.[87] Personal names reflect Mali's complex regional identities.[88]

In the far north, there is a division between Berber-descendent Tuareg nomad populations and the darker-skinned Bella or Tamasheq people, due to the historical spread of slavery in the region.

An estimated 800,000 people in Mali are descended from slaves.[35] Slavery in Mali has persisted for centuries.[89]

The Arabic population kept slaves well into the 20th century, until slavery was suppressed by French authorities around the mid-20th century. There still persist certain hereditary servitude relationships,[90][91] and according to some estimates, even today approximately 200,000 Malians are still enslaved.[92]

Mixed European/African descendants of Muslims of Spanish, as well some French, Irish, Italian and Portuguese origins live in Mali, they are known as the Arma people (1% of the nation's population).[93]

Although Mali has enjoyed a reasonably good inter-ethnic relationships based on the long history of coexistence, some hereditary servitude and bondage relationship exist, as well as ethnic tension between settled Songhai and nomadic Tuaregs of the north.[84] Due to a backlash against the northern population after independence, Mali is now in a situation where both groups complain about discrimination on the part of the other group.[94] This conflict also plays a role in the continuing Northern Mali conflict where there is a tension between both Tuaregs and the Malian government, and the Tuaregs and radical Islamists who are trying to establish sharia law.[95]

Languages

Mali's official language is French and over 40 African languages also are spoken by the various ethnic groups.[84] About 80 percent of Mali's population can communicate in Bambara, which serves as an important lingua franca.[84]

Mali has 12 national languages beside French and Bambara, namely Bomu, Tieyaxo Bozo, Toro So Dogon, Maasina Fulfulde, Hassaniya Arabic, Mamara Senoufo, Kita Maninkakan, Soninke, Koyraboro Senni, Syenara Senoufo, Tamasheq and Xaasongaxango. Each is spoken as a first language primarily by the ethnic group with which it is associated.

Religion

Mosque entrance (6862566)
A mosque entrance

Islam was introduced to West Africa in the 11th century and remains the predominant religion in much of the region. An estimated 90 percent of Malians are Muslim (mostly Sunni,[97]), approximately 5 percent are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant) and the remaining 5 percent adhere to indigenous or traditional animist beliefs.[96] Atheism and agnosticism are believed to be rare among Malians, most of whom practice their religion on a daily basis.[98]

The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right.[98]

Islam as historically practiced in Mali has been malleable and adapted to local conditions; relations between Muslims and practitioners of minority religious faiths have generally been amicable.[98] After the 2012 imposition of sharia rule in northern parts of the country, however, Mali came to be listed high (number 7) in the Christian persecution index published by Open Doors, which described the persecution in the north as severe.[99][100]

Education

Lycéens kati
High school students in Kati

Public education in Mali is in principle provided free of charge and is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and sixteen.[98] The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age 7, followed by six years of secondary education.[98] Mali's actual primary school enrollment rate is low, in large part because families are unable to cover the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and other fees required to attend.[98]

In the 2000–01 school year, the primary school enrollment rate was 61 percent (71 percent of males and 51 percent of females). In the late 1990s, the secondary school enrollment rate was 15 percent (20 percent of males and 10 percent of females).[98] The education system is plagued by a lack of schools in rural areas, as well as shortages of teachers and materials.[98]

Estimates of literacy rates in Mali range from 27–30 to 46.4 percent, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than men.[98] The University of Bamako, which includes four constituent universities, is the largest university in the country and enrolls approximately 60,000 undergraduate and graduate students.[101]

Health

Mali faces numerous health challenges related to poverty, malnutrition, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation.[98] Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world.[98] Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 53.06 years in 2012.[102] In 2000, 62–65 percent of the population was estimated to have access to safe drinking water and only 69 percent to sanitation services of some kind.[98] In 2001, the general government expenditures on health totalled about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate.[103]

Efforts have been made to improve nutrition, and reduce associated health problems, by encouraging women to make nutritious versions of local recipes. For example, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the Aga Khan Foundation, trained women's groups to make equinut, a healthy and nutritional version of the traditional recipe di-dèguè (comprising peanut paste, honey and millet or rice flour). The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage.[104]

Village Telly in Mali
Village in the Sahel region

Medical facilities in Mali are very limited, and medicines are in short supply.[103] Malaria and other arthropod-borne diseases are prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis.[103] Mali's population also suffers from a high rate of child malnutrition and a low rate of immunization.[103] An estimated 1.9 percent of the adult and children population was afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.[103] An estimated 85–91 percent of Mali's girls and women have had female genital mutilation (2006 and 2001 data).[105][106]

Gender equality

In 2017, Mali ranked 157th out of 160 countries in the gender inequality index as reported by the United Nations development Programme.[107] The Malian Constitution states that it protects women’s rights, however many laws exists that discriminate against women.[108] Provisions in the laws limit women's decision-making power after marriage, in which the husband becomes superior to his wife.[108] Women are blamed for not maintaining the appearance of their husbands and are also blamed for the actions of their children if they misbehave, which encourages the cultural attitude that women are inferior to men.[108] The lack of participation of women in politics is due to the idea that politics is associated with men and that women should avoid this sector.[108] Girls' education is also an area in which boys dominate, since it is a better investment for the parents.[108] As traditional values and practices have contributed to gender inequality in Mali, conflict and lawlessness have also influenced the growing gap in gender through gender-based violence.[109] The unstable government of Mali has led to organizations like USAID attempting to improve the lives of the people, mainly women and girls' rights in order to re-engage the development of the country.[109]

Social factors

Religion, the patriarchal social system, and gender-based violence are the social factors that shape women in Mali.[110] These factors serve as the norm for gender relations, but are also the cause for inequalities and strengthen male domination within the household.[110] Majority of the population is Muslim and it is reinforced that males dominate the household.[111] Traditional roles of men and women are emphasized in which the man is the head of the household and women have to meet to the needs and demands of men.[111] So girls at a young age are shown and to learn household activities like chores, cooking, childcare, etc. as that is the final duty of a women to become a housewife and rear her children while the men provide for the family.[111] In the patriarchal social system, men are considered the authority and women are subject to obey and respect men.[110] The primary roles of women are that of wife and mother, so childcare house chores, meal preparation, and a discrete life is required of a Malian women.[110] This means that women, in some cases, are subject to a double burden due to having professional and family obligations that does not apply to men.[110] This inequality toward women then leads to the lack of education of girls in a household because boys are the priority and their education is necessary in comparison to the girls who will eventually marry and join their husband's family.[110] Gender-based violence in Mali happens at the national and household level. At the national level, in 2012 the conflict in the Northern part of the country increased cases of kidnappings and rape toward women.[109] The conflict impacted gender and social system, and reduced women's access to resources, economy, and opportunities.[109] The areas of impact then influence the negative score of Mali in relation to gender equality.[109] At the household level, Malian women face gender-based violence through domestic violence, forced marriages, marital rape, and cultural practices in the family.[108] The Demographic Health Survey for Mali in 2013 stated that 76% of women and 54% of men believed physical harm towards women was acceptable if the women burnt food, argues back, goes out without notifying her husband, the children are not tended to or refuses sexual relations with her husband.[109]

Area of opportunity

The lack of education has increased gender inequality in Mali because not many women are working outside the household are even participating in the Public Administration sector.[110] After adjusting the entrance requirements and access to education, girls still have lower enrollment rates and less access to formal education.[110] Drop-out rates for girls are 15% higher than that of boys because they have a higher responsibility at home and most parents refuse to allow all their children to go to school, so boys tend to become educated.[110] Similarly, technical and vocational education has a lower numbers of girls participating and are inadequately distributed in the country because the training centers are focused in the urban cities.[110] Finally, higher education for girls consist of short programs because early marriages prevent most girls from pursuing a longer term education program like those in science.[110] Although women do not have the same access of education, in recent decades women have been entering and representing in decision-making positions in the Public Administration sector.[110] Members of Parliament, 15 were women in 2010 out of 147 members.[110] Recent decades show that women are slowly joining important decision-making positions which is changing the attitude and status if women in Mali, which has led to the promotion of women's right in the political sphere.[110]

Efforts

Legislation at the international and national levels have been implemented over the decades to help promote women's rights in Mali.[110] At the international, Mali signed the Beijing Platform for Action which suggest that women should participate in decision-making and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women which is the foundation to women's rights promotion.[110] At the national level, Mali's Constitution has the Decree No. 092-073P-CTSP that claims equality to all Malian citizens and discrimination is prohibited, which has not been followed.[110] The Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme (PRSP) and the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme under the Malian Government seek to improve the well-being of the citizens, and changes to governance and gender in the country.[110] The Ministry for Advancement of Women, Children and the Family was created specifically for women and children so that their basics rights and needs get met under the law.[110] Although there exists legislation and policy for gender equality the institutionalization of the National Gender Policy of Mali is necessary to support the importance of women's rights.[110] Strengthening and the support of girls' and women's access to education and training is recommended to improve gender equality in Mali.[110] The involvement of international organizations like USAID assist Mali financially to enhance their development through the efforts of the improvement of women's rights.[109]

Culture

Konoguel Mosque tower (6439210)
Konoguel Mosque tower

The varied everyday culture of Malians reflects the country's ethnic and geographic diversity.[112] Most Malians wear flowing, colorful robes called boubous that are typical of West Africa. Malians frequently participate in traditional festivals, dances, and ceremonies.[112]

Music

Malian musical traditions are derived from the griots, who are known as "Keepers of Memories".[113] Malian music is diverse and has several different genres. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora virtuoso musician Toumani Diabaté, the ngoni with Bassekou Kouyate the virtuoso of the electric jeli ngoni, the late roots and blues guitarist Ali Farka Touré, the Tuareg band Tinariwen, and several Afro-pop artists such as Salif Keita, the duo Amadou et Mariam, Oumou Sangare, Rokia Traore, and Habib Koité. Dance also plays a large role in Malian culture.[114] Dance parties are common events among friends, and traditional mask dances are performed at ceremonial events.[114]

Literature

Though Mali's literature is less famous than its music,[115] Mali has always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers.[116] Mali's literary tradition is passed mainly by word of mouth, with jalis reciting or singing histories and stories known by heart.[116][117] Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Mali's best-known historian, spent much of his life writing these oral traditions down for the world to remember.[117]

The best-known novel by a Malian writer is Yambo Ouologuem's Le devoir de violence, which won the 1968 Prix Renaudot but whose legacy was marred by accusations of plagiarism.[116][117] Other well-known Malian writers include Baba Traoré, Modibo Sounkalo Keita, Massa Makan Diabaté, Moussa Konaté, and Fily Dabo Sissoko.[116][117]

Sport

Mali football
Malian children playing football in a Dogon village

The most popular sport in Mali is Association Football (Soccer),[118][119] which became more prominent after Mali hosted the 2002 African Cup of Nations.[118][120] Most towns and cities have regular games;[120] the most popular teams nationally are Djoliba AC, Stade Malien, and Real Bamako, all based in the capital.[119] Informal games are often played by youths using a bundle of rags as a ball.[119]

Basketball is another major sport;[119][121] the Mali women's national basketball team, led by Hamchetou Maiga, competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[122] Traditional wrestling (la lutte) is also somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years.[120] The game wari, a mancala variant, is a common pastime.[119]

Cuisine

Malian Tea2
Malian tea

Rice and millet are the staples of Malian cuisine, which is heavily based on cereal grains.[123][124] Grains are generally prepared with sauces made from edible leaves, such as spinach or baobab, with tomato peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat (typically chicken, mutton, beef, or goat).[123][124] Malian cuisine varies regionally.[123][124] Other popular dishes include fufu, jollof rice, and maafe.

Media

In Mali, there are several newspapers such as Les Echos, L'Essor, Info Matin, Nouvel Horizon, and Le Républicain.[125] The Telecommunications in Mali include 869,600 mobile phones, 45,000 televisions and 414,985 Internet users.[126]

See also

References

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Bibliography

External links

Trade
Bamako

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 2,009,109. In 2006, it was estimated to be the fastest-growing city in Africa and sixth-fastest in the world. It is located on the Niger River, near the rapids that divide the upper and middle Niger valleys in the southwestern part of the country.

Bamako is the nation's administrative centre. The city proper is a cercle in its own right. Bamako's river port is located in nearby Koulikoro, along with a major regional trade and conference center. Bamako is the seventh-largest West African urban center after Lagos, Abidjan, Kano, Ibadan, Dakar, and Accra. Locally manufactured goods include textiles, processed meat, and metal goods. Commercial fishing occurs on the Niger River.

The name Bamako (Bàmakɔ̌ in Bambara) comes from the Bambara word meaning "crocodile tail".

Cercles of Mali

A cercle is the second level administrative unit in Mali. Mali is divided into eight régions and one capital district (Bamako); the régions are subdivided into 49 cercles. These subdivisions bear the name of their principal city.

During French colonial rule in Mali, a cercle was the smallest unit of French political administration that was headed by a European officer. A cercle consisted of several cantons, each of which in turn consisted of several villages. In 1887 the Cercle of Bafoulabé was the first cercle to be created in Mali. In most of former French West Africa, the term cercle was changed to Prefecture or Department after independence, but this was not done in Mali.

Some cercles (and the district) were, prior to the 1999 local government reorganisation, further divided into Arrondissements, especially in urban areas or the vast northern regions (such as Kidal), which consisted of a collection of Communes. Since these reforms, cercles are now directly subdivided into rural and urban communes, which in turn are divided in Quartiers (Quarters, or Villages and encampments in rural areas) which have elected councils at each level. There are 703 communes, 36 urban communes (including 6 in Bamako District) and 667 rural communes. The cercles are listed below.

Communes of Mali

A Commune is the third level administrative unit in Mali. Mali is divided into eight regions and one capital district (Bamako). These subdivisions bear the name of their principal city. The regions are divided into 49 Cercles. The Cercles and the district are divided into 703 Communes, with 36 Urban Communes and 667 Rural Communes, while some larger Cercles still contain Arrondissements above the Commune level, these are organisational areas with no independent power or office. Rural Communes are subdivided in Villages, while Urban Communes are subdivided into Quartier (wards or quarters). Communes usually bear the name of their principal town. The capital, Bamako, consists of six Urban Communes. There were initially 701 communes until the Law No. 01-043 of 7 June 2001 created two new Rural Communes in the desert region in the north east of the country: Alata, Ménaka Cercle in the Gao Region and Intadjedite, Tin-Essako Cercle in the Kidal Region.Not every built up area (which might be described as a town) is a Commune, and not every Commune (especially Rural Communes) contains a large town. In most cases where towns and Communes coincide, Commune borders extend beyond built up areas and are, like the Communes of France on which they were based during the colonial period, an administrative structure. Unlike French Communes, they are not the lowest level administrative structure of the nation.

Legally, the Commune structure was created by Law no 96- 059/AN- RM of 4 November 1996. The communes generally retain the same boundaries as the former arrondissements. Commune affairs are directed by a Commune Council (conseil communal) of elected members and a Commune executive (bureau communal) of the elected Mayor and three adjutants. The executive is tasked with carrying out the directives voted by the Council. National policies are carried out by a Sub-Prefect (sous préfet), who also carries out certain of the Council's directives over the local arms or national bodies.

Economy of Mali

The economy of Mali is based to a large extent upon agriculture, with a mostly rural population engaged in subsistence agriculture.

Mali is among the ten poorest nations of the world, is one of the 37 Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, and is a major recipient of foreign aid from many sources, including multilateral organizations (most significantly the World Bank, African Development Bank, and Arab Funds), and bilateral programs funded by the European Union, France, United States, Canada, Netherlands, and Germany. Before 1991, the former Soviet Union, China and the Warsaw Pact countries had been a major source of economic and military aid.

The per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of Mali was $820 in 1999. Mali's great potential wealth lies in mining and the production of agricultural commodities, livestock, and fish. The most productive agricultural area lies along the banks of the Niger River, the Inner Niger Delta and the southwestern region around Sikasso.

History of Mali

Mali is located in Africa.

The history of the territory of modern Mali may be divided into:

Pre-Imperial Mali, before the 13th century

the history of the eponymous Mali Empire and of the Songhai Empire during the 13th to 16th centuriesThe borders of Mali are those of French Sudan, drawn in 1891. They are artificial, and unite part of the larger Sudan region with parts of the Sahara.

As a consequence, Mali is a multiethnic country, with a majority of its population consisting of Mandé peoples.

Mali's history is dominated by its role in trans-Saharan trade, connecting West Africa and the Maghreb. The Malian city Timbuktu is exemplary of this: situated on the southern fringe of the Sahara and close to the River Niger, it has played an important role in the trans-Saharan trade from the 13th century on, with the establishment of the Mali Empire.

Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)

The Insurgency in the Maghreb refers to Islamist militant and terrorist activity in the Maghreb and Sahel regions of North Africa since 2002. The conflict succeeded the conclusion of the Algerian Civil War as the militant group Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) allied itself with al-Qaeda to eventually become al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Algeria and other Maghreb states affected by the activity have been offered assistance in fighting extremist militants by the United States and the United Kingdom since 2007, when Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara began.The Arab Spring in 2011 presented an opportunity for militant Islamists to put increasing pressure on governments and engage in full-scale warfare. In 2012, AQIM and Islamist allies captured the northern half of Mali, until being fought back less than a year later following a French-led foreign intervention, which was succeeded by the Sahel-wide Operation Barkhane. In Libya the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has been able to control some limited territory in the ongoing civil war since 2014, amid allegations of local collaboration between the otherwise rivalling AQIM and ISIL.

List of heads of state of Mali

This is a list of heads of state of Mali since the country gained independence from France in 1960 to the present day.

A total of six people have served as head of state of Mali (not counting one Acting President). Additionally, one person, Amadou Toumani Touré, has served on two non-consecutive occasions.

The current head of state of Mali is the President of the Republic Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, since 4 September 2013.

Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1235 - 1400. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita. The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. It was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs. Much of the recorded information about the Mali Empire comes from 14th-century North African Arab historian Ibn Khaldun, 14th-century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta and 16th-century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus. The other major source of information is Mandinka oral tradition, through storytellers known as griots.The empire began as a small Mandinka kingdom at the upper reaches of the Niger River, centred around the town of Niani (the empire's namesake in Manding). During the 11th and 12th centuries, it began to develop as an empire following the decline of the Ghana Empire to the north. During this period, trade routes shifted southward to the savanna, stimulating the growth of states. The early history of the Mali Empire (before the 13th century) is unclear, as there are conflicting and imprecise accounts by both Arab chroniclers and oral traditionalists. Sundiata Keita (c. 1214 – c. 1255) is the first ruler for which there is accurate written information (through Ibn Khaldun). Sundiata Keita was a warrior-prince of the Keita dynasty who was called upon to free the Mali people from the rule of the king of the Sosso Empire, Soumaoro Kanté. The conquest of Sosso in c. 1235 gave the Mali Empire access to the trans-Saharan trade routes.

Following the death of Sundiata Keita in c. 1255, the kings of Mali were referred to by the title mansa. Sundiata's nephew Mansa Musa made a Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca during the reign of the Mamluk Sultan Baibars (r. 1260–1277). Following a series of usurpations of the throne of Mali, in c. 1285 Sakoura, a former royal court slave, became emperor and was one of its most powerful rulers, greatly expanding the territories of Mali. He made a pilgrimage to Mecca during the reign of Mamluk Sultan An-Nasir Muhammad (r. 1298–1308). After he died on his return, the throne reverted to the descendants of Sundiata Keita. After the reigns of three more emperors, Musa Keita became emperor in c. 1312. Musa made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca from 1324 to 1326. His generous gifts to Mamluk Egypt and his expenditure of gold caused gold to be greatly devalued, which gave rise to his fame outside of Mali. In 1337, he was succeeded by his son Maghan I, who in 1341 was deposed by his uncle Suleyman. It was during Suleyman's reign that Ibn Battuta visited Mali. Following this period, a period of weak emperors, conflicts and disunity began in Mali.

Ibn Khaldun died in 1406, and following his death there was no continuous record of events in the Mali Empire. It is known from the Tarikh al-Sudan that Mali was still a sizeable state in the 15th century. The Venetian explorer Alvise Cadamosto and Portuguese traders confirmed that the peoples of the Gambia were still subject to the mansa of Mali. Upon Leo Africanus's visit at the beginning of the 16th century, his descriptions of the territorial domains of Mali showed that it was still a kingdom of considerable area. However, from 1507 onwards neighbouring states such as Diara, Great Fulo and the Songhay Empire eroded the extreme territories of Mali. In 1542, the Songhay invaded the capital city of Niani but were unsuccessful in conquering the empire. During the 17th century, the Mali empire faced incursions from the Bamana Empire. After unsuccessful attempts by Mansa Mama Maghan to conquer Bamana, in 1670 Bamana sacked and burned Niani, and the Mali Empire rapidly disintegrated and ceased to exist, being replaced by independent chiefdoms. The Keitas retreated to the town of Kangaba, where they became provincial chiefs.

Mali national football team

The Mali national football team, nicknamed Les Aigles (The Eagles), is the national team of Mali and is controlled by the Malian Football Federation. Mali competes as members of both FIFA and the Confederation of African Football (CAF). They have never qualified for a World Cup finals in their team's history.

Mali were suspended by FIFA on 17 March 2017 due to 'government interference' with the national football association, namely dissolving its executive committee. However, the side was re-instated by FIFA on 29 April after the executive committee was re-introduced by the Malian government.

Malian cuisine

Mali cuisine includes rice and millet as staples of Mali, a food culture heavily based on cereal grains. Grains are generally prepared with sauces made from edible leaves, such as sweet potato or baobab, with tomato peanut sauce. The dishes may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat (typically chicken, mutton, beef, or goat).Malian cuisine varies regionally. Part of West African cuisine, other foods in Mali include Fufu, Jollof rice, and Peanut Butter Sauce.

MediaTek

MediaTek Inc. (Chinese: 聯發科技股份有限公司; pinyin: Liánfā Kējì Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī) is a Taiwanese fabless semiconductor company that provides chips for wireless communications, High-definition television, handheld mobile devices like smartphones and tablet computers, navigation systems, consumer multimedia products and Digital subscriber line services as well as optical disc drives.Headquartered in Hsinchu, Taiwan, the company has 25 offices worldwide and was the third largest fabless IC designer worldwide in 2016. Since its founding in 1997, MediaTek has been creating chipsets for the global market. MediaTek also provides its customers with reference designs.

Musa I of Mali

Musa I (c. 1280 – c. 1337) or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Islamic Mali Empire. At the time of Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire in present-day southern Mauritania and in Melle (Mali) and the immediate surrounding areas. Musa held many titles, including "Emir of Melle", "Lord of the Mines of Wangara", "Conqueror of Ghanata", and at least a dozen others. Mansa Musa conquered 24 cities, each with surrounding districts containing villages and estates. During his reign, Mali may have been the largest producer of gold in the world; it was at a point of exceptional demand for the commodity. One of the richest people in history, he is known to have been enormously wealthy; reported as being inconceivably rich by contemporaries, Time magazine reported: "There's really no way to put an accurate number on his wealth." In March 2019 the BBC described him as "the richest man of all time".

Northern Mali conflict

The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa. On 16 January 2012, several insurgent groups began fighting a campaign against the Malian government for independence or greater autonomy for northern Mali, an area of northern Mali they called Azawad. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), an organization fighting to make this area of Mali an independent homeland for the Tuareg people, had taken control of the region by April 2012.

On 22 March 2012, President Amadou Toumani Touré was ousted in a coup d'état over his handling of the crisis, a month before a presidential election was to have taken place. Mutinous soldiers, calling themselves the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State (CNRDR), took control and suspended the constitution of Mali. As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Mali's three largest northern cities—Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu—were overrun by the rebels on three consecutive days. On 5 April 2012, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA said that it had accomplished its goals and called off its offensive. The following day, it proclaimed the independence of northern Mali from the rest of the country, renaming it Azawad.The MNLA were initially backed by the Islamist group Ansar Dine. After the Malian military was driven from northern Mali, Ansar Dine and a number of smaller Islamist groups began imposing strict Sharia law. The MNLA and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for an intended new state. Afterwards, the MNLA began fighting against Ansar Dine and other Islamist groups, including Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA/MUJAO), a splinter group of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. By 17 July 2012, the MNLA had lost control of most of northern Mali's cities to the Islamists.The government of Mali asked for foreign military help to re-take the north. On 11 January 2013, the French military began operations against the Islamists. Forces from other African Union states were deployed shortly after. By 8 February, the Islamist-held territory had been re-taken by the Malian military, with help from the international coalition. Tuareg separatists have continued to fight the Islamists as well, although the MNLA has also been accused of carrying out attacks against the Malian military.A peace deal between the government and Tuareg rebels was signed on 18 June 2013, however on 26 September 2013 the rebels pulled out of the peace agreement and claimed that the government had not respected its commitments to the truce. Fighting is still ongoing even though French forces are scheduled for withdrawal. A ceasefire agreement was signed on 19 February 2015 in Algiers, Algeria, but sporadic terrorist attacks still occur.This conflict officially ended with the signing of a peace accord in the capital on 15 April 2015.

Regions of Mali

Since 2016, Mali has been divided into ten regions and one capital district. A reorganization of the country from eight to nineteen regions was passed into law in 2012, but of the new regions, only Taoudénit (partitioned from Tombouctou Region) and Ménaka (formerly Ménaka Cercle in Gao Region) have begun to be implemented. Each of the regions bears the name of its capital. The regions are divided into 56 cercles. The cercles and the capital district are divided into 703 communes.

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history. The state is known by its historiographical name, derived from its leading ethnic group and ruling elite, the Songhai. Sonni Ali established Gao as the capital of the empire, although a Songhai state had existed in and around Gao since the 11th century. Other important cities in the empire were Timbuktu and Djenné, conquered in 1468 and 1475 respectively, where urban-centered trade flourished. Initially, the empire was ruled by the Sonni dynasty (c. 1464–1493), but it was later replaced by the Askia dynasty (1493–1591).

During the second half of the 13th century, Gao and the surrounding region had grown into an important trading center and attracted the interest of the expanding Mali Empire. Mali conquered Gao towards the end of the 13th century. Gao would remain under Malian hegemony until the late 14th century. As the Mali Empire started to disintegrate, the Songhai reasserted control of Gao. Songhai rulers subsequently took advantage of the weakened Mali Empire to expand Songhai rule.

Under the rule of Sonni Ali, the Songhai surpassed the Malian Empire in area, wealth, and power, absorbing vast areas of the Mali Empire and reached its greatest extent. His son and successor, Sonni Bāru (1492–1493), was a less successful ruler of the empire, and as such was overthrown by Muhammad Ture (1493–1528; called Askia), one of his father's generals, who instituted political and economic reforms throughout the empire.

A series of plots and coups by Askia's successors forced the empire into a period of decline and instability. Askia's relatives attempted to govern the empire, but political chaos and several civil wars within the empire ensured the empire's continued decline, particularly during the brutal rule of Askia Ishaq I (1539–1549). The empire experienced a period of stability and a string of military successes during the reign of Askia Daoud (1549–1582/1583). Ahmad al-Mansur, the Moroccan sultan at the time, demanded tax revenues from the empire's salt mines.

Askia Daoud responded by sending a large quantity of gold as gift in an attempt to appease the sultan. Askia Ishaq II (1588–1591) ascended to power in a long dynastic struggle following the death of Askia Daoud. He would be the last ruler of the empire. In 1590, al-Mansur took advantage of the recent civil strife in the empire and sent an army under the command of Judar Pasha to conquer the Songhai and to gain control of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. After the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Tondibi (1591), the Songhai Empire collapsed. The Dendi Kingdom succeeded the empire as the continuation of Songhai culture and society.

Timbuktu

Timbuktu () (Berber languages: ⵜⵏⴱⴾⵜⵓ, ⵜⵉⵏⴱⵓⴽⵜⵓ; French: Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu) is an ancient city in Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the Niger River. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century, the Tuareg tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan army defeated the Songhai in 1591 and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital. The invaders established a new ruling class, the Arma, who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city, during which it was a major learning and cultural centre of the Mali Empire, was over, and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.

In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fuelled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious.

West Africa

West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The population of West Africa is estimated at about 362 million people as of 2016.

Women in Mali

The status and social roles of women in Mali have been formed by the complex interplay of a variety of traditions in ethnic communities, the rise and fall of the great Sahelien states, French colonial rule, independence, urbanisation, and postcolonial conflict and progress. Forming just less than half Mali's population, Malian women have sometimes been the center of matrilineal societies, but have always been crucial to the economic and social structure of this largely rural, agricultural society.

Their role, too, has been shaped by the conflicts over religion, as animist societies gave way gradually to Islam in the 1100–1900 period. In recent years, the rise of religious fundamentalism has posed a thereat to women's wellbeing.Contemporary problems faced by women in Mali include high rate of violence against women, child marriage and female genital mutilation.

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